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■ r 



i^H 




91 



THE 



NATIONAL REVIEW. 

/ 



Vol. VI. 



JANUARY AHD APRIL 1868. 



LOHDOH : 
CHAPMAN ASD HALL, 193 FICGADILLY. 

HDGGCLTUL 



H 



27!KS83 



Lomaom: 
OnU Kair BlnaL ud I'aiui Luc. 



THE NATIONAL REVIEW. 



CONTENTS OF M* XI^JAMUAHY 1M8. 



Art. I. — Prikciplbs 01" Indian GovERNMEXT . 

An Adilren ta PnrU«ai«it on thePiitlesorGreatBritftiu to India. 
Bjr Clivlca tUj Ouauron, London, \b!i3. 

LKt«i«o[Illdopluliut«thc"Tinii»." London, 1^7. 

Dtapatoh to th« Ooftruor of India ou the nubjcot of Qcncrnl Kdu- 
eati«D in India. ParlUmeiitar; P&pttr, 303. 1851. 

BunblMMtd R«oi>lloctioDa of an Indl&ii OfflciaL Bj Liuut. -Colonel 
SleeniM. London, 1S44. 

A SelMAioD of ArticlcH and Letters ou vuriou* Indian Qiie«tionR, 
iDCludii^ Remarks on £urop«au Partiut in Bvngul, Social rnliojr 
uidSGHiODsiii India, and th« Use of the Btblt- in auv«niui<.-i)l 
SeliooU. Contribal«d to tbs Engliiih Prc»» bj Ho<i[e«on Pmtt, 
Bcn^Oiriltivmcti; late InapecEor-Qvnvm! ofSohnoU in Soutli 
Banfil. London : Ohapniau and Ilall, 1857. 

Lm AagUa «l I'lnde. Par E. d« Valbei«n. Paris, 18S7. 

Akt. it, — QKORaB Sakd 37 

Hktoire de ma Vie. Par George Sand. Paris, 18156. 
CBDTTfa dc Ocorgc Sand. Pans, 18J>7. 

Art. III. — C«i.oNi!L Murk and the Attic TIinTORiAirs . 69 
A CriUcnl tliftorr of the TinngiiaKo and Literature of Ancient 
Omwe. Bj William Muro of OaldwvlL Vol. V. London, 1857. 

Art. IV. — Hashish 01 

HiACtienittfy of Common Life. ByJ.P.W. Johniton. Vine. 8vo. 
PfctUTM of Faleatine, .4iuu Minor, Sioily, and Spain : or, the Landg 

of the Suacen. B<r ikiynnl Tajlur. Loudon, l>i5G. i^vo. 
n^poarLvDoctotatuuMvdeckno: DuUn»chi8ch, sonlligtoire, 

aea Effota pb]rriolog)i)a«a ot lh6rapcutic]UGi. Par J. M. B. Btr- 

Uwnlt. Pant. 1804. 4to. 
nMBemcatHuf MaleriaMedioaaudTherapeutics. ByJ.P«rein. 

Fourtli Bditton. London, IB6S. Svo. 
The Travola of Marao Polo. Edil«d by 11. Hurrar. Now York, 

Du Hrwchiach, et An I'Alt&iatiau mentale. l*»r J. Moreau. Paria, 
IMS. 6w. 

Art. v.— Bkk Joksom IIS 

Poetlal Works of B«n Jonson. Edit«d hy Robert BoIL LobAod : 

John W. Piu-livr and Son, 1S3«. 
The Workaof Ben Jouson. With Notes, &c Bj W.Gifford, Esq. 

isie. 

Art. VI.— Th» C«*r Niouotji* 147 

Ifa« Aqowmoo of Mlehotai L Corapilod by special oonuoaad of 



u 



Contmta of Xo. XI. 



th* Emperor Alex&uder IL, by his Ituperi&l MnJMty'e Sooretwy 

of State, BitroB M. Eorff, and tnkngUt«d frooi ttie original Rus- 

Mini. Third ImprvMoQ (nan lint published). Lcin^ii : Jnhn 

Murnij, 18.17, 
The RuBsiaii Eimiire, its People, IiutitulioiiH, nud Kiwourct's. Bj 

BaroQ Von llflxtliAUBeii, &uthor of *' TmiMaucaua," " The 

Tribes of the Ciiiicasiis" ftc. TnumlHted by Robert Knrie, E«j. 

S voln. Lniidoii : Chapman Rnd Hall, It^ri. 
The Katioiui of Hunia and Turki-y, unil their Di^sliny. liy Ivan 

Qolovb, autlwr of " The Caucasus. " Two pariis. Luudou : 

TrAboerHiid Co., 1854. 
la RiMsie ct Ic8 Rus8c& PorN.Tourgixneff. 3tomc«. BruzeUcs, 

1847. 
Secret IlUt-ity of tbo Ootirt sod OoKcnnnent of Runia uiidur the 

Emporon Aluxajid«r and Kioholu. By J. II. Schnitzler. 9td1s. 

London: Richard B«citlej, Ih47. 
Buiaia under the Autocmt Nicho!n« the Finit. By Ivnn Oolorin*^ 

a Btusian Subject. 2 voU. Ltiiidon : Ueiiiy Colbiim, 1846. 
B«vcUUouB of Ilufsiu ill IH-lfi. Br an BugliaU' Ktviduut. Third 

Gditiou. !I Tobi. Louduu t Culbuni, IftM. 
Ia Russle on Itl39. Par k Marquis do Ciutine. 4 tomo*. Paris, 

1M3. 
Russia. Abridged from the Prcnch of the Marquia de CuiUnc. 

IiDudon : Lougnuuis, 1804. 

AbT, VII. — ^TlIB WoHLD OF MiSD BY ISAAC TaYLOK . 

The World of Mind : an Kiemontaiy Book. By Itaac Tiqrlor. 
Ijondon : JnobiWii and Watford, 18A7. 



Book II. The 
.Secoud Edition, lioudoui 



Akt. VJII.— Mn, Coventuv pATMOnit's Poems 
Tho Angel ill tbe Houae : Book I. The Bittrothitl. 
Egpousnla. By Coveatry Putmore. 
J. W. IVrkM mid Hot., 1857. 
Tiunertou Ciiurch-Towur, and other Poems. By Cuveatry Pat- 
more. Loudon : J. W. Parker and Son, lh57. 

Aht. IX. — CiviLi*ATio» AND Farm 



Uistonr of Civilisation in England. 
Vol. :. J. W. Pacier. 1M7. 



IJy Henry Thomas Buckle. 



173 



1881 



198 



238 



Art. X. — Tn-R Monetahv Cntsis .... 

B<fH>rt ttota the Select Committee on tfie Bank Ada ; tomlber 

with the Ptooeedinga of the Committee, MiiniMa of BtloeiKe, 

Appendli, and Index. Ord«r«d by tho Itoum of Oonrnona to 

bo printed, .filly HO, 1»C7. 
Debate iu the lluuie of Lords on the Bank-lMuea Indemnity Bill, 

on the UthDfoemberlSiT. Reported iu "Tiiueit" Newspaper 

ofDecemlicr iSih. 
Debate in the Hoiihc of Commoni on the Boappoinunont of the 

Bnnk-t'hiirtcT Committee, on the fame day, and reported in the 

Muue journal. 

Books or the Quabtbh suitablb rov. Rsadino-Socibtiks S54 



THE NATIONAL REVIEW. 



CONTESTS OF M*- XIL— APKIL 1838. 



S80 



311 



Art. T. — Hkropk: a Traori>y S09 

Horope : n Tragedj. By Mattbew AnioU. London : Long- 
puna, 189ft. 

Art. n. — STKAitss's Lipi: ov tri.nirii von IIirTTKS 

Uliich T»a lliitlcn. Von Dnvid PrKidcrich Rtmiiai:. 'i vols. Lsip- 

ijg : F. A. Brockhftiu, 183a 
Epbloln ObsouroriuB Virorum, aliuqut? ^vi Dcciini l^t-xti Mont- 
ncDte rari^ina. Die Bri«^i» dur FiiiHterliiigi! an Alagitier 
Ortulnu* von Derontcr, nob^t aiidcni svhr Mlleriou Bi--itTilgeD 
■ur Litt«nitur- Kitten- iiiid KirchcnKcMhichtc dcfl M'ChEchiit*!! 
Jahrfiundcrts. UernuKKcgcbcn uiid orlfiutcrt duruh Dr. Krnrt 
Hfinch. (L«tti'n at Obaeutu Mtn lo Mailer Oi'tiiiniu uf Uu- 
venter, wiih oUi«r very rant C'ontribuiiona to ihv 11111(017 "^ 
htUm, Atannon, aod tha Church in ibo li;iii Guntiin. Sdil«d • 
and elucidated by Dr. Emcxt MQnoh.j Leipzig, WSJ. 

Art. in.— Rrckst Contributions to thk Stuut of Latin 

LlTRRATURR 

Bi1>lt[)lh««ii Clnniaa ; edited hy Ceorge Long, M A., niid the Rev. 
A. J. Mndnue, Itf.A. — t'ublii Tcmitii Ciiintcdin; 8ci ; with a 
Oommeailaiy bj ilie Rct. B. Hi. John I'ariy, .M.A.— JuveiinJi* 
et Ponni Sitinc : with a CommeularT by Itm Kuv. A. J. Miio* 
Imae, H-A. 

Tlw SpMch of Cicero for Aulua Chicnliiui lEnliilUH ; vtiib VrtUvgo- 
mona and Nutt* by WUIiam Kmimj, .M.A. Trin. Col. Uunk, 
Profcwor of lluiaanitr In the Uiiivereily uf OliU^w. 

LectuicB on Roman IIuMnndry, dvliv«r«il bcrore tbv iriiiv«nlt)?of 
Oxrortl. By Cftariot Daubcny, M.D., rr>ri-8Mr of Botany aiud 
Rural Eonomj in tbc Unircnit; of Oxford. 

Art. IV.— Swedexboroiana 

ilrcHM Cirleataa. The Heaven)}- Aroana contained in tbc Holy 

8«ripttirw, OT Word uf ihv Lord, nufolded. By Kuuuiiicl Swe- 

dxibotg. IS vols. b\o. London, X^ff, 
Hm Tmp Chrulian ftdigion ; containing thv Uniivnal Thcologj 

of tbc Nvw Church, foretold by the Liird in Daniel and in un 

ApocolyptM. By Eiiunu«l ^irtdi-ulxirg. Bvo. London, ISfift, 
Hoivni aad Hvllj also the lutcruivdiale Slate, or World of 

^iriU : a IWIalion of Thing* heard tad aom. By Einauuel 

Bwadeiiborg. Avo. Ixmdon, 1600. 
Oonjuicnl Ijive, Ac. By KraanucI Swcdenborg. A new edition 

revised. Sro. London, 1V&6, 
Bmanud Swi'deiibcn-g : a Biography. By J. J. 0. ^S'illunaoa. 

8vo. I/>iidon, iH4:». 
life : il» Nalurt, Varieliei, and Phenomena. By L«o TI. GvindoQ. 

Second edition, imptored and ooiuidciabir ciilaiged- Svo. Loo- 

doa.ltUIT. 



Ofntent* of No. XII. 



(tMttoiiliorg'* Vritlagi Mid Ofttbolio Twctiii^ ; or, \ Voice from 
tkit Now CIiokAi Porch, Id «n«wor to a Sones of Articles ou tiM 
ilwadMiWKiBAS. Bjt the VUnr of Kroomu-Sclvroixl, in ih« Old 
Ohurah Ponh. limo. Lundou, I85ti. 

AiiT. V —Tub Old Exoi.[«ii Nodilitv .... 

The lliatoria Pwrago of Euglaivd ; exhibiting, luukr al(ib>betii»l 
tunu^ment, the OHEi". I>c«coiit, and Prnont 8tiit« of eretr 
lide of Poon^ which h.-u r^intod in tbi* Countn rinoe Dm 
OonqiiMit : bctna: K dcw edition of tha " S/uopcia of the Pmt- 
m« vt Rnglnod^ bjr the late Sir H»rne Hioolu, Q.GM-Q. ; 
Tuviaed, oucrected, and oontinued to the preMut titan, tto. \ij 
AVIlllaia C'liirthopo, K«q., Snmermt nerald, of the HUdle 
Tomple, Hurriiilorntlnw. Murray, ISfl". 

A lliitoiyof {Cnglfind under live Norman Kicij^ or from the Rattle 
of Uartingt lo the Aooenioii of the Hoiue uf I'kutnfttact ; to 
wlitch is prefixed tui Bpitomoof the early History of NuruiBjid]i. 
Tranthttcd from the Oermmn of Dr. J. ^f. l«ppeab«ig, 9or. 
RS.A., Kiirpcf of the Arahlvca of the City ot Beinbaig| 1^ 
iiciijoiniu Thurpei with cwttsideraiile addittum and oartc OI OM 
tij tlie TiaiiaUtor. Oxford, 16G7. 

Kngtish tlisiorical Bocwiy'i rublication*. SO role. Itowiem, 

Oonont Introduotioa to Dometdny Book ; aooompanicd by In- 
dexes uf the Ti-uantd-ln-Chief and Dnder-TtMiiuita at thotiaio 
of the Survey, at ii«!l U of the Bolden of Laiidi muutioucd in 
]>oniMdny nnti^rior to the formaUon of that llccord, Ac. Br 
Kr Uciit7 ElU.. 8 ™l». 1833. 

Art. VI, — Relioiox am> Socihty ; Palet asd Okamhixo 397 
ChaSDinjC, w Vic ct lu CEuvrcc ; avcc uno Pr^oce par M. QioiIm 

dc lUmuuit 1S57. 
Pkley'B NMiinil Theology. Kdited by Lord lirooghiun and Sir C 

Biill. 3 vols. tftS5. 

Art. VII. — Earl Gxkt ok ftKroRM 434 

ParliamcntAry GovcmmeMt ooneidered with refcrmoc lo a Rrfonn 
of PutUitraeiit : an Katay. By Barl CIrey. Uibdoo, 19A8. 

AiiT. Vnr.— The Wavrhlbt KOVKL.S 444 

liibrary Rilitioii. IlIiLiitratodby vpwardnof T«n nuiidi«d BogiBT- 
ingii on Kteul, after Dtawinj{« by Turnitr, I-iiiilncor. WUkii-, 
Stanfield, Kobertu, iiii., iucludiiis Portraitii nf the Iligtorieat 
Penonane deaerlbed in the NoYtJa. iS vuln. ijctny 8\t>. 

AUMiblMa Edition. With One Ilundreil nod Twenty Kngixvinj^e 
on Steel, and nearly Two Thotmnd oa Wood. Ig voka. enpcr- 
(^yalSTo. 

li^iar*e favourite BditioB. AS poit Ibubcup 9t« Toh. 

Okhjnet Edition. SO vols, toolenp Sm. 

Bailway Kditiou. Now pub!Miii4;< and to be completed in SB 
portabls volumes, larno typ& 

Peopk-'ti Kilitioa. fi large volnmei royal %vo. 

Art. IX. — Louis Napoleoji at Home and Abroad . , 472 
la Pkmc, 20* Kcvrier. l'ari». 
Cknmt tFaJevtski'* Despatch, Jan. SOth. I'arTiniDcoUry Piiper. 

BOOKR OP THE QlARTSB SUtTABLB FOR RKAUlX»-SoCIBTIiaB 496 



'*y^ 



THE NATIONAL REVtEW. 



JANUABY 1858. 



m 






Abt. r.-PRINClPLES OF JNDIAN GOVEn>-MENT. - 

An Addreit to Pariiammt on the DtifU» ofOreat Britain to India. 
By Cbaries Hav Cameron. Londiui, 1H-^>3. 

Letitn oflndophUtu to the " Tmfi." Loudon, 1857. 

DegpaUh la the Qovernor of India on, the m^ect of Otntral Edu- 
caikm in India. Pwliiimontaiy Psppr, 393. 18.M. 

Jtamble* and H^etdlectum* ofaii Indian. OJfiekd. By Ij«nt .-Colonel 
SJeeinnn. London, l&fC. 

A Stieet'wn ofArtieU* andLettert on variotu Indian Qtiettl<m4, in- 
ettu&ng ItcmarhA on £urvpfan I'artieK in Henofil, Haelal Polity 
and Mi»a07U in India, and the Vxe of'tht^ liible in dovemmmt 
Schools. Conlributt-il to llie Eiiglbh Prcw I)y Hodfrson PraU, [ten- 
gal Civil 8<rficc; Iut« rrumpctiir-Gcnpral of School* in South Bimgal. 
London : Cbapmnn and Hull, 18&7. 

Zfji Ant/tain et VInde. Pw E. de Vaibe«pn. Paris, 1857. 

KoTHiNO can be graver or more Btartling titan the criMs tlirougli 
vhicfa our Indian Empire bas just pawetl. Kothiog con bi.^ nmrc; 
horribtc tban the details of the scieriil catastrophes at UcUii, 
Jhan*i, aiid Cawnporo. luinginatioii probably never pictured — 
history certaiidy never reconlcd — tnigcdiex more frightful or 
rcvoltinjc- It may be doubted whether the tuinaU of the humna 
race, even iu the ruileat times, and among the most savage tribes, 
could afford a parallel to the bidcou_s barbaridea which have just 
been practised br a people whose cirilisaliou is the oldest iu the 
world on a pLYtple wltose civilisation is the ]ii{;Iiest iu the world. 
A few thousand £uro{)cans, scattered among a hundred and fil\y 
nillionit of Asiatics, have been roughly rou»4.-d from a noon-flay 
drcnm ofea-ty and oonlideiit .•ic«unlY, and compelled to 6ght 
agaiitiit overwhelming ochlfi for existence and for empire; and 
wive had to defend their conquests against the very men lhtou;;h 
wbofic instrumentality they had won them. " A man's foes have 
been tboxo of bis own hoiiscliold." In the dead of night hc have 
been treacherously assailed, iu the crisis of battle wv have been 
bwKly deserted, by the very sertants who had eaten our salt, by 
the very w>1diers whom wc had led to victor}'. And gentlemen 
Now XI. Jixvur ]8^. » 



Z Princififif a/ Indian Gotvmmettl. ^^M 

bred in the Inp o^'liiWuiy, and In<lics tenderly xnd delicately nur^ 
tun^,an<l tiifaitU^LiNiclplc-^ a^, — our ow it wives uid si&ters ati<l 
bretbreii amlx^flrcn, with whom we have lived and toiled and 
danced aii(t.^\>ii|; — accu§tonied only to tlic quiet retiucmcQts and 
gentlcjnftituur^ and coiirtcuns amenities of tlic moEt polished and 
facile e!uftcnce u{x>n eiirtli, — have had to endure brutalities and 
torWt?'.<*l tlie very lhou{;Iit ufwliieli lli« soul siekeitH and tlic 
I>r&ifr;if-eI.-> : inG:e»iou9, elaborate, nameless cruelties, sueli as i:(' 
Eijfro'jican ferocity, even when iiwnired and goacltd by a pereeciit 
'.i^ superstition, ever yet dreamca of iutlictiiit; on its victims. ' 

_.*;.,'■ Vet even amid horrors and caliiniilics like these, we ma; 

*. *• ' discern gleams of cunsolation ami may extract si-eds of 

They ore something more than " lulvcrxitieit ;" yet have their 
"sweet uses," and their "precious jewel" also. There i» scarcely 
any root »o bitter or so poiaonoua that, when lubjeeted to llie 
right alcrabie, it will not yield medicines l)oth anodyne and 
curative. Thus even the Indian revolt \iu& its bright and its 
serviccnble aides ; and on thcw only wc design to dwell. To the 
details of t!ic mutiny wc shall refer uo further than as they iDos. 
timic the native ehnnteter, or are suggestive of the course which 
in future* it may he incumbent on ».■> to {inniae. And foremoett 
amon^ llie hri;^ht features of the stormy jiicttire is, un^ue.->tion- 
ahly, the diriplay it has afforded of the .grand qualities of Kiig^j 
li»hRU!ii. We will affect no falae modesty in xpeakin;; of matters 
of whicit every Itriton has resson to he proud, and which no 
other race, wc believe in our hearts, could have rivalled. Taken 
by surprise, eaugbt tit disadrtntagc, over-matched a hundredfold 
in numbers, called upon suddenly to asEume new duties and grave 
responitibilitie*, — sometinies to wield the swonl where they were 
trainwi only to the pen, sometime^ to strike for life and honour 
where they bail bepn aceustonicd only to he obeyed KTvildy by 
wordorsieii, — in every ease, and nndtTWeiremergeuey, they 
nobly vinoicated the national character amd fame. 

"Tho dcftcon of the marintra nij wi-U. 
' W« ArtcvcIdM ara of the caov^u wUdi m«a use 

CiTJIinns, writers, jihiriters, have shown thtmsclvcs as eqo; 
the occasion as soldier* pnictiscd in the field. If we except one 
or two old vatetudinariaiiR, not a Kiiiglc man in either serrice ha^H 
shown the least dcticicncy in either physical or moral oonra^.H 
Neither man nor woman has shown the white feather, cither aa 
regards action or endurance. Few have be^ed their Ufr ; none 
have purehs^ed it by base compliances. They haic dbdaJnrd to 
Iwirgain or to barter. They have ftcod to their arms and defeiuUd 
their posts', not simply with tlic indomitable English pUick whi^^l 
every where shines forth, not with the mere courage of despair, Imt 
witli the buoyant spirits of consciuns and icdcfcasibic suiieriorily.^ 



I 




Friucipia of Inditm Gctwrninen/. 



« 



^ 



Fcding this, they have made their cnemin feel it loo. A tew 
tbouxant) men, ili»[K-i«al in hMidfula orcr a raat diatiict, have ' 
conquered niicl put duwii thv most fbrmiilablc mutinr recorded in 
hiatory, Iwfore a single reinfoTCCTiK-nt from the mother coimtry 
coald reach them. Nuiubeni of idle, wild, or rceklns yoDtlut 
have come out and arqiutte<l theinaelre.H In the triid as noble aud 
Chnetian warriors. But for this tieiy trial wc nIiouU) nercr have 
learned how much dauntleas heroism and true nobility of wul ' 
by hid in men of whom wc had thoti;;ht but alighliii^ly, mid lU 
vonen of whom nc hnd thongbt only teudorly. t)ur nountrj-- 
meii in India, t>ul)i otlicial and non-offitnal, no doubt committed 
toany OTcnii)iht!> and blundeiis i>i>d perhaps ev-cn some injunice 
and some wroiifc; but they have amply atoned for and redeemed 
then all. They have been tried in the furnace, nnd Iuivt proved 
pore. They hare been ivcighcd iu the balance, and tiave not been 
found vantin^. ■ 

ravrt)t r^t "flnrft till a'fuirot itjfOftai i^nai. 

The ireond cheering ftmture of the eatwtrophc is the purely 
military character of the revolt. Etwy fnah piece of authentic 
infomiatii^ni ire receive eliiddates thi« i>oint more clearly. Prom 
firstt to la.it, it hai* been a mutiny, not an insurrection. In no 
oase ha\'c (be petucantry or the civil inhabitiuits given any octiro 
partici|Nition. In a few villages lliey have nhonm animomty 
against tiie fii|;itivcft; iu mtv^^ they hare been deterred 1:^ 
craven terror of the mntincem firom harbomriof^ or aiding Eu- 
lopcans; but in many others they have nmcralcd them, and 
(hotm them mncli kindness. On this occanioti, indeed, as , 
nearly alirays is the cxim.; the maw< (if the population has beeu , 
nngnlarly passive and njiathetic ; bat aa far as the Hindoo* , 
are eoneerried, they have tihown themHchea antagonistic lo the 
ivrolt rather than otherwise. And this is no more than we 
expected, aud had a right to cspcct. For while, among a people 
ootnpoaed of eneh a variety of di^inct, and ereu hoetilc trilKs, 
unity of iialionaf feeling agninst intruders Bcarct-ly could exiitt ; 
and while it would be imrcjtwnable to look ninotig racex vtho for 
ccntmies have been lubjcct to tin; nile of one foreign eoti<iueror : 
after another for the animosity against their Etiro{)ean govcmors 
which it is natural for Italians aiul Httngarians to feel towards 
their Aartrian oppreswrs, — the reripeciabU; iiatii-ea dread the 
ni c eeas of the iw-jxiya ait much as wc ctai do, for they are well 
aware that it would be to them a Henteucc of sjxiliatiou and ruin : 
the peasants and eullivators of the soil know that it would itwiic 
tD a roilesa aimrehy, which would midic security and tillage j 
impossible, and would spread desolation and faniiue over tlie 
land. Both shriuk from the possibility of finding themMclvca 
cod their bamsts at the mercy of a trinmphant aud nDgovetBcd 



4 



Princif^ca of Indian Government. 



soldicrir. Wc do not mean to imply that inthcr Hindoos on 
MahomctonE love ns or sympnthiM; willi un, or look njma us 
othorwUe tliati u an nlicn, uncoil gciiiiil, and olyectioiiable race ; 
■~-it i» notorious tlmt thty do not, it in iiiipoaaible that thev 
should ; — but all can compare our rule with that of the native 
princes who aurrouiid us, aud of the foreign conquerors who pre- 
ceded us ; and all confess and feel that, whcreaa formcrlj- and 
elsewhere they were the victims of any ftiithlej'wiejw, any tyranny, 
and any caprice, — midcr our sway, however stem and ripd it may 
secin, justice is done Ix-twojii man and roan, iHiHni»i>es are kept, 
jiroiwrty in nccure, rights are respected, and hrij;aiidaj;c is put 
down with a relentless hand. We firmly believe that, iiwc make 
abstraction of individual instances where tliwartcd ambition or 
disappointed cnpidit^ pervert the judgment, there is scarcely a 
native from the Himalaya to Cape Comoriu espaUe of forming 
an opinion who would not regard the ^ncccsn of the miitinf , and 
the abolition of the English ttupremacy, a» the fiercest calamity 
which could visit the lund. 

W'itli all its horrors, too, the revolt has its profitable as well 
as its glorious aud cousoUdk features. Used aright, it may 
prove, like many other of the heavier dispensations of Proridcncc, 
to be a blessing in disguise^a blessing tt-rribly aud gloomily 
diaguised indeed, but still a blessing. 'I'he very atrocitie* that 
have been commitlod, too, have in one sense been of sigrud ter- 
vioe to otir cauitc. Not only have they, by intensifying the 
feelings, quadrupled tlic energies and capabilities of our scanty 
forces (for even Knglif'hmci] would scarcely have marched an" 
fought as ihcy have done wider an Indian July sun, had tb 
been roused only by the excitements of ordinary war), but they 
have scoured to us the s^-mpnthies of all Europe and of all ha- 
mauity. A common muliny, a re^■olt against our rule, our ex- 
pulsion i'rom India — nay, i>er)iaps even a general massacre of t! 
British population — would have been hailed by our many ri 
and ill.wishers throughout tlic world with malignant, if wii 
secret, joy. The competitors who cni-y us would have triumphci 
in our diseomtiture ; the enemies who hate and fear us would 
have rejoiced in our impoverishment and loss> and thousauds, at 
home as well as abroad, woiihl have l>eeii reiuly to proclaim that 
the catastrophe was a fitting n^ribiitiou fur our niieieut Hinx, aitd 
a righteous overthrow of a violent aud foreign domiiiaiton. But 
the awful and horrible details of the insurrection have silenced 
all language, and, we believe, precluded all feelings of the sOTt. 
It has bc^'U too clearly t-hown that the qucntion and the eoollict 
arc not between native and foreigner. bct«ccn English and Hin- 
doo ; but between civilisation ntu! Imrleirism, between the highest 
progress am) the deepest retrogression, in a word, between the 
vexj |)riucipW and foundations of good and <n*il ; — aud there* 







^P PrtHciplfM of Indian Govemntent. 6 

fare all that is decent, all tliat ik luuniiuc, nil tluit w generoBa.' 
and hopeful in Europe and America hate gone vith us in ihe 
strife. 

It may Ix: questioned vbcthor any eata&tropbe less fearful 
wouli) hnvo roii«cd tlic Engli&h Dation from its apatby respecting 
evcni' tliini^ Indian. Our Htrange isdiftbrcncc as a people to our 
Kastem ]->inpii-c, onr igtiorunoc of the lilstory and peculiaiities of 
that magnificent dependency, liiivo long bwn o\xi rcj)ronch, and 
hare excited the amazement of alt iiiU'lUgcnt foreigner*. Indians 
and ludisLU suhjccts have tieen liabiluallv voted bores, ludian 
statc&mcu and ludiau gcncTals have been despised. It has always 
been a matter of ditliculty to "make a House" on the occasion 
of on Indian debate. It is not too much to say, that for three- 
quarters of « cenlnn,' — from the day when the daring and profit- 
able crimes of Warrt^n Hiuitingn aud the gorgeous iim! fiery elo- 
quence of Hurke for a brief period conccntrati-d pitbiie iiitcrettt on 
our Oriental possessiouM, down to the arri^'al of tlie tiding of 
tfae massaci-c of Uellii — tlie smallest of our distant colonics, and 
the paltriest of our party squabbles at home, have more rividly 
riveted the attention and more thoroughly excited the iutei«st 
of the great l>o(1y of the nation than all tlie griutd acliieveincnts 
and all the momentouM coueenm of the raont niagnifioent uf our 
dependencies. The piess, the |Mu-liameut, aud the people bare 
been alike uninterested, because alike ignonuit. Tliia can never 
be again. Our letliai^- haa been rudely hut completely shaken 
oC £vcnrone now is thinking, writing, leanking, talking about 
India, and about notliing else ; and by dint of discussion and 
Undy nc shall in time come to understand it thoroughly. But 
prutmbly nothing short of nhat lias aetunlly oceurrt^ irouldhave 
tnfiiced to effect thi» transformation. If only a few regiments 
had mutinied, and a few ofBccrs been shot, we should have ap> 
plied some partial remetly, made some trivial change, and gone 
' to alcep again. Faction would have seized the occasion to throw 
I itones ami mud, ignorance would hare been ready with its clam- 
onr, presumption would hate been ready with ils nostrums, and 
•tatesraanship — or what passes tor such — would have licen ready 
with its patches and its snlvcv, itj^ nibbhng empirieiism, and its 
lazy and oowanlly and ]>eriIous iiustponemcnts. We fthould have 
had no tearchlnt/ invettigntions, and no thorough reforms. But 
now wc have been shocked into seriousness, startled into depth, 
frightened into something like purity of patriotic sentiment. 
Faction, though not silent, is almost unheard ; ignorance and 
vanity have assumed for once almost a listening and U-Jirning 
attilutle ; and the petty and malignant passions that unmdly nui 
ramiMiiit through our [lohtics seem for the moment abashed and 
overawed. The gravity of the crisis, and the magnitude of the 
suffering, while they have swqit away much of our prejudice and 



a 



Prindptea of Indian Gertmmenl. 



many of our vickiii& Dational propensities like cohvobs, baie 
r cieorcd onr Tision, and intensified our inU'lligcnce, and strung 
fmr nerves to a tone of uunoiitcd rceohition ; and vtc arc in a 
mood to go to ttiv bottom of llie question, and to tximpiJ onr 
rulvn to a currrspotidiug tiiorougbni.^»s of at-tion. 

But tbis is not tbe only udvantage of Lkc gKMitioii wfaich tbe 
miitinir baa forced upon ils. Tbe very extent of the eataxtrophc 
hoA made our jiath clear, aud onr taa): comnaradvetr atay. Aa 
far a^ military' roorgauisatiou is concerned, our statesmen itt 
India have — what so rarely fiJU to the lot of stiitcsraon — earle 
biaitehe, an uncncumljuicd field. Tho Bengal army ia gone^ 
pnwud away into bintory, with all it« dcfcctii, all its obligations, 
«1 its cbtimK. It mifjbt liavc Iwen vrry difliodt to rvforra it; it 
will be contjMuratiixtly easy tn reconatruet it. Tbe moment ibe 
princi|ile on which ita reroust ruction i.4 to proceed baa been deter- 
mined, tbe moment vc have sati^ctl onnidvea M to those errom 
in its former eoiistitutlon irhieb rendered possible its late crimes 
and dissolutioti, wc are as free to act as on tbe first day of onr 
impciial vxJHtencH; ; llierc are no nmts to interfere aith tbe new 
. edifice we cboocte to build, iw cmbarraiwing legacies of the \)Mt 
to hamper nr control our action. If we are not auoreasfu) now, 
if we do not create a new army perfect at all points, a(le<ju&te to 
our necessities, and specially otlapti-d to our circumste.iicci, we 
can plead no want of means or experience or (^Idcn opporiimity 
in extenuation of our failmra Never did nilcrs set to work wita 
more unfettered hands. 

Again; this revolt, witli its attendant drcumstatice*, baa 
addeil prodigiowdy to our knowledge of the wMidiliwi* of the 

firoblcui w itti which ac liave to deal. Kvcu to tlime )>est and 
ni^rc.^t at^ijuaiiited nith India, it ba.* come like a ]>cr^c-et ajioca- 
lypsc of the native character. It ha» poured a tiood of unex- 
pected ligtit into all the dark and loathsome rccowca of that 
stntnge iiiocnitable (;ompotmd of human elements. The pccu. 
liaritiea and inconuitlvnt attnbutcs it has brought to the Kurfaee 
bare astoninhetl IJmhc most who bad livcx) moKt fumilinrly witli tbe 
Hindoos aud Mabometana of Bcn^l ami Ci-ntrid India. If we 
bad pbilo9ophiacd or l^tdateil Ix-jon'-, we should liuve ]>hilo*o- 
phiacd and lepaUlod in tbe dark. Now, nurely, ao arc ripe for 
' apfvoacbing tbe whole of this ^-cat finestion. And what baa 
I pasecd will auidy eompe) mi — we shall bo rery fcnivleae aud rcry 
gtiilty if it do not compel us — to study thoroughly and to deter^ 
mine diatinetly ami delitioralcly tbe priiH'ipIv!! on irhiith oar 
entire goTemment of lliniiuMtnn Kboll haiccfortb l>e coudueted ; 
, io that all our mea<4urea tihall he coiu>btent with each other, and 
' canvecgent to one gmint ; and so that for once, uu<l in one quarter 
of tlie globe, British policy shall be aystentatic, uniform, andpert. 
sijtent We van no longer, without wilM folly, act a Uttb on 



4 



^r Principtti of Indian GtmKKKm' ^ 

one plan ami a litU« on aiiolhvr; Lcsitatc between two oppOKiiig 
theories, and end \ij borrowiit)^ Honiclliiug from bolii, or itviog 
timidlv and incfhcientl; eacli of tltc:tit iu turn ; allow one gorer- 
□or-guDcnd to upset or ncutraliae the )K:occediiipi of a pred^ 
cesior, pLTbaps bis antipodes in opiuioii and lompcrameut ; in 
n won), leave ori; of tbi: gniudcst empires ever intrustnl to a 
nation nt lite mcrty uf tliut vacillating policy irlncb is the in- 
^:arial(le ifsiilt of lia{f kimwlinlgi; und ha^j convittioiis. The 
miHt grave ami anxious <jMOtioiu aie before us; luid no can 
^^neitber evade tbcm, nor nibble at tbem, uor )Hit tbein anltle till 
^Ba more convenient season. We must now dscdde — and decide 
^^ lifter scarcliiag inqniry and {uitieut tbou?rlit ; dctndo upon tliat 
L llioriMi^li comprdicasion aud coniiidenitiou of the matter which 
^K allow ofni) rrtniccd condueioiis ur ti-pcntcd »teps — whetiier in 
^^mfiiture India v/ to bt povemed a» a cj/oNy or om a conqttf.tt ; wlie- 
^■tbfir u.itive aj^ncy i* to I:c wvlix>in<xl or to be esduded ; nluitlier 
^Bve are to ntle our A^tiatic subjects »ith strict and generoua juo- 
tio^ wi!«lv and beuetiet^iitly, as tbeir natural and indefeaaiblB 
supcnofA, l)y virtue of our higher civiliaatioii, our punir rcUgioU} 
our BtcnitT enei-Hics, onr subtler intellect, our more creative 
.tics, our more commanding and imlomitnblv will; or wh&- 
, a» MJine eoiiii!>cl, wc arc to repaid the IlirHluus aiu] ]hln- 
IkMuctaiu oA onr ttiual fellow-citiums, fit to be iutruHed witk 
the funclion.t uf self-government, ripe (oc to l>e ripcikcd) for 
BritLth inKtiUitiouH, likely to appredatc the blcMun^ of otn* rul^ 
and th<rrcfore to aid lu in iierjic Hutting it ; and, in a word, to bo 
gfailnnllv prepared, a* our own work in^> classes are prrpaiing, 
for a fuli narticipation in the |>nvilegca of representative a.-»«m- 
blicB, trial by jury, and all the other palladia of Britixb lilwrty. 
Wc have to di?ci(lc, moreover, whiit is (lurhapt tlie moat dillicidt 

Croblcm crcr Kubmitted to stat(.>uicn for practical ftoluttou, vis. 
Dw to sccun; to the guvrnimcnt of India lluit inimanity from 
iite direet iiitliK^ncc of parliamentary eapnoc and party confliota 
without Hhit'li our noble empire would Ik jeopardiaed orerjr boor, 
and yet to retnin to Parliament tiiat tuhttcntiaJ control in ulti- 
mate riMort which we may be auro the En^iali people will never 
fiotmnt to surrmttcr. 

In disciiwin-; thc»c ^mvc qtuMtiwut — which we khall do u 
eondsely and comiicndiouAly ii» the subject will permit — we pur> 
pose to e»ch«w alt cluuilin^ and emharrasaing details, and to deal 
only vitb the prtHci/iU'^, politiejd and religious, by wbit^ our 
fatore eovCTunieiit of India ^lioiild. in oiur judgment, be guided. 
Wo abiUl apeak bttle of the bitloiy- of the revolt ; indonl we nball 
dwoU but (iltle on any portion of tlic guul ; and, if we can help 
it,wr shall not preach or moraliw at ;dl. AVu aliall not attempt, 
a* aoBie bare done, to connect onr lute calamities witli our an- 
QHtritl sins, to make out the pedigree of God's judgmenta, to 



^ 



B 



Priucipki of Indian Goverameut. 



trace out each hi<]coiu torture inflicted bj utrnge aoimals cm 
ffoUtJces victiiti« to its Remitial uuin^hteoustUTftfl iii bygrotic dars. 
To our roiiicls there is scarcely more in»aiie aud iiiHoleut pre- 
sumption in Iiaiitlliog the Divine tliundcrbolu as pious men arc 
irottt to do, tban iu thus dogmatically pronouncing on tbcir 
meaning and their cause. TImt (iod docs visit {juilty Dations, as 
guilty individuals, with hcaiy and appropriate retribution, ueither 
religion nor history will alloir us to duubt. But we know also 
that He " «>vtli not as man socth ;" and that in iodgiug of the 
actions of men and states He employs weiglittt and meaaurcs &r 
other than thotte iu lute among tlie angry controvondaUsta of 
our political arena. We know, too, that if there is one feature 
clearly dcduciblc from Uis dealings with mankind, wlietlicr in- 
dividually or collectively, it is that His punishments are never 
tarbitrar^: they are conntrjueace^, k-gitiniiite, logical, incrilable 
I results, tlonitig from crime in natural eonrse,^ — not uncoimoetcd 
I aud artificially annexed iuflictions ; effects onlained bv nature, 
I not sentences pronounced by a judge. But no such links can 
be made out in the present cane. \o man can accuse as of 
having brought this revolt and tlicse massacres upon ourselves 
I by cniclty or oppression. All charges of the kind arc umply 
I aud notoriously false. AVe may have sinned, but not ;^ainat tbe 
r tepoys. They at least had uu wrongs to avenge. We may have 
b(»n foolishly indulgent; we assuredly were never criminally 
hanh. We may liave brought tlie catastropbc on ouraelves by 
want of judgment ; certainly not by want of kindness or of 
justice. (Jod's diapcRsations, liowcvcr grievous, are not always 
penal. Docs the soldier who falls in the breach necessarily dc- 
sene to die? Is the martjT who perishes at the stalic suffering 
I for liis sins ? No ; both arc agencies in God's hands in the 
cau-^e of victory and progress. They by passion, as othen by 
action, carry forward the great aim* of Providence, Away, then, 
until all cant about Ood'a judgmentit on our Indian oiipreasions. 
Even if Sfc admitted the fact, we should deny iLt relevancy. In 
old times, we have no doubt committed many injustices, and 
been guilty of unwarrantable spoliations ; for which Heaven 
r might righteously have cliostiticd us, and for which man might 
&irly enough have taken vengeance. But those who have turned 
against us have been precisely those whom wc Lad never injured. 
And for long veani our .lineere dwire has been to govern justly 
and beneficently. We have not done all wc might ; but wc have 
done much, and have been honestly lalwuring lo do more. The 
police is bud ; but it is better than it was under the native prince*, 
t and wc are amending it by slow degiccH. Torture and oppns* 
non exist under our rule, it cannot be denied ; but it is only 
becatisc wc have not yet been able entirely to eradicate thceo 
ingrained native iiropeojuties. Tbc cvila and abases that are 



1 



PrtHcifiia of Indian C m i a - fcHMJ ll, 



9 



^ 



still ramjiant are tho»e we hare nut yd succccdvcl iii suppressing. 
Our siua arc those of omi»ion und ufovcrtiglit nloiic. 

We stiall be rciniuded of our ixilicjr of aiiiMsation. Vi'e be- 
berc our acl» of anncxatioa to liare bectii miiietiuica luisty, some- 
times ii^iidicious, Eomctimcs, in carli<;r davH, iniquitous. But the 
policy OS a whole wc conceive to be righteous and iacutahle, — 
rigliUMiu lx;cikU«i% wliih^ usually mo&t nluctanl, still inevitable. 
From tin: diiy when lliu Grttit Mugul coiift-rred uitou us the first 
gift of tcrrilorv and of govemHient, the whole of oursubsequeat 
progress was a settled and irrevocable de»tiiiy. Wc could no more 
ndp absorbing the native dynasties and alutett than the Ameri- 
caiiB can help eatiug out the Itcd Indians. We miglit have done 
it mOTv elowiy, loorc Icudcvly, more righteously ; but no reluct- 
ance on our purt, and no resistance on theirs, could have pro- 
cludcd, nor perhnps rcry long retarded, the certain and neccMaiy 
iuuc. Ttie Company have obstinately, almost fiercely, and for 
generations almost steadily, sict their face against nil cxtensiou of 
territory in Hindoatan. Govemor-geiu-ral after governor-gcDcral 
has gone out resolved to have no more war, and to abstain from 
annexation. Statesmen aftei' statesmen have deplored the grow- 
ing evil, and put forth Bolcmn warnings ot'rcsultuig danger. But 
the force of dixuimstanocs, the elcarest obligations of rulers, have 
been too stroug for any oppositiuti. Frohibitiug directors, eoy 
and putdiic governore-gencral, Cassandra statesmen, have all found 
themselves carried away by the current, uud eumpellcd to follow 
the Mine river to the same ocean. 

A few moments' reflection will explain this uniform result. 
Many causes contribute to it, and it is brought about in a varirty 
of ways. Kuei^etie settlers in a country rich in resources and 
fall of promise naturally desire a small pied-d-lerrc when^n to 
eicct factoric«, and forts to protect those fiu-'torto.-s againxl tliO 
attacks of hostile autl capricious ueighbours. Tliey purchase 
•ome such small territory ; no one eaii hliuiie Ihem for so doing. 
They are suirounded by tribes and princi-s whose normal con- 
dition is that of warfare and rcetprocul encraachuieot. The 
atrsngcra have skill and science uliieh render their assistauce 
invalunble to any party whose cause they may espouse. One of 
tbu bclligcrenta oflcrs as the price of their aid some commercial 
advantages which it is very importaut for them to attain ; the 
other perhaps ha* shown them an unrricudly spirit, or done them 
•otne actual wrong. Tlicy give their iis«iK[atice, and receive the 
promised price. In course of time, ha they become more and 
more wealthy and iiiBucntial, the native cbiefs whom they have 
Boccanred grow jealous and uneasy, ireacherously endeavour to 
rcsoute what they have granted, or commit some act of atrocious 
and unpardonable barbarism on the persons or property of the 
Kttlera. Of course this must be resisted and puniidicd; ofeuurae 



10 



PrtHciptea 0/ Indian Gofemmenl. 



it is rc»i»tcd successfutty ; {niaislitnciit U enforced, nud tbe iit' 
flcmiiity tlornntidiril often takes tlic fonn of ;i further gi-aut of 
land. Ncottmituuit |)nrice» burrow, luu) are uiuiblc to pay : they 
^ve a mortgage on tbeir lands; aa dcfolcationft accumulate, tlu! 
mortage is foreola«etl. Native eoTcreigua promise, aud do uot 
perform ; nhcit performance is exacted, a slice of territory ix of- 
fered, mid accepted, n& a quittance. As soon as tlie intniden 
iiuTC become n Power, jealousies aud eninilicM rise op 011 c^'ery 
ride. Time iiftcr time they are trciiclieniir-'ly availed hy bu»> 
picioua or aturicioiiH iicighbount: at leiigtli, weary of chaattainf; 
them, tlioy ha^e no alteniative liut to disarm and weaken them 
by the confiscation of half tWtr donioiuB. Injustice to them- 
sclnsa, these naturalised foreigners form alliances : allies soon be- 
come dependents. Feeble states crave protct^tiou agai nrt poircrfid 
-and n^re^Mve rivals: protection is granted, in cichaiigi- for a 
con^deration ; and ihin euiisidi^nlioii is often pud iu land. Some- 
times the consideration ii> the inherilanec itaelf in failure of direct 
iisue : after a long term of yean Ihc territory lapses. The more 
powerful m l)ecome, the more are we rej^ardcii with an evil 
eye; n-c are liable to uaprurokcd assaults on att sides. Wc 
fight, wc conquer, we make treaties: the treaties »rc braken; 
we are again a->«»iled ; its u iocn»urc of ohviuu* and iicne:.i!tary 
nccority we w'lza a ]K>rtion of the offeiider'.t doininious. He 
rei>cata the ofl'Liitce ; and wc have no altentutive bnt Iu abMrb 
him altj^etlier. We sec prepsnitions niukitig for a formidaUe 
league again:^t ua: in self-defence we atilieipatc the blow, and 
break the league in pieces by the annihilation or imiwrcrishment 
of its most dauscroiis membcr». Uy tliis lime wc tiud our/clvca 
the poramount rnce in the countrj-. Our wcll-govemcd terri- 
tories arr surrounded by a set of the iiiu»t villamms and ri'stUws 
gorcrnmenU tht^ worlii ever saw, which keep u« in per[ictual 
disturbance. Wc exhort tlieni lo umcnd their practices; aonie 
pramiMc. and are paid for promising: they break their pronii«e; 
u'c insist on its perfurntanee ; and failing that, endeavour to per* 
form it for them. IMnny princes, sunk m effeminacy and pix)9i- 
gate iiidiiigenee, hating trouble, and ennng only for scut>iiabty 
and allow, are glmi enough to let us govern for them, st-euring 
to them A AiiHicient ^itiiiend for their plcaKtu^-:'. And no Oi«j 
who kuowfl the contm»t between British and native nilc will tuiy 
that we ought not to accept the bargain, aud assume the task. 
OtJier stales, ngnin, fall into such a condition of anarchy and 
desolation as to be a curse and a peril to all around them. After 
I long forbenranee imd renionstmuccs, in justice to our own sub> 
I jcclit we cou tolarute the .scene no lunger : we )>cU!<iou the ))rinee8, 
and we save tlic pi-ople. This i» a fair pietiu'c of our Indian 
progress for the la.-<t seventy years. Wc have obeyed an irre- 
aistible iuflueace, as rdontless as a Ian* of nature. From Uk 



* 

I 
4 



4 



Prine^ltt of Indiaa Government. 



n 






mnmetit vc aet fboC on Iiuliati »oil, iro hsd no ultcmntii-c liut 
either to be ifpioiniiiiouBlj' oxpcllej, or to bvcomu lords [Mir*- 
mount of the |)euiusula. 

Some nritcTs liavc been bold cuougb to ascnbe Uie laiituiy 
to the snocxaiion of Oiulc. \yc oS'cr no opiuion oh to tfao 
ckncnviw of tUc councctiou bctw(.-cu the siipposctl cause tmd the 
allcgci) efltx't ; «oiuc cunuixttou no doubt there vas. Cousidcr- 
iug Ihe jHs^uiiur foii^tilulioii nf lliu lli-ii;;nl army, luid tiiu large 
[(iirtiDii iif it recruited fwnii the Oudc ijoindiition, the modf in 
i*lui:li the auueuitioti wiu carried nut >nuy iave be<.-ii itieiiuliou* 
and unwise; but that ttio annciution itself yaaa a ri^hteotec, a 
oe eim»r y, aaA a beoeficcDt measure, wc cannot question for a 
iMOWcnt. Wc do iiot Ixilievc there con be tno opinions on the 
TMWt wntnig mcu nho know what the "OTcruinciit of Oudc ^xa», 
and wbat the got'eniment of the Coiiiimiiy'K territonu i». The 
pTa"**^* violatioii of a boleiun eontnirt )fa>ft lu ft Hgbt; ibs 
penistcut violatiou of all lan^ humau :md divine made it our 
duty. If our cahunitiea arc really traceable to tlus annexation, 
wo hare been puiiiahed for our virtues, not for our sins. ^V« 
arc martyrs, not criminaU. 

It will be tKxn from what wc have nrilteii, that we have a 
dear and strung opinion an to the title by which we bold India. 
Sotne page* of that tilli^-doeil are Hoiled by fraud, aome jiagea 
of it aio Mainod by blood; btit with all ila faults and ILawn, do 
other power can xhow one equal to it. In the earlier times of 
our residence, we were often selfish, grasping, and unscxu))ulous. 
UubajipUy wu hastened the poeaeseion of that wbiob muat bare 
become our« in time by many questiottablo acts and by ««nMt 
uni|Dcscianablc crimes. But after the period of \Viirreii Hh«- 
tin;^ a better spirit prevaikd, noil for mon; than half a centnr)- 
thcni Itave bceu few blot" oit our i!»eutehfOii, lboii);li many errom 
ia our policy. Wu itow bold India bv virtue of our greater 
stren^lh, uiir nobler ca|)aeities, and our ueepcr sense of duty and 
n!Spou^il)ility. Vie bold it iu trust for one bimdivd and tit^y 
niiUious of subjects, whose bai>i)ineefi wc arv- bounil to seek, 
whose eidijihteuuioiit wc are hound to fo^tt'r, nli««c fi-eljngs we 
are boond to respect, wboM.- pn-judioen even we are bomid to 
outnguBH little aa we out eonsistenlty with tlic aims of pxtd 
government and nioial progreas. So grand an empire and so 
grave a irual has seldom been committed to a free people — never, 
pcoWbly, ftince Uie Itoinan Kepublie reined over half a world. 
It now remaina to consulcr the priociiJcs on which, aud the ma- 
chinery by which, wc arc to govcru India so a» wurthil;. tu fulUl 
our bi^ calling. • ^ 

la the liift pluce, then, India ia a Depexdexcv, and not a 
CoLoinr. It baa nothing in common with the other porltona 



]£ 



Frineipiea of Indian Govrmment. 



of our colonial empire, — with thoae vast ieUnda and continents 
abounding in priinMal for«>!ita aud iuterminablc prairies, ftill of 
uDoccupivd lands and nearly empty of inhabitants, scantily peo- 
pled, and peopled only by aava;:^ of small capacities and feeble 
trames, eubsUting ou the precarious prodtice of the dian^, aud 
incapable alike of »»istiiig the progrvss or ai]o]>tiHg the habits 
of cit'ilituttion. In thc>te tcnriuuries Englishmen have made tbeir 
homes ; tlicy have ^ttc out to recide as well as to subdue; ther 
have coiiqucrcd the land rather than the inhabitants ; their wars 
have been with rude nature even more than with wild men. In 
pioceBS of time they have so multiplied, and been eo rcpleiii^hul 
oy ftvah immigration from the motlier country, a* to ooD»titute 
natioDH and xociettos actually composed of Kuglishmen, among 
whom the aboriKinal inhabitauta form a fraction insignificant 
in uumbem as well aa in importance. On« after another, sa this 
time arrived, tliese eomniunitteA have claimed, and have had con- 
ceded to tlicm as a right, all the powers and privileges of self- 
government : for the new colony had been created by them and 
peopled by them, had become their pueMssion and their home, 
towlKisc fortmics they had linked their own ho^iea and afiections 
tor all coming time. 

Hut our settlement and position iu Hindoatan diffen from 
this picture in every one of its features, liidia, so far from 
being scantily jteopied, is densely {leo^lcd, and the inhabitants 
outnumber those of Britain in a five-fold ratio. It contains no 
waste land : cicry field has its owner and its occupier, in whose 
hands it has remained for generations and for ccntune«; every 
acre is cultivated, or has gone out of cultivation solely from Iwd 
government or bad agriculture The native* of India, so far 
from i>cing sarages, or belon^g to feeble tribes iiho can be 
trodden oat or almorbed by the iutruding race, arc the subjects 
of a civilisation far older and more complicated than our onu, — 
a civilisation which, thot^;h vicious and corrupt, is in the highest 
degree iiigenious and elaborate, dates back before the birth of 
autlieutic history, and i» deeply rooted in thu habits and ideas of 
its nctims. Some of their ntce» are jiuwerful and warlike, and 
liavc more than once made ns buy our victories dear, and even 
jcopartliscd our conquests. Many among them arc wealthy, 
polished, intelligent, and even learned after the fashion of their 
tribe. In fact, our position in regard to them is rather that of 
the Romans tonanls the deisreuerate Greeks, or the Spaniards 
townixlH Uie primitive and noble civilisation of Mexico and Peru, 
tJian that of liritons towanls the Ilcd Indiana, the Holtcntot», 

the rapuoii aborigines. Finally, no Kujfiijihman, whether 



i 



i 

4 



or 



mcrehaul, [tlantcr, or oilicial, ever dream* of svtlling in Inilia: 
he could not do ho; hin children cannot thrive there; he him- 
self cannot live there iu comfort : he merely goca to reside tbtire 



Principles of Indian Gowmnienl. 



13 



Car a time, to make his fortnne or disc1iar|>c hu dutin, adcI re- 
tire home nfttT twenty yean of labotir with an ineonie or a 
pemiiiii. It if. Ami must nlniij-!) be, to Iiim a place of exile, not 
a home cither for the ju-eneiit or (he future. 

It is obviotLs, therefore, at a glance, that the prin^^plea irhich 
now govern the colonial policy of Great Hritain are wholly in- 
applicable here Wc admit — and most wisely and righteously 
■aioit — the colonists to govern thctnsclTca and the country which 
they have turned from a desert into a gardca, and in which they 
uikI tlivir c'hildrt-ii look for an abiding iidicritarice, according to 
tJieir own notions, and through the iiistrumentnlity of citizens 
chosen by thenniclve*. But to transfer these itrititdi privilege? and 
institutions to Hindoatan,- — to govern India by a governor and a 
l^jislative council elected by the scanty and scattered ICiiropcau 
itaidents, who shoidd introduce their own language, their own 
laws, their own fancies and political desires, into the admiiiiAtra-J 
tion which controls one hundred and fitly millions of an aheu rac^ 1 
— vonld he to hand over thnt iiiagiiiticcnt empire to an oligarchy 
almost without a pandlel in history'. Yet thi* is pretty much 
the demand of those chance residents in India who, in the late 
"Calcutta Petition," have shown so much modest^' in their rc- 
qnirenteDta, and such a rare sense of propriety in the time se- 
lected for urging them. It is difficult to conceive what possibloJ 
claim ten thousand Kuropean meichauts and indigo ■planters ann 
jonTDalists can have to govern, or to choose those who govern, 
a mi);hty and populous dcpcndcncr, merely on the ground that 
tbejr hare gone thither for a time to Ijuy silk, to plant indigo, or 
to edit newspapers, though tliey may know nothing of Ihc com- 
plicated ehoracter and wants, and may care nothing about Die 
eitdaring welfare, of the people whose manf^jeracut they would 
thtu pjresuniptuonily assume. And assuredly it would not he 
easy to name a political crime or blunder equal in enormity to 
that of granting their preposterous demand. 

It ts clear, then, that India cannot be left, as a colony of 
Englishmen, to govern itself. It \» c^iunlly clear tliat we ciinnot 
— at present at Icjwt, nor for an iudefinite jieriod to come — go- 
rcm it as a di-{H?nd<-ncy through the medium of our dependents. 
It seems almost au[)ertluous to add a word of elucidation on this 
bead. India is to us a conquered country'. The completion of 
oor eonqurst datea only from yesterday, \Vc arc still surroimdcd 
brail the rankling hatreds ofdcfcalcd cupidity and mortified nm- 
bitiDn. In every quarter of the hind swarm foes whow pinni' of 
aggrandisement wc have thwarted, whose crimes we have pun- 
iancd, whose oppressions we have pre^'cntcd, whose marauding 
propcntiities we nave put down. We arc surrounded too by a 
TBst and ignorant |K)pulation, who cannot understand many of 
our ncellences, aud who mistrust and misinterpret many of our 



<14 



Principlrt of Indian Gmcmmmt. 



mmt iKueficent and iriscst schemes. We ehock thdr nnjudiocs 
and Alarm tLcir faitK Ijv crcrj action of ottr lives. 1t»c Msbo- 
metans arc scandaliiicd b<x-aasc wc t^nt thv nnclcsti swrnc. T\k 
UiBdoos are outragrd because we cat the nacred cow. In the 
eyeM of both we are intidc-ls and paganti,- — ^fted wttb inan-elloua 
powen, hilt giiiltjr of iiwfiiiblv nbomhiatiODt. I'ltc mast* of t' 
])eo]>l«, it i-H tnie, — tho mcTcliantH and the cultiTatore of the muI 
— «PIireiriate our rigid and cprtaiu and cm- it -handed justice, and 
t)lc<i<i the ftecurity u-ith wtiiHi th^y cait trade and sow and reap 
under om- sway ; and tiuni>>crs of thooi; who vamv m contact 
with ns rrpinl ni with einccn; afferticm. But uiifortnnatdjr 
those who loTC and %-aluc «*, — those whom we have wnrd and 
proteeted and rescued finom oppreawon, — thoogh the miltinuR, arc 
the igpnorant, the apathptie, and the powerless. 'Oiose whom wc 
have TOiitrollcd, thoae whom wc have cast down from the thrones 
and ministerial nnisuuds they had dtK^rac^^'d, those whose victims 
we have rescued, those who-e career we hare spoiled, those v^OB 
we have reduced to impotence and banulwueM, — though the 
hundreds only, aru the able, the en«rg«tic, tite wetltliy, and the 
feartd. It i» thexe thrrmgh whom we niu.it govern, if we gofvm 
tlirough native agency. 

Uut, in tmth, committing the government of India to tbe 
natives of India, e\-en under our superintend i::nee, is at present 
a chimera. It mar eome some day; wc hope it will. Hut it 
most come when Hindoos have learned to know us better than 
they do at prcfient, and liavc become something very diflcirnt 
from their prcMtnt mlvcn, — when tho«e conipctcut and himost 
lutivLrs whom we now jioiiit to ax wonderfid esocptious ahall 
liavc become nimicrons and common. Whut native rule itt, tnvty 
state iu TnrUn has hail bitter experience; aomc arc rrxxrieneing 
it still. And no one who knows what it is will hesitate to uDiviu 
that, for mingled incapaeity and iniquity, the worst times in the 
won't govcniinonls of Italy and Spain can afibrd not oidy no 
parallel, but no oonccption. Few crimes eould equal that of 
replacing any portion of a country committed tu our keeping 
nnder the infliction of such an intolerable -sooiiige. 

There remains, then, only the thinl allernatire. India must 
be governed, as hitherto, as a deiieudciiey of our empire, by the 
instrumcnlaiity of a body of trained and jwrmanent officials sob- 
}eet oidy to mctropolitna coutrol, — by a despotic bnreaucrae^, 
in fact, responifible to the 6rcc country whose minigtcns and 
legatee lliey are. Thi« xystcm ousht to supply one of the h«t 
goveniments coneeivnhlc. And here we are glad to be aWe 
fortify our views by thoce of one of the most thoughtful, com- 
petent, and Ka^rioiLi of the uHtcre whose woilcs we have placed 
at the head of thii artirlc. Mr. Camemn, long retident in India, 
and holding there a high ofHcial po«ition, «ay* : 



He 
nd 



the 

ub- I 

■ to 



Principles of Indian Gotfrmuait. 



IS 



"Thlfltaroous constitution [that o>f Omt Itritun] is wlioDir uufit 
for tb« ladiau nations, mul I *cktKrw(eilgc tLat I sliottlU iLiuk it mi- 
■weexofy fur tliL-Ir wullkre if it were euui^ Iciid uafit for them tbaii it 
is. My own iij>iiiiuD i«, tlut llie b«3t ;;(>Teniiueul fur laiin, at Icna^ 
in her prcMnot ronilition, \a u tlcsixttic ^veninieut ; •nd tbnt tht in-M 
babitaiits of that coantrjr, Earnpcati ■» ircll u Atiutic, iihouI<l ilrrivM 
tha Manrance whifb thcf oiigbl to [imuexi ngniiuct tlic nlniftc orpou-cc,' 
tMt from any politiwi jtrivilt^c* cxon imid l>y tlicmtclves, )>u( first from 
the Eacttlttt ni>a« arv ndniiltcd to ttic Iiighctil nffioc« in the country but 
tboM wito («bat«rar myf bo tlit'ir origin) have received tlie luoral bbcU 
laldlccttial tnuolng of BrilLiii futii-twDarica : eecooOIy, from Ui« facn 
tlial all tli« ]Woeeeditigs of the luiliun Kuvcrnineuta are submitted i» 
drtsil to the critidam and cotrecttun of autlioriti^i in Bn;L;l'vnd : nnil 
lutly, frotn tl>c fact tiMt thoae autlioriticd luv renpoiuiblu to the Ilri- 
tufa I'arliaHK^t In ibia way, ait it aeema to mo, Uic wIviDtagro of 
dtapotic aad of const it uttonal garcmincDt arc united, irliilc the dia- 
adnntagiw of both are avoided in a rcniariisblii dogreo. for an Anglo- i 
Raxon (totmlation sacli a aclieine would not perhaps be aDeeenful, how^ 
«Ter fpud the ^'ovoramvat resulting from it ; for tliat race (mwb to 
affiKt Belf-ji;uveniiuent even more than anod govemnient. But fur the 
isdigetiotu races lA India, the few Auglo-tinxoua ivbo go there to «m- 
pknr capital and to return, aud the Mnall coluiiie!! uf Ansclo'Baxona 
whMh will perhaps settle in the temperate dtniut^t oftliehilleouiitric^J 
I balieve that such a ecbcnM) of niltninistmtion is at, the jircnrnt tini«' 
■uwfa tho beat tlint couM be dei-iK«<l. 1 incline to tliink tlmt such « 
sdieme will always b« tlie best : fur it is uo itationni^- syslcm: ou tbe 
eootntn-, it h one whicb will ^ on euiiliuunlly rellectin^ all the sue* 
eeaiire iuijiroTvroentct of tite cuuatitutionol and progresxivi; nyKtcm, 
tron wliicli itx prind[>lea of admlnitbutiun are derived, and to wliich 
tlMy most oonfonn. 

Ilie government of Imlia ia a ^remnient of Brituli *tat«*nicn, 
who have Ibc same eilaculiMi as other Itritisb statcnnen in poiiticol 
eoanatny. juriiprudence:, and the other scicnora which minister to tho 
wt uf goveruuU'Ut ; who ar« not hal>ituail}' deflected from their proper 
coiiTN by any |>arty eousitlcroliona, nor hindered iu their attempts at 
doing jiutitc to all da«e« ; and who ore in u (MMition not only to fcel 
with perfect impartiality, but tn ad vcilli perfeel inijinriiulity, toirarda 
all tltt varioos intcrcatit for wlucfa tWy legislate' [Addrftt to Partitt' 
maU, p. 41). 

The people oflDiliaarcnJ79eWa/rac«,anil rcquin-to be dealt 
witb on a special sy«;ciii and by spooinlty trained rulers. 1'lie 
ordinary pniidpU-:^ and plaTiH ou whit^b ne may suftly attd ju<li> 
ciuiuly net in the management of ICurupcans will adroit of only 
a very partial, Uiiiit«), and inodiRcd application iu Hindottao. 
An £nglii>bman of arcra^ oapacity may be sent out to govcni 
B polony of KnglbbmoQ with little risk, because he has to deal 
with charaoten) and infiticittioiiH with which hr w famtlinr, aiul 
witli which his sympathies are in UDiKOn. Common kcukc-, pro- 
per fceliu^ cunseicntious diligencCj and orcUnury kiiuwludgt^j will 



IG 



Princijiles of Indtaa Govemmrnt. 



enable bim to discharge lils iunctiotw hi a fair und creclitabu^| 
mutincr. But common »ici)»c luid the ordinary education of air^l 
E»)^)iN!ininii nould be us iiindi'quittc in the bureau of an Indian 
niier a.t in tlic oiieratiiig-room of a bottpital or the laboratory of 
a eheraist. It in ^ninently eharactcristic of our counti-jmcii to 
wish to inti-oiluoe Kngland every where — to sec every where an , 
embryo or a possible England — to believe that Engb?h motivca^j 
irill influence every people, that EngUsb institutions can be rii'^H 
gmftvd in c^ery land, that Eugluih ideas have, or can be nuult^^ 
bt> liBvc, currency in every i]uarlcr of the globe. ?vow in no 
conntiy an; thc«e cburacteri?ttie notion* and tendencies so eom- 
pletely at fault, or ro iintniiiently dan^roiis, aa in Hindostan, 
Europeans an<l Asiatics are full of moral and mental divositica 
— diversities which we believe to be iudigcnoug, but which, whc- I 
ther indigenous or not, have in the course of cciitnncs, and by 
the operation of reunion, climate, education, and hereditary babi- 
tudcf, become now a second nature. The lion and the tiger ' 
scarcely — the .'•beep-doc and the spaniel certainly — do not difl'er 
more widely than the Orienlnl and the Occidental types of hu- 
manity. And of these discrepant races, the Englishman stands 
at one extreme of the Kuropcan, and the Uindoo at the other ' 
extreme of the Asiatic. Greater coutrasts — more d(Tply-in. 
grained contrasts — it would be didicuU lo conceive. They 
mutually rejirescnt all the most opposite, irreconcilable, bostile , 
clcnicntH ift humnn nature. The one an hfrcditary )>ondsnian ; 
tlMJ other, l>pyond all thing*, five. Tlic one the very embodiment 
and .ivudwi of fta^nalioii; the other the inoarnation of inde^* 
Catigalfic cnrrgv' and i-e»tlc,t» progress. The life and diilisalion 
of the Hindoo moulded in the relentless tyranny of immutable 
caste ; that of the Englishman breathing the very idolatry of 
change. Tlie one contented even in wretchedness ; the other 
dissttti.ifit-d nnil impatient in the midst of luxury and joy. The 
one hcmnied-in with ceremonies and prejudices, tlie victim and 
the slave of the mrat soi!telc»!( fanatietstn uiion earth ; the other 
bating ccvemouv, despising all prcjtnliccs but his own, and too 
prone, iu the pndc of a pure religion and a splendid science, to 
trample on the fanaticism of all around him, l-'inally, the fl&. 
grant faidts and offeusive peenbaritics of the Briton rwlccmcd 
by iin imi)eriuus «.'nsc of duty ; the many amiable and engaging^ 
qualities of the Hindoo neutralised by a destitution of all notioa 
of public morality, which to us seems absolutely upiHilling and 
iuconccivablc. 

In truth, the character of our Iiidiau subjects is a nice pro- 
blem to deal with, and a difhcult matter to understand. At our 
peril wc are bound to study and to fathom it. Tliat the know- 
ledge of it i)0&*esM?d by the most experienced tlurnpcan residents 
has hithcTto bccQ imperfect, the late oceurrencea have painftdly 



'M 



Principlet of Jwiian Gotemmaii. 



17 



I 



sbown. But vc do not infer from these sad events that our 
coantrymcn irere <lcceive<] in tlicir estimate of the u»tivc dia- 
meter; but oiinplj- t]i)it otie dcjiietit of it, hithvrto latent, liiul 
etnpecl their pciietralion. We do not 1>elicTe that the atlach- 
meiit and fidctitv of the sepojs, in vrkich all their officers williont 
exception plaixd such confidence, waa unreal or simulated; bat 
that qoAlitin and passions co-existed with these feelings nluch 
bad hitherto lain durmaut, but wlitch, when once excited, were 
powerful eivongb to override nil others. \Ve bvlicve all that we 
have beard of their devotion to their ofTiecrs, their respect for 
Eoropean ladie-i, their fondness for their mastere' children. Till 
now, there ba<l been ample juatifieation fer the contidenee felt 
by Knglish officers in the trustwortluncaa and bravery of their 
troops. Till DOW, there can be no doubt that uii^ardcd ladies 
could and did travel throughout the lcn«t)i and breadth of India, 
attended or not by sepoys, without th{,- fear or the ri^k of insult 
or neglect. Till now, the Hervantx and the soldiers of our conn- 
itrynen dbjdayed and felt a tender attachment for the little white 
. inniita who plavcd amon^ them nearly ei^iial to that of thdr 
' own parents, and yet more demonstrative. AH this was not put 
on: it was the j^nulnc product of their ordinary nature; and 
ire were amply warranted in counting on it under all ordinary 
cireumstaoccs. But two peculiarities in the native character 
seem to hare escaped our obscrTatiou : and it is no wonder tliat 
thvy did 80. The first is their iniprv»»ibUity, the second tlicir 
animal ferodtj- — bolh [uirtaking of tlie fe^iture* and R^achinji; the 
exoes* of actual insanity. The rnii.n and the savaoe lie very 
deep at the foundations of their being. The varnish of civilisa- 
tion is very ihin, and is put oft' as pi-omptly as a garment. Their 
utter ignorance prepared them to oclicvc any absurdities; their 
brutal superetition rendered them capable of cuaeting any hor- 
ron. Their religion and their caste form the assailable and cx- 
citahlc side of the Iliitdoo mind. There is nothing remarkable in 
UiiM. People so incapable of reasoning, and m> accessible to sti- 
mulus, could be easily persuaded, where appearances etiaueed to 
confirm the poisonous suggestions poured into their minds by 
emissaries from without, that we had hostile designs ^^nst their 
rdigiou and their caste. This, too, was natural enough. But 
tbe point to which we desire to draw special attention, is the 
dt^^rec to which tlic sprC4id of the mutiny and its more atrocious 
features partook of the ehanicter of an epideiiiio or ooutngious 
nervous disorder — a sjiw^ics of )iliyKics] cerebnd excilcmcnt. 
Viewed in any other light — or rather viewed apart from this 
peculiarity — the whole movement aeems unaceountably iuiiane. 
It broke out at first not in undefended places, but where there 
were strong detachments of European troops. The excitement 
gained some rc^mcnts, and was on tbe point (rf* exploding, when 

c ■ 



18 



Principle* of Indian Governtiifnl. 



allayed hj a fcv Mt^acious words or coungcoiu acts hv mflncn* 
tial comrades or rnolulc Eurojican offin-ni. Others marched 
out ogiuiut thv mutiitccrs 0.11 »inu(-Trl}* iLt Xt-v iigiuD:<t X.ipukoD, 
but were as ]x>wvrieas to resist tito niysteriou* um) morbid sfm- 
pathy. Ollient maufuUy reaiated the coiita^oa when thtir de* 
fectiou woiik] have beeu safe to thcmsetves and moat formidable 
to OS, but BuiMiumbed to the iacreaaing excitement wheu fortune 
bad changed to our side, whcu there was cvcrv thin'; to discfiur- 
^{c a mutiny, when fiiilure was certain, aud terrible rctrihut)o}t 
ob\'iou«lr and immediately at band. Otht-m, again, when our 
case «eenM.-d ik^iporate, Htoutl faillifidly by our side, fought gal. 
luitly ugauL»t ttieir rol>ellk>»« ooniradci, detttmyed tbeir own 
dkancea of oueeeMtful mutiny, and then, with incoui|irriieiHiUe 
folly, turned aj^iiat us just as our victory was complete. Tlugr 
seem to have " lost their heads" (to use a colloquial bat exprva- 
sivc phrase) with the continuance of the excitement, as childnui 
aud highly nervous [xxtple do at an or^^ie, or un execution, or a 
battle, or a sccuc of violeneo and peril of almost any kind. In 
future, then, wo inuvt take into our i^tiumte of the Hindoo cha- 
raoter, and oiu- tnlctilattou of prolwble coulin^neiea, tins lia< 
bility to insane pauica and uuaceoiiu table nutbreaka of irratioiul 
excitement, — propa|^ted like lire across a prairie. It will addotn 
ari»c without cause; but the causes may often be trivial, un- 
traceable, and ai>pareiitly wholly inadequate to the reatdt. We 
nuat govern the Hindoos as a race which, in addition to it* nor- 
mal charaeteristii-», has this \>ei'y uuplcasant one of being subject to 
acoe*»ca of epidemic inauia, which may perhaps be guarded agaioat 
or rendered baruUena by judicious unuigeaienta and umlccping 
vigiUnee, but which, when they occur, aet reaaOn, hal>itunl feeling, 
and tlie stron;feHt and plaineat .telf-intercat, altt^cther at detiancc. 
The seooud thiug which we hare learned ia the tiger-like 
fctticity which lien dormant in the Hindoo character, and whidi 
tlie periods of cscilt^mcut of which we have just spoken 
almost cert^uly dev<^loi> into life. The hideous love of crud 
of inflicting i»ain for the pleature of bchuldiu<; aitony, of s 
ing actual intellectual eflort in coutriviiiR unheaxd-of toTtnroa, 
is a jiOBsion moi-e than auy other iuuMnprehcnsible and abbor* 
rent to our minds. \\'c have heard of sontethiug like it in the 
middle ages : individuals in history have at timc» appeured 
affected with >;imilar morbid propensities to evil; eupcrstitt 
mingled with malignant passion aiid fostered by absolute pow 
ba* brou);ht tumn- KurujxHiuH in former days to the very n 
of tliiit Itendbh tU-grudation. But all .-such cases liavc Ijcen re>' 
garded ax nionwlrous — the nii^hluiare fn-aks of nature. Alx>Te 
all, we have been accustomed to consider them as altogcilit^ bc«, 
longing to tbe past,— drutidful and loatheome ejieresceitci^ oi 
tinoes aud stages of humaiuty long since and for ever uassed 



wuicn 
a wil^ 
udt^ 
pcna- 



Prineipies of htdian Gorer/naenl. 



19 






avay. We bare )>een rwlely awalcetietl fVuin tJiia <teluBion;^ 

.-uwl ]i«r1tap» it is m\c vrliicli we ought not su tmm|uiliy lo hare 

iutliil}^. TIio taste for iirolon^wl and gratuitous lovtwrc has in 

vacay a^cs and cotiutrios uccn diatinctivo of Oricutal peoples. In 

India ire hare mntiy traces of it. Itelij^iou there coutribulea to 

Unman Ntcrilices prcroiled ihctc down to a very recent d>te^ 

annid» of native reifrn» ulxiund in fpecinicue of elaborate txA 

_^_ jou!' itillict itrtis. Torture of n>i»ii J kinds prinaib lliere in 

oertaiii <Uslriet.i haljitiiBlly evni now. The atrodtie* of Delhi, 

Jhaitsi, and <':iwii|iore, though lhi.!j- idteniately make our blood 

boil with fury and run eold wiUi hontir, were not forcifpi to the 

character of their perpetrators. The ^leoplo of India we believe 

to be, ttot Mvage, hut mild in their nomul moods. But the 

hniul and fenx-iotis element, which in all likelihood cntcrul 

OciginKlly into nil human cousti tut ions, has not been with them 

rrad'tcaUd by long eenliiric* of dvilicatiun, but only con-red over 

tnd [nit to ?lcep; and eneitenu-nt briufpt it forth, a» iuloxicaliuu 

iatt tbal of the Malay. Vie believe, loo, that tliis giassion for 

Aedding blood and iiiflictiu^ a^ny is, like the excitcincnt we 

base apoken of, in a ereni measure phyoical st>d morbid; the 

fint aipbt or {ni>tilicatiau of it arou»e« a frenzied thirst for 

mon, which is propitiated like au epidemic madness, Self-oon- 

tnlis, as wr all know, the ^preial virtue of rulture and trainit^; 

Hid the civihsatiou of the Hindoo, elaborate as it is, is not only 

•■MDtially riv>ou», hut is only skin-deep. Id dealing with him, 

therefore, it is micoMuy to bear in mind that he is nut ultu^lier 

K ruioiuil being, gorerni'd by motives, and amenalile lo iutoreet 

vA reason, — but a creature of impulse, and Mill hnlf a aava)^ 

wl more ibau half a ehild. Non imtutoreil KuKli«hmcn can 

Wt of all men coniiircheii<l and manage cliai-acters of this n)xt. 

A third peculiarity of om- Asiatic swlijects, which espwriuUy 

ftrflrxts ami dispists the aTcxaf:c Eo^li&hinan, is tlidr profound 

^*ou!Lty fur dissimulation. They liavo au absolute genius for 

vKhood. No oaths secure their truth. Xol oidy doen tlieir 

••■pie utter the most Ragrnnt luid elaborate li*-, but they know 

Vn to Nurroiiud it with ever}* colour of probability and con*- 

^ttion; and the inijHTtiiHinble uuiintenance, lite ready smile, 

l^n^dateil act, all are eidled in to aid in the deoeptioo. The 

■■n cautious and praeCi^ diplotiialiiit, tite most skilJul nnd 

**f(miieed judge, arc often at fault; and nothing but lo»|f 

*'?<«eDec and special tntining can fit men to deal with kucIi a 

ntetlnll. 

There is «HII another anomaly in the Indian tntUonal cha* 

fler, to whifh En^liishmen, fresh from the mother eountry and 

■WjUtonw.-d only to "Iroiig rude *cii«t which they rcapeci, and to 

jaijadioe* and Uuiles which they underatand even where they do 

I >iottliarctbem,fuulparticidjirdifiicult]rinaecommodatiiigtliai]- 



20 



Prineiplea of Indian Govemmfrtt. 



•dvea: wc refer to the singular admixture of subtlety and ioDn 
wliirh perr.ides both the conreRtation and the conduct of ihc phI- 
tivutnl Hindoo. In no work on India that ire b&TC seen doc^ this 
pecniiarity cx>me ont so clearly as in Colonel Slccroan's amus- 
ing Rambles and Recollections of an Indian Official. The BCOOUnIS 
of his diecussioofl ttnA consultations with minirtent, princes, and 
pundits, are, in this ptnnt of view, rxcecdingly imttructive. Few 
pvopic display so much ingennity and nkill in argnment; bnt 
the prcmiws on wlueh they ai^w indicate an i$:nora)ice and a 
credulity almost approaching to idiocy. The things they hcUrre, 
and the things they assume, would disgrace the darbi-st and 
nakcdest saraffcs of Africa; but the dialectic shrcwdncws with 
which thi^ will often handle these matenals in oontroren^ 
would challenge the admimtion of the most finished inielleet of 
Europe. Then, too, their belief*;, and what wc may eall their 
ecclesiaatical ordinances, pervade and re^ilate every hour and 
every action of their daily life to a degree not paralleled by 
any other people ; so that these consummately nonsensical pre- 
mises on which tliey reason so acutely arc always and cvay 
where in operation. Thus the Englishman who got-s out to per- 
form his part iu the f;overnment of Ilindostan duds himself at 
erery sUrp in eoIHwon with prejudices which he must despise, 
and yet is eoinpellid lo respect; — which he is obliged to treat 
with defereuec and forljcaraiicc, bccsttsc they are tlie iuvetente 
prejudicefi of millions, to whom they are real os the air they 
breathe, and as saered as the life tlicy cheri*li ; and yet which 
in his heart he muKt regard with a sort of abhorrent contempt, 
as tlio very incarnation and extreme of ludicrous and sometimes 
loathsome nonsense. Now here is a discipline which all i»ho 
know the naturally narrow and intolerant character of tlic Bri- 
tish mind, will admit requires a vcrv special preparation to attain. 
Wo are not originally or habitually, to say the least, tender or 
respective to alien follies and to superstitious and fancies which 
■n not our own ; yet in India we are compelled to lie »o under 
peril of our empire. A body of competent and respectable Englisli- 
mcn, Kucb as shine in vestries and town-oouneils, and prose and 
vote with no contemptible success in Parliament, would set India 
iu a blaze lieforc they had administered its affairs for sis weeks. 
Finally, India, both Hindoo and Mahometan, has its own 
peculiar codes, civil and criminal, bv which it has governed fat 
centuries; which ore comprehended by its people, and blended 
and intertwisted with all the concerns of life ; whieli it would be 
the height of tyiiuiuy to supersede by our own unsuitable and 
complicated forms ; and which require long and careful i'ludy to 
understand and to administer. If there were no rither reason 
vhy India must be govemctl by a specially tclected and elabo- 
rately trained body of officials, thia olooc woold suffice. ^^m 



Prineipltt of Indian CovfmiHent. 



21 



tn no portion of our (^tnpiro tias UritiBh policy beea remark- 
oUe for n unl/ann anti conrUlent character. Otir uatiooa] pecu* 
liitritics and ottr luilional iattitiitiouH lia\^- botli coiiti'ibutcd to 
thia iip|Cativ« rnsiilt. In every thing — in [lolilin more tvcu ihiui 
iu most tUiit^ — wo nn> rmpirio, tctitiitivc, unci unadentific. Our 
waiit of ttcicncc and of sji'^tctu &cniU un loo far into one extreme ; 
our pmctica] ■•uod soaac ftbov& us oar error, and drives ui> back 
in the nftjMmitu din.-ct{on. As s nation, loo, vc arc remarkable 
for a perilous lUL-iitAl AvtctA : — wc take up ideas in /urn, and not 
in mmliitialion ; to tbftt at one 6po(^ wc arc gorcmeii by ooo 
■ct of tioliiitiH and intent upon one act of objects, and at aiiotbor 
wcare on a wholly difleront tack. Neitber bate wc, like some 
dc^itii- uatioiii, thr adt-iintage of being gorenied by statCfinion 
p! jdiog minds, wbo arise from one claas and bequeath 

lUi .1 tc to succcssoTa, — by Hicticlieus, SuUys, and Ximcues. 

Oar «ta]o«inen arc tbc ^roirth or the accident of Parliament, as 
Vi ' < ii iH t)ic varying protliict ofa growing and oscillating 
II iinioii, A slciuty iiiiil uuiwtTTving policy, — a jiolicy at 

L'. Ill iifl principleH, uiieliangin^ in lUs ultimate purposes, 

ail . u-nX in the means by whtcli IhoHe purjMaca are worked 

out, — bfts ever been a desideratum to Great liritaiii, both at 
botuu aitd abroad. Yet a polici/ of this character it absoiutely 
tnKHliat to ut in deaim^ mtii India. ^Villlaut it vc shall throw 
R" Vantages; without it that oiiomalona empire 

«. - jeopardised; without it wc shalt low the 

mjK-' ■- luliile and obwrvaiit people; without it there 

will rx': I regiin of vacillaciou which ainbitioui uolive princes 

may turn to terrible noooiint. 

IfVli iiicb a jwlic)- — with ordinary skill snpcraddcd to our 
extraordinary energies — iritb areragc administratJTc Ea^ucity, 
nl ■ ■ ■ ' ■ IOC wc Iiavonow acquired, —there is 

ii . .1. why wo should Dot retain our In- 

i! L luic. We believe that wc are under a nolcmn 

O". ^ it. No one can doubt tliat our sway, with all 

iti acknowledged ilefii-U and all \U unliniehed excellences, is a 
"1 llie HiiidLj.HtaDces. It is not |ȣJtively gond perhaps, 
iiD bent they ever had. Ity aetirily iu oc^clupiug it, 
■ it, it IB iu our imwcr to render it better 
dreamed of. The future of liuu(Ircd» of 
1 welfiire, their moral progreui — depend 
'.if our power, and upon the principles 
wliii'h shall heneclorth govern our ftdministratiou. No native 
|irinec»i ever ilid or c%er can, in comiiorison witk ourselves, eitlicr 
|iroti-<:t tli> It) f]x>m robbcnt, abstain from oppression, dodop the 
T' ■■■■ 'il, exonerate Uiem from tlic nightmare ofa 



M 

I. 

II 

t;: 

ir. 

u. 



i. 



prepare them for a purer mwalityj or guido 



tst 



Prineiplei of Indian Gfyvenmifnt. 



them in a better way. On ever)* principle of jiutioe and philan- 
thropy we are bonn<l to stay where we are. 

Nor is there any real diffieultv in doing so, now that wc are 
warucd, now tliat wc are coni|)elle(l thoroughly to luiderstaiul 
our poBitiou and deliberately to setUc our proocDdiugs. Tbe^J 
rcowns arc well explained by )fr. Cameron : ^| 

" I believe that no jteuple evi-r exist*J on tin" face of the earth to ^' 
whom Oie imjieridl nilu ol a fun9){n untiuu liaj been, ns such, so little 
diabutefiil ma it i;i to the inhabitonbi of Itiftiu. Aiuuu)^ tii<- ilindoos, 
and the aboriginal men who lnv« imhilivil Hiudoii |>rin>:i;>ii». the aya- 
t«in of casic mmt hare prevented th« growth of lliat prt.-(Iil(«tiun ^icli 
obewhcrc commonly arises in men's minds in favour of a ualtoaal go- 
nrnmenl. That singular system was calculalcil ti> cngm<irr a com- 
plete iuiliSereuva in the suhject maltttude us to who might lie cxer- 
ciaiug over them the powem of govemmeat ; jnoviiJcd only thnt the 
persuna placed in tluit poaitiou cuuHueO thenuelvea uithin tbo«c litnita 
whieb are reeogniictl in the system itw-U'. Every oao intrastcd the 
care of public Hl&in to tlic hereditary C'hctiyo, josl tta he intrusted tlis 
care of IMS beard to the hrrctlitary l<arbcr. 

Prohnbly when foreign eoiMiucet came, the sidjji-ct cMlea, hrwij^t 
Up in those prinriplcs. would not f«*l tlial nny injurj- had bceu done 
to thmnselTes ; though they might have aiiiiiittril tb.tt tJie ruling oaate 
had lieMi injurioitsly thrust out, and had eonse-iiienlly jubI ground of 
ooinpUint Hi^'Hiutit the foreign cou'jueror. There in cvideixx^ na oM aa 
Strabu. and a.i recent m Oototid Slccmun, to |irav« tliat the cultivatora 
of the soil, tbati*, tb« great mnis of the Hindoo pcuple, are, to aay tlie 
leMl, more in(hl!«rviit than tlic inhatHCanls uf Any otiicr region, net 
to the manner in which, but aa to the bawU by wbieh, th<- powera of 
government are exercised over them. .According to Stralio, it &o> 
qa«Dlly hap|>eiied that the lienditury aoMiera were drawn «p in liattlc- 
array, and eugng«d in uctoal confiiol with the enemy, while tW here- 
ditary husband men, whom the ajutem eouGned entirely to their own 
X 'cultural fumtion, were Becurely plotighinc mid diis;ing in the same 
:e and at llio auiiH? time. It wim no Bfliiir of theirs which body of 
Chetryas might gain the victory, and afterwnnlii cxereiw the puwera 
of government. Tlieir biuinem was to till tliA eartli, and tu pay tlie 
government share of the produce to those who might happen to be 
oononeron. 

Colonel Slecman, whose abillliea. and whose o|>poi'tunili(s of studj- 
iaff the native cluiracter, an well kuowii tu every uue interostod in the 
wdiirtt of Indiu. bus the fulloniiig jnuaiige : ' U ia a singular fact, that 
tke peaaantiy, and I may siiy the iiindtfd iiitereot of the country gene- 
rally, have never bean the frieodii of nny existing govemmeut. hare 
never conai<icre(l their interests and that of their government iIm: same, 
and ooiuc(|ucHtly have never felt any desire for ite Bucccsa or ita dura- 
tion.' 

The truth evidently is, that tiic governing cast^, though bom in the 
Munc country us the men engaged In tiltti:-,' the soil, have always been 
aliens in relation to them. I do nut uieiui that the govemio;; caste 



I 



Prhteipla 0/ Indian Gmermmmt. 



S3 



^ 



bare ahrafB epprMved tbcir (ubjecfcc I mcoii only tbat. bk regMTda 
ajlli|>*tlif iumI tlie dukriticH of IJfr, tlioy hnvn Ix-rn fondgiicrx tti tli« 
UTKul miUs oT the pct)]ilc. A tnic iinprrinl goTrmint'iil, thongli for4tign 
in UumI, cutnot be consitcrcd *o foreign iu feeling aixl inurcBt to tihe 
raecii drtr whom its %vo,y may exUssd n» the ruling cn8t(T of Ilindooc 
wan to ttio castes excluded from partiei|)at)o& id ttie govcrnmciiti . . . 

The men to n'boiu Uritisb doiuiuioa ia really un object of dialUiG 
«ro tht great mm, «bo. gupfiortMl by luany fuUovr«t«, luigtit faAT6] 
bopei]. in th« •eramble for )>u«rer whieb wim Kuin^ un wlieii w« wUa' 
Uisbed our ml«. Mid which would probably still be going ou if we hMl 
not itit«rv«ii«(I, U> Imrc rcluint'd or ite«junnl sovpreigiitiet of grcntcr or 
leu extmt. But thcs« nro ni«ii whn have niA nny common piirpoM. 
Tbey mfty «ll wioh to overthrow un, but for iliflcreiit nnd iiiconastmt 
ottjccta. j\nd «T«n irib«<y bad n common purpose, their nliicatioD and 
faabits dinbic tbeni from combiniog top^tlicr for tbe ftccompliah 
of i(. Nil one of ihem desiree Ui b« the tssmiI of any other of t 
I ixJieve tbM if ercty imtive uf India wIh> vunld dreuin of atfiirinfc t« 
tbe Meptrv of «u Indiau empire w«re nslcvd wlio. iii^xt to bimidf, lie 
would conudtT mo«t Gt to c:tercU4! iinpi-rial ]Kiwvr over tbe ualivw of 
tbe penSmiula, be would onxwci', ' Qurcn Vietoriit,' if be knows liwrc is 
a Queen Victoria ; if not, ' 1'hc Knxl [tidin Cnmpiiny.' 

Tt muirt not bo forgotten either, that in Indin wc govern, not one 
iionogcDeoiic nation, but a Inrge asscnibUgo of different [nod hostile} 
natioD*. 'file Itmgali raee might, even iu the bigbe§t stage ofeiTiliu- 
tion. d«aire to be govenied by a Bengali ralln-r than by a Briiish prince. 
The Mme may lie aatd of Ibe Tamil, of Ibc Mnbrntlu, of the Huidi, of 
tbe Mojiul, and of lb« H«ikli race*. But thrrc is not tbe diadow of a 
naaon for inppoKin^ that tbn KcDgalia w<nild wiah to take tbr cbanev 
ui an imprrial Srikh or ilogul gowrmMnt pmoviog more dtantertated 
aod ]>biliiDt)kro)>ie tliaa an impnial British government." 

It is pmbabk- too that, at rcgartii* the safe and efficient 
eotDpnaitton of our native army, Indin affords ns facilities imcli 
aa 00 other couutir c\'er offer^ to its foreign conquerors ; f». 
dlitim of which the warning* and cixncricnce wc have had will 
ctiahic UH to take full H<Irantaf!;c. Wc bare to deal, not with 
one united people, but with many tmcongcnial one*; with na- 
titmH among which no comhination can be more than tem- 
ponir}- ami iiupiTfieial ; with tribeji, a large projKjrtion nf which 
are warlike, amenable to dinpipline, trained to militarj' fidelity ; 
tutd, a)>m"e all, with a variety of races differing from eaeh 
other in religion, in easte, in origin, in habits, full of mutoally 
iirimiral tmditionn, and for generations aeenstomed to make 
war upon each other, to hum «ich other's tii!ngc«, to ravage 
each oth(V8 fieldis. We have higb-eastc men, low-eante men, 
■kd men of no cn«tc at all; Mahometanx and Hindoos; Sikha, 
OboorkM, aod Mahrnttaa ; in a vonl, we bare such a vast range 
of excellent and safe materiaU to eboose atnong, that it tecmv a 
■tnnge fatality indeed tliat liaa hitherto induced us to compose 



34 



Princ^It* ofjjuiian Gortri-mtunl. 



the chief portion of our Bengal army of raen of one locality, of 
one clan, and of one castr, — and that caatc too the most trouble- 
some Diid daui^rous of all. We thiuk there can he do doubt 
that by ft judicious sclectiou frpm the rich mitvrialii ready to 
our hand, by never recruiting largely or exduaively from one 
district, by never permitting nlcait of caHtc to interfere ^th ohc- 
diencc or military dixcipline, by declining the Bcmcc of all high- 
caate men who will not .submit to this condition, by rctniuing 
the artillcrj- and the fortified places entirely in European hiuids, 
and by a variety of arrangements which praeticnl ."agncily wiU 
dietat«, hut on wliieli we cannot vcuturr to jironounee dogmati- 
cally, — sucli, probably, as reducing llie umoinil of the rej^ar 
force, and replacing it by an efficiently oi^ani^d police, and 
modifying the system of promotion both among native and 
European oiBcers, — wc may succeed in reconstituting an Indian 
army which shall at once yield ns better sen-ice, Puu^C us less 
anxiety, and involve us in less cxpcnH^, thitu that which hnn just 
broken to pieces in oiu- hands. Of one thing we f<."ei qnite con- 
vinced, — and the terrible catjutrophc wc have nitne-'ncd lias in 
no degree Kliuken our conviction, — a natwe army tee must /itnv. 
Vt'e studl need it a» a measure of security, as ncll as for the 
soke of economy. Not only are native troops better adapted to 
the climate, and able to move more rapidly than Euroivvaiw ; not 
only arc they far cheaper; not only docs their employment en- 
able us to tiaunt less offeusivclv and incessantly in the face* of 
tlie Hindoos the fact of their subjection to a foreign ei>m|Ucror; 
but their enrolment is simply necessary in order to ab*orl> llioae 
turbtdeut and adventurous spirits which alwund in every land, 
but which absolutely swiuni in » country like India, where for 
centimes predatory wwfare has been the life-long occupation of, 
all the more energetic races* 

Our jiosition in Hindostan. then, wc consider to ho one full 
of ample meanx, and golden opjiortunities, and rare facilities ; 
bat in order to develop all the»c advantages as tliey deserve, that 
imiformity &ad persislencff of politienl uction of which we have 
just spoken is especially indiR[iensahIe. It will not do to pro- 
ceed now upon the principle of maintaining, and now upon the 
principle of absorbing, the native states ; now of encoiu-;iging, 
and now of eschewing, native agency; now of humouring, and 
now of disregarding, the native prejudices. We must govern 
India by means of raen who are not only trained to the art of 
government, but mIio are guide<l by tixcd principles, and devoted 
to steady aims. Now hitlicrto, although from time to time our 
policy even in India has wavered and undergone many modi- 

* In Culi>n»1 SlmntD'a iturk (ii. p. S3) irill be fciimd ■ BtriklDg «x«npliGca- 
ttcn vid Cdifinnalion of tbvse rrnarli b. 



4 



4 



PrineipleB of Intlian Gocvrnmeni. 



SG 



I 



6cationfl, vet it bas been more nniform and scientific there than 
in any other part of our empire. And that it ha* been so ia 
owing to the taet that the {;ovcmment of India Jiaa been com- 
mitted to n Ijody, n Kort of self-elected, eontinnous, and wry 
ctannUh corporation, whollv aloof froni, and unaffected bv, the 
politics of yartw and the British pawions of the day. Till '1853, 
the East India (-■oinpanv had a dirfCt pecuniary iritere«t in the 
pood nianascnient of the vast dppeiidcncy cdiumitted to their 
ebarp^; and though since that date this motive for care and 
skill has been withdrawn, yet the old traditions have surnvcd, 
■nd tbc same system has in the maia been pursued. It is tru^ 
indeed, that lite Board of Control has all along been tltc punt- 
mount imwer, and lian 1>een able to force it« own views and orders^ 
uDon Ijeadeithall Street wheiiereradifierenec of opinion occurred. 
\et twocircum.stancca eoaIe»eedto centre tht; rt-ul aihninistratioa 
in the bauds of the directora. Practically the initiative of all 
mcosnrcs rested with Ibcm, while the Board of Ojntrol in nine- 
te«n cases out of twenty merely exercised a supervision and n 
TCto ; and again, the one board was to a great extent a eoutinu- 
0(u>, ImnH^^eocou*, and united body, while the heads at least of 
the other were perpetually ehaiig^jng with the party defeats or 
victories of the day, and were ueier the Icjiding; [wliticiana on 
either side. But much inconvenience has revolted from this 
double Kovcmment ; many mistaken have been committed ; much 
RSponaibility has been unrighteoiiMy and niiKchievou>>ly evaded; 
ana now that India has beromo the prominent ()aestiou of the 
day, it ia certain that the old arrajigement will no longer he 
snlKnrcd to coutinne. India must henceforth be governed by a 
ministciia] department, like our other dependencies, and be 
brought under the more direct control of Piiriiiiment; and it 
cannot be denied tiiat much utiea*ineii» is felt at the prospect, 
and that thia uneasiness is not without fouiulation.* 

It is unquestionably true that the coiistituenriea of Eu^^andj 
howcTcr competent to deal with litiglish ciuestioiis and to legis- 
late for Knglish people, are at present deplorably disqualified for 
direciing or iuspiring the management of ail'aii's in u peculiar 

* It would be u^ott uiil iingraclnuii lo omit IhEx oppnrttmilyor r»cordin|[ nor 
cmricUoB Uial tliaD>iap«iiy'* cuTRmnnmi if I mil* hiu nut (mljr bvi-o (ar *ii|>«rlor . 
lo tib*4 OtXtit (Buihsr ciinlrj oivr My uX bi-r vtbT <lfp«nil*nui««. Iiut iliM for t ' 
iomg pstiud, and u ■ •-bul*. t( hsc bem wlie, liKhteoui, and brnefiopnt in • ran 
Attna. Hi. Mill, «na or tb« Mvcreit critiu of tint baij. boara in bia Ytixwrj 
the faUowioK itriking leitimonjr U> Its Dcrili: " DK'liovi' it nill be found (bat lb* 
Caniwar. dariait th* p«riod ofUicir invrrclinKy. baic dine mniv in licbalf uf 
\htAt laqtcu, M** abown inoT* good-will ton ardt ihcni. hai-r titoma Ivu uf « 
•«Uiali ■Itarmiml la mUchlBraiMpoirmlnc^cfi] in their trwn banda. hoic diaplaj-ed 
■ mam (•ncrona vmIcoid* \a tdiamM of iRiprowiiiHiit, and ar* mc-rc nillmj m ' 
aiknl loBprfrtoMOl*, not only tbao any otlii^r (Ovirviun oxbtlDK in tho aaina 
pitwd, but llian all otbtr nivi'mgiit takon tugrth«r on ue fi(M «f tbo globt." 



SG 



Principles of Indian Goremmftti. 



dcpcndencT like Hindostan. TTicy arc dotibly dijtqnaliftcd : by 
tempiTamcnt nnil b^ iipioratiL-f! ; and again, by unconncioiDtttcKs i^ 
the i>rrih of tliat tcmiwraniMit and tbo ilqjtb aiid ranp,- of that 
igrioranci-. It i» trnc, likpwiw;, that tlie narrow and |>i^-)ieaded 
fanaticism of our middle clasaes would be fraught with terrible 
dan^r if brought to b<^r directly upon ludian politics. \Vc may 
well tremble at the idea of an infLammable Hindoo and Mossol* 
mail population of a bundnxl and fifty nidlion^ fron-mnl &oni 
the hustinpi and from Exeter Hall, — of the livra of oiir handful 
of countnincn. and tlie intt-Tcsts and ft-ciings of our myriada 
of Oriental f«tihjcct», at the mercy of Iliv varying caprices of 
the lcn-}K>undi.rr!', or tbo obstinate and impatient bigotry of 
the Hainta. Iti imagination, no doubt, the proapect seems (idl 
enough of possible dangers : in practical rwult, however, we 
may feel confident that moat of these danger will bo wholly 
Bwrted. or vastly mitigated. 1>t the in(»(isistcnt and illogical good 
ncnue which rescues our nation from the eoiiM'f[Uence» of «j many 
httmders. In tlie firtt place, India will now become a tofiic of 
national and parliamvutary iiittnist, which it haa naver been 
before Indian debntCK will fill the House instead of emptying 
it. Kvery point connected with that wonderful peninsula will be 
discussed, studied, investigated, controverted- Klectiou specdwa 
will l»c full of nothing else. The press will tocm « ith nrtides, 
of^n brimming with ignorance and folly ; often also, however, 
rich with thorough knowledge and matured cxpcrienra'. Awhole 
aeaiiion, in both Houses, wdl Ix- dcvotvd to this absorbing question. 
Alen'a iilciut wiU be gradually cleared ; public opinion will bccMne 
rapidly enUghtcncd ; and in the ewintc of a year or two m dis- 
tinot nalional policy will have lieeii foniied on all the maiii priiu- 
ci]Jes at issue. India will become, perhajis, to a crrtaiu extent 
a paoiy subject; but tbe party diflerenccs will turn only on rainor 
puiiit.s. In the second place, the importance which Indian quea- 
tiona will henceforth assume will iusm% tliat the Vrcsident of the 
Board of Control — the MrNisTKu roa India* that is, whatever 
may be hii< future title—Khali la.- st.'^lcctcd from among the moat 
able and eminent statesmen of bis party ; not, a» hitherto, fma 
the most unmarkeil onca. Tlii* of itself will ofTord a vast 
rity. Thirdtii, the govenimciil of India banng become both 
cabinet and a parliamentary rjiiestion, all important roeasum, 
eapcctally if in the slightest degree involving a change of |M)iey, 
will not be decided nearly as much as heretofore by the individaal 

• Wc bsrc urrrallj avoldod throTi;t'i<"it IhU aiilirk enwrini; into w^y 9MaiM 
filans or >nf;i^(ion*i hui it will doi.nri'i- mnaliliiritiiiin whether ih» mlntatw 
■bouM nut bo •'■istsd hj' a cnunctl cr (I'mpoti^iit *dviH-r> ft te%aa\ lodtm 9Xf»- 
ricarr. »tu\ wlinhfr ihf a*w iitini»l»ri»l dirparlnipiil ihi^M not he to ot^jAu/A 
•1 Id lnelii<tii >nni« Of iIm iblut ofliciali of lbs mintiog dtiwlorEal b(»td 
Lsidvnbali titreel. 



nma . 

3thi^^ 



Priwiptet of Indian Government. 



97 



tninistrr at tbt> heafl of tliat (l<?(xiiimei)t, hiit will hare lo undergo 
Uic ordeal of ranch jn-cvioiis disoijisiou ; *tn llint creii wilfui and 
wlf-coulideDt men like Ijord Ettenborou^h will scarcely venture 
to intlidgc tlicir idiof^i-nnrttsics offanerorof temper as they mjffht 
hnw done of yore. Moments of Bpecial peril, no doubt, msy still 
aivc when ii ohnnso of ministry hI home hap|)cn« to gynchronijc 
with a crilirjil iKwilioii ()f diiilfjmaryor war in India; but Kimilar 
conjuiictiirfft ooo«r iu (ho ca.'* of onr fyrcigii relations ; and wc 
miut ho()e that thp name reapeet for an inaugurated policy wliioh 
withholds contradictory despatcbca in tlie ouc ca9«, may prniliide 
Aem also in the other, lint, /o»rM/y, one of our Kreatest se- 
curities will arise from the circiinutancc tb^t, practicallv, hence- 
forth a? hitherto, nearly all measures of aerial administration, 
and tnCRt lrgi«UtiTC measures also, will oH^nale nilh the £xe- 
cntivt Crovcmrncnt at Calctitta. llaity proecedinfr*, and more 
partieiilarly hasty changea, will by tliiK mcan» he avoided. Prin- 
cipks will lie <ipcided at liomc ; m;;;^^tiona even may gn out 
fipom home ; but nearly every tbin^ done or pn^tosed will be 
initiated in India, will undergo full eon^ideratioa hf experienced 
politicians there, and will be referred homo for appTOral and con- 
firmation, aecnnipanicd by all the ai^umcnts, for or against, 
which haic iKtn brought forward at the local seat of fpivem- 
ncnt, Finaily, — and oii this Mtfeguard we place p^at rrliance, 
—there is an extraordinary re^errc-fund of pood sense both ia 
the ronslituencies and in Parliament, which comes into operation 
on all occasions of Keriona danger, kwl rt^trains even Iho mo^t 
Tenement politicians from pennatiiig in extremt^ viewK. Few 
Bnslulimen, howe\(T positiiT, will jmsh forwanl their plans or 
notHMM in the face of alarminj; wamin^H and national possihili- 
ties of evil. We are ready enough at times to play with a barrel 
I of pinrdcr — Bcaroely witli a magaxine. 

We tnnst now turn from qiinttiomt of |>o1iticnl administration 
•o oewader the principles which shonld (;iiide onr management of 
Udia in matter* connected with religion and moraUty : and there 
<n be no nilt^eet of f;rarcr or more critical importance. ^Ve, a 
tNtiUa] of enlightened Europeans, live amon^, and are called lo 
|t*cni, millions of subjects whose religion \* not only utterly at 
Wiuice with our own, bat is at tbc same time mizrd up with 
Atirikily bfc to a degree recorded of no other people. Under 
S|6e eircnmstauce^, tnhnition — alwayi' a dictate of jiwtice and 
"•doia— beeomcs a dictat*' of prudence and nea-ssity likewise. 
Bnttolnnition, aw it h&t its foundation in sound seniie and sound 
■Mality, hna ita limits marked out by them aUo. Wc mnst in 
•II ttrti^ to act aa neither to insult the laitb of onr Mihjeets ata 
to dishonour onr own. Wc mast interfere with it only wIktc it 



2ft 



Principles of Indian Gocemment. 



doakl or commands crime, or outrages fmidamcnUl moralitj", 
or ofTeni an iusupcrablc oIkIikIc to the progress of nec&tsary 
civiliNatioii. We ciinnot MUflV-r infnnticidv to be pnuJtbed, or 
humau sarrificen to tx; offered, or electric telegtaphs to 1>c for- 
biddoQ or destroyed, in the uiune of any god, or in dcfd'cucc to 
the prejudices of any sect; but sj)art fifora such matters, wr arc 
bound to let every religion have perfect freedom of worslup nod 
of nctiou. As to questions of decency, vc must benr in mind 
that tliene an^' to n great extent conventional ; nud that the ideas 
ofiiurityand impuritj uc xcry difTcreat in the European and 
the Asiatic mind. A* to tiucstioii!t of jircxtelyttitm, our course 
seems veirj clear. We sliouhl allow full liberty oi prfoehtng 
to Brahmin, Mussulman, or ("hristian mi^^ionmy ; but stcmly] 
refuse to employ or to permit the slightest exercise aSit^itence^ 
whether by favour or disfavour. 

And first, let va do full justice to the tenacious gn^p nhicli 
religious feeling*, such as they mw, hold over ihe native mind. 
Their /di'M thaineA ours. The creeil of the Hindonjt h a Hltby and 
degrading anperstiliou, indicating a low intelligence, bieatliiii^ 
a k»w morality; but such as it is, thcr bcliere it, cling to i^ and 
obey its ordinances, with au undoubting conviction and n simple 
devotion, which we, the pupils of n better teaching aii<l the \o- 
taricH of a nobler creed, may indeed envy, luid should do well, 
to imitiite. If there had been any reason for (piCKtioning this,' 
the whole delaiiii of the mutiny would wiffice to prow it. Of all 
the thouRandn of nativcn who have liecn t>hot, bunz, or blown 
irom guns, for their share in the revolt and iU attendant crimes, 
not one has entertained the faintest shadow of a doubt that hej 
VMS dyinp; for {deen) bis religion, and would go straight to para-j 
disc: scarcely one has flinched, or prayed for mercy; all liavej 
believed that they were martyrs and certain of the martyr**! 
crown. For fanaticism »<) genuine and »u deep as theirs dcatli| 
has no ten-ora. Such fanaticism it i» at onoe unsafe and foolish ' 
to provoke. It cau be conquered by no violenoe, and can be 
undermined only by the slow process of indirect enlightenment. 
People in England find it hard to believe that the greased rart-l 
ridge was really the immediate cause of the revolt. People laj 
India kniiw better. Tinny arc well aware that while ambitioal 
and intri^e are ever at work to arouse and turn to use the reU-J 
gions excitability of the Hindoo, that excitability ts a permanent' 
and a roost formidable reality. How sucli a wide-spread and 
sudden panic should have arisen from so slight a cause, the fol* 
lowing remarks by " ludophilus" may serve to explain : 

"HiodooismaDdMAUiiiuL-tiiuiiin, etpccully the former, nro rdigions] 
not ofratioRiiI coari^^liun. Lmt uf mcttUt and drink* and outward ol 
■ervanocs. The religion of a Hindoo may thcrcfoTC ' be token awaj 



Priiteiples of Indian Gommmirnl. S9 

tnax him lijr foroe or cr*fl, vithout any voluntary Action on his part. 
Then: nrc lnrg« cnniiiinnitira of Maliomctans in India wliosc anceston 
verv Hindoos ; and if you inquire iuto Uieir religious Uislory, tbey UU 
you tltat Auriugsd>% or Bome o^er poteuUt«, 'made tbetn' Ifaho-. 
mcUtu. Tb« procest was a very aSuple one. Tlwir Biudooiam was 
put offby Mahometans eatiug witli tUvm ; tbcir .MuboiuutauiKin won put 
OQ by tbe symbol ofuliniaaion to tli« ^Litli which the Uahoni^tjuia 
have ia coniinuu witii the Jews. Pouring cow'« blood down the throat ' 
waa rewrved for »])ccial oiuo of recusancy. On the otlier hand, tbft 
undeim bea«t ix tJic nbomiiincioD of the Maliomctans m of the Jews ; 
and the feeling is heightened by tlie associations of caste which the Ma- 
botnctna tniaority in India hare contracted from the Uindoo majority. 
To bite a cartridge crcaMid with cow*t or [>ig*i4 fat was, ihtrcfore, mora 
to Hindoos and Manoinetans than «iitin-; pork to a Jew, spitting ou 
tfae Host to a lloman Catholic, or traiiiiitiug oo the Croas to a IVo- 
teBtMit" 



In sayiug that wc mnst Bcrujniloaslj' abstain from outnging 
tbe religious or <:]i«le notions of tbv ntttivc-*, when not compcUeu 
to do so by paramount coDt>idcrutionK of public morality or public 
tafctv, wc by uo means ii'i»li to iiinintiatv that wc have been in 
the habit of offending in this raautier. On the contrary, in 
former times wc have erred in the opposite estrcrac. Wo hare 
delerrcd too much and too dcgradingly to native auprr»titioiis. 
We have done dishonour to our own faith ; and, as might be an- 
ticipatcil, haTB giuncd no credit by so doing. Europeans vciy 
generally girc to Asiatics the impression that they arc an irrc- 
Sgioufl race; and, compaml with themselves, tin-re is itome truth 
in tbe belief. It ia true that our rt^Iigion, like our nature, is less 
d^MDonstiatiTe and more retiring — more saered, and therefore 
more hidden — than that of Orientals, and that we have a great 
deal more faith and feeling on these sabjecta than wc care to 
shuw ; but it must be admitted tliut, as a rule, our rclifpon is 
both less {)erradin^. less intense, lets firmly held, less proudly 
and opt-uly avowed, than that of Knxtcni nations. Now to 
ordinary .\iiiatic, (lie apparent want of religion in hi» Enropea]L| 
masters excites l>oth amaxcmeiit and ilingu-it. Of real liberalityl 
ill such matters they have little comprrliension ; and the defer- 
enee which of yore wo paid to their idolatry tiicy interpreted into 
iDiliffcrcnec to our own creed. It is important that in future our 
conduct should be inch as systematiealfy to correct this detnsion. i 
All unworthy oomplianoes, all couutcuanee to idolatrous eere-^ 
muiticH, should be (aji, indeed, wc btdieve they an-) consistently 
at uidixl and forbi<lden. Wt: 9>hould act as nu-n who, while willing 
to respect and tolerate tltc reli^ioun eonvietions of a "weaker 
brother'' and a fellow-citixcn of equal rights, yet feel the immeo- 
ssrable SDperiority of our ou-n asiurcd bdid'. Thus only shall 



90 



PrindpUf of Indian Gotcnmtent. 



we •eoiue llieir rvH[)ect to oiur cli«»cter auil our fiiitli : — grare 
deferoiKe to their cl)il(li»li etiquettes, offeiiu]^ aud oorm-Mttonx 
to their uutjr &lih»ea, excite ouly coutcmpt ; they see throu|^h 
the hollow aham, and deepisc the uiimauly iiouspdw. 

llieii as to missioimiY c&brts : it is n fftvat mistake to fanrf 
that the natives of llindosUn, uipecially the more iutclli^mt 
among t)>cm, look with anrdrmd or dislike upon our wcll-im-Biit 
nttemptn at their concrrsion — ^luiug that word, in its proper and 
£iiru[ioui seusc, to Mignil}- ehangc of conrietton by aiguiueut 
aiul )ierMua«ioa. What they fear i», not preae)iin|;, hut gorerit- 
meot influence aud force. IMigious coutroveny they ratlier 
enjoy; they liavc a decided pleasure ia grsreJUug the holy men 
who come out to ioGtruct and euuvincc them; they an: amused 
at their impotent licncvoleucc, and foel, or fancy, ihat tbcr aro 
more than a niateli for nino-tenth» of the niissionary body. If 
tliere in-rv ariy duiiht on tins Iiciiil, it would be rcuiovcHl by a 
\'ery reiuurkabie speech dclivcnvl by a cultitate^d Hindoo at a 
meeting uf a native association at Calcutta, who, in oomnientiiig 
on Lord Klleiit>ornu^h'ii attack unou the govcmtH'-^Rerai for 
hsnnj; subscribed to missionary efforts, declared that, while th^ 
rcspcvted the mission arica mudi, they had not the sli{;htcat fear 
of them, nor obje«:tion to the utmost latitude of spiifch nhicli 
could be |{iveii them, ko long im Lord Ciuiuing in hv! t/gicial 
capaoiji lent them no .-'ini^ter aid. It would Ik monstrous 
indeed, if, white we alluwotl the I^IiiRsulman and the Iliadoo 
prieat to preach, and cont crt, and proselytiw at pleasure, ire vcre 
to deny a uinilar right to tlie prii^t of our own religion. I' 
could not 1)0 done; it ought not to he done; it need not lie done 
We have no idea ttiat luisbionaries will do any harm in India; 
neither have we any idea that they will do mucli good. Bjr 
exliibitmg examples of a pure life, and by disscmiaatio*; useful 
infonnation arouud tlicm, they may, iudeed, be indirectly ser- 
viceable to the cause of morality and truth. But in the matter 
of conversion — i.e. of iiulucing the natives to abandon Hindoo* 
ism and embrace Christianity — we do iu>t niilicipute, nor, to ««y 
tl>e truth, do we much deniri^, iiuy very rapid n'.-mlt from their 
exertions, it is time to agieak plainly on this subject. Nations 
may be spiritually aud intellectusilly elevated out of heatlieuiam 
aud savage iguurtut atheism; hut in general only by the slowest 
and most circuitous process can one elaborate form of reh^oo 
be BulMtituted for anotlter long establisliod and rooted in all the 
popular fillings and trudition*. Among u eirilLsed people, those 
who arc willing tu exchange the faith of tlirir furefathcrs for that 
of strangerA are usually the veiy dregs of the pupulutioii. This 
is notoriously the ease in IIin^»taa. Those who by moral or 
intellectual reasoning aitd research )>ccome convinced of the error 



4 






Principies of Indian Govemwenl. 



31 



I 



of their old religion, aud tbc inlrinxic tnith of that which is 
offered thrm instead, are at all times iocalculably rare and few. 
Errrv thinker iritose mind has sufficient pbilo60|iliy in its eom- 
poaition to uiidcrstaud how much oi attumptiou aod hcnxlitaiy 
inuatc pnrjtidice Ucs ut the root of all croc<L».. will be coDBcioiu 
that thin must be so. Tlieo, again, — and this it i» [KsnUiarly tm> 
portaut to Ixnr in mind, —every Tvligioii purtnki> to »ome extont 
of the character of tlie soil in which it iit sown. It ii> pure or 
impure, iioblo or d^radin;s;, an clevati^l faith or an abject !iu)ier- 
stitton, just according to the nature oftlie men who adopt or 
profess it. Xf by some stroug act of force, or by some command 
from authority, or some external oontri^-ancc, the whole of iiin- 
dostan could l>c brought to declare iti^ctf Chn»tiaii, and to be 
baptised, whiit would have l>rcn gained by the iioniiual cliaugu'f 
Wonld the native miud have l»eii metJkatuqiliused by the ter- 
gliTcnation? Wlierfin would the iteit Mipi'r>li(ioii ditTer bom 
tbe old? The old iterance, the old im]iurittct, ttvc old seiue- 
leM fanaticism, the old low morality, would still exist in the arti- 
ficial convert ; and would be simply imported by him into his new 
creed, instead of bcii^; eradicated by it. Let those who doubt 
this look at Europe nod look at bistor)'. Christianity, we all 
feti, i« a pure, a noble, a mild, a rational, un ek-vnting faith, 
aoceplohle to the fiiicnt minds, titt>Hl to nu»e miiu u> the ^raiidcHt 
:ntH. Is it Kueh among all natioiisV lias it been oneh at all 
In what nation aitd in what age do we fukd it »»ch? 
'AU Europe \s ('hriittiaii : all Htirnpe was ('hrintian in the middle 
A^ea. Compare, then, tbe (Christianity of ICnsIaiMl with the 
Christianity of Rui«ia or of Spain. Compare the Christianity 
of Fciiclon and Hooker with the Christianity of Cortcz or of 
Uonner, of Philij) or of W\a. Compare the Cliristianity of 
A\'c»ley with the Clunstianity which ex^presj*cd itself in the Ma»- 
sanc of St. Bartholomew. Ko, it is useless to {lOur new wine 
into old bottlcH ; the bottles will bunt, and the wine be spilled. 
If you wish to plant in Hindootaii aiiy genuine Cliristianitv, you 
mitit be eoiitmit to [trepitre the soil hy the pdnful and judicious 
bfttbaadrr nf -fincnitiona. It \» only men of much ei^oiism, as 
of little faith, who are in a mischievous and ineffective hurry 
lo proipBKatc the Word. God has an eternity before llini for 
tbe accomplishment of llis purposes; they nercr fail, and ore 
never imperfectly performed. \Vc arc hasty aud impetuous, 
beoBoae we have oidy "this narrow sand and shoal of Time" 
whereon to work — hccau.-tc we mim to fw the harvest a» wdl 
a> to sow the seed — becan.■^■ too olicn, aluo, we nre anxious to 
iaflCribe our names ujion the mid' which we cast into tlie tiru- 
mof of the Moat Ui^. "La Proviileitce («ays Ouixut) a ses 
dans Ic temps: die ne s'inquictc pas dc tirer aujourd'hiu 



32 



Prawipla of Indian GovfrmueHl. 



la cons^ioence du priixape qo'elle a poee bier ; die U tirera i 
det nvdeii, qnand I'lieure aen vcDoe; maa pour raisoDner lente- 
ment selon noos, sa logiqoe n'cst pas moins sure." 

In this case, as in most others, the fain-at and mo«t righteous 
mode of attainiiig our end Ls also the »pc«di«t, the surest, and 
the safest. Wc arc bound to girc to the inhabitants of In^ 
the best nivication, direct aiid indirect, tliat circunurtance* per- 
mit, and that t)icir nature will enable them to receire. Vie are 
bound, >o far as may be, to make them participators in our 
knowledge, to open to them tbe sciences and discorcrics of Ko- 
rope, and, in the way of ascertained facts, to teach them no 
exrot, and as much truth as we can. In a word, wc arc bound to 
extend and improrc the secular instruction of all classes among 
them. Wc bare accepted this rc^ponnbility, and prepared to 
act upon it. We have eatablislted univcnuties at the tliree pre- 
sideiieic», where the Kii^UhK language and English scienoea arc 
taught; and ve have catabli&hed scliools and inspectors of echoola 
all over our dominions. Tbe system as yet is ncir, and of coai«e 
partial and imperfect; but its opcratloD is steadily c:itaidiag, 
and will soon bear fruit. Tlic Hindoo systems of religion and of 
caste are so blended witli error and ignorance on plivMCul mat- 
tcra, that a purely »cieutific and aecular education in the most 
formidable enemy wc can send into tbe field agaiii»t ilietn. lu 
Lower liengal it has already jirovcd so. By the time we hare 
fikirly imbued two gcncratioua of Hindoos with sound notions of 
geography, astronomy, and chemistry; when for a few years we 
have explained to than the operation of the electric telegraph ; 
when for half a. century we have rattled them across the coontiy 
on the railwny at the rate of thirty miles an hour, and ahahen 
Bnihmin and I'lU'iah together in the same car, — we »hall bare 
effeetually uudtfrmined the foundations of their own creed, and 
produced that intermediate period of scejitioism which is oftcQ, 
though not always, the necessary step towards tlie introductic 
of a purer fiuth. Throughout a considerable portion of Lowe 
Bengal, by the instrumentality of our schools and intcrcoi 
with us, this stage has been produced already. iVll that ia aat- 
bitious and saccnlottd nmung the higher class of natives sees thii 
menadng result, and will move heaven and earth to hinder it 
But if we simply persevere, ahmtdn from the slightest attack ■ 
or disrespect towards, their beliefs, hut continue quietly to 
those dry scientific facta with which their beliefs eaJinot co-czis 
we ahall have secured at no distant day an object really worth : 
struggle — tlic formation, that is, of a national intellect, in whiel 
a pure and nut a G»pcntitioiL% » genuine and not a nominal, s 
deep and not a superficial, Clu-Istiuuity can more easily take root 
and flourish. 



Prineipiet of Indian GovemnteRt. 



88 



Ttro aucstiona of considerable difficulty remain, nn neither 
of irLich do wv feci disposed to dogiDstiso, — the question of na- 
tive and Eurojjfaii eqiiuiity before- the hin*; and the question of 
the empluyint-ut uf native u^cDcy in thv more isiportiuit func- 
tiona of admiiiUtnitioii. 

Ou the iimt of these U>|)iea there U a good deal to be Miid ou 
both Hides. As long as no Kn^lishman apjieaivd or resided in 
India, except the di-il and mditary cmpUn/^s of the ('ouipanv, it 
wan poitifiblc and reasonable cuough to treat them all aa belong- 
injc to ihu dominant race, and entitled to special privileges and 
exeinjHioiia. Tlicy wcit: iJI in fact riders; and as such, could 
with no proprietv he MibjccU'd tu the juriNtlieltDn of, or cveu 
placed on a mere level witlt, the ruled. In the cireuiUKtuno^-- too, I 
that tbcy vcrc all the agents and servants of the Hovercigii 
authority, could be found a certain sc<nirity a£;ainat the abuse 
of this poculiar and privilcgefl position. They were at any time 
liable to di]tnii«:>al and pnni^hintMit for any nuK^undiii^ or oppres- 
sion. Kut «ltc» the exolii--<ivi; rights of the Eiu>t [nilia Cuinpuny 
were broken down ; when thouHantU of Kuropeaim tloeknl tu In- 
dia for the sole purj>ose of ninking money by industry or eom- 
tnercp; when many of these were wlventurcrs of low habits and 
violent tvmpcn aud scandalous pretensions, over whom the au- 
thorities retained no summary or despotic power, — it is evident 
tliat to enetiipt such men from the jurisdiction of the native 
oourt«, or from enforced compltance with native nj^hts and eus- 
tomi (where BritiHli courts of juitiee are so few and fiu" between), 
would liave been to iiuiue to them a letti^r of liceiiHe for unlimited 
iniquity and oppression. They ncrc voluntary visitors or set- 
tlers, and as such, could not complain of being subject to the 
conditions of tlie community to which they went, Moreover, 
their iiunibcm have Ix-eii always snnill. The entire number of 
plaoten, mcrehanL*, seltliTS, and niiofTie'ial Eiiwpwms of all 
elame«, does nut exeec<l ten lliouiaiul in the whole of India. On 
the other hand, there can be no doubt that in a country where 
our safety spends so entirely ou our moral Inlluence — on the 
impression fixod in the native mind of the inherent superiority 
of the Eurojieau race — it would Imvc bccu most desii-able, had it 
been ]xissible, to uphold this ^^nperiority, and rivet this impres> 
sioo, by ulmtatning from ever phK-ing an KngHshnum In anv cir- 
comfttanee or manuer under a Hindoo. But we apprchenti that 
the practicability of maintaining tliis rule willi any deceney or 
jnatice was destrovcd when tree emigration to Ilindostan wan 
first permitted, 'fhc mistake, if it be one, was made in 1833. 
It is natural also, though perhaps not very reasonable, that the 
iiulcpendcut European residents iti the inteiior should be angrA' 
at the pritilegca conceded, in defcreucc to their n'ligion, carte i 

I 




DOtions, and Iiercditary ranV, to twrlaiii native families 

clfiues,*— privilegeft irkicli, an KiigltMlimeii, tlicy do not aluDB' 
simply because tlier bavc iKit the sniallc!<t traditional claim to 
Ihpin. Pinallr, wc can lanjcly t.ympalbisc witli the indipiaticn 
of EiiglUh rcsi(ieiiti5 mid nuTchimts at fiiidiuR tlicnisclrc* com- 
pelled to plend in civil iiinltcnt Ix-foro native jiuijiij', wlio often 
really do Itntc ihom and wi»li to drive (lu'in out of tlie country, 
and vrho arc always Kiipiioard to do »» ; and in coiirta vbcrc it is 
Rotonoiis (and must be aToned uitb grief) that no justice can be 
obtained except by the most extensile aisd ^sicmatic bribor, 
applied to judges, officers, and witnesses alike. And we cau well 
undcrstaitd that the tendency of this ^^^-m will be to diiieoiintge 
tlw better and nion; higli-niiiideil ctaM of men from C!<tali)iHhiiig 
thcmiielwit in Tiulia, and to confute tlie rcMdcnta and planters 
to a more reckless and unscnipulciuti set, who will combat the 
uativea-witb native weapons, and do much to de^^de and di*- 
hononr the Eu|;Ush cbaract«' in native estimatioiL Still, ire 
coufett, ire do not at present see our way ont of the dilemma. 

The other question, — us to the employment of natire agency 
in influential and responsible departmrnts, — *cems> to he vcir 
much one of degree, expericune, and time. It in one in which 
the actual administration of the hour mwst feel its way. Few 
thoughtful or competent men will be inclined to lay down noy 
fixed or general rulea upon tJie auhicct The Hindoo character, 
with some esecUent qualities and capabilities, posfcwes also 
mauy deplorable and deeply-rooted defects. A lielter or more 
oret'id e»limBte of both cannot be fomul any nhcre tl.:ii:i thni 
givcu by ElphinDtune in the eleventh chapter of his Uiitory; 
and his description applies 'hough not in an equal degree, to 
those natives who retain their old faith aitd easte, as well as lo 
those who hare been converted to the purer creed of Maliomct, 
They arc usually amiable when their fierce or fanatical piucior.* 
are not aronsnl ; they have strong and tenacious family affec- 
tions are ci^>al)Ie of much U-iidtTnc^s, and are !>n.-ee|itible to 
kindnettii; and thotigh inditknl and timid, prefer deiith to what 
thev deem dishonour; and, when ineritable. will eueoiintcr it 
with a calm and unostentatious stoiciMii worthy of all admira- 
tion. These arc noble qualities, of which it would »cem much 
might be made. But a vicious religion and a wretched educa- 
tion have perverted and nearly neutralised them all. Their no- 
tions of dishonour are strangely pneriie and conventional; their 
entire mwality ix low and uorhlly; they have little regard for 
jiutice, and no regard for truth; in nil judicial matters they arc 

* i!«nMi nallTR flunilii'i of nek ar* cxvnqiWi) rroni •f^pirirf; prrteaaOjr ta 
CDort. bvcaiiM luch a[>{iutmncc, accMdlag lo tbelr ewtc nooiiii, nould b*ltk* 




Princifites of Indian Governmnt. 



35 




im 

fur 
wi; 

r 



fa\*c. rapaciotu, and corrupt, to an almost incredible dcprre; 
and tli«y scvm utterly dcroid of consideration for the ris;lits of 
inreriorrt and of a itensc of public duty. Even >Ir. Cameron, 
who goeo further thun «ny other writer in his c-^tinintc of what 
people may become, and ought to be made, tmyn : 

"The judge* of all dradoi ahoulil bi» indixcrimmntirly European and 
ttJvc ; l>ut tliiH i.i a state of tliiti;;;:!> wbii:li ran an\\ hv. ^^\l\^ta\w\\^^A Xvr 
aih! by nioaiu of tlie liif;)icst riliii'ntinii. 1 mil nnt at all Hure 
that W(! hxxc niA (fonc too far in the nfliciai cmplnynirnt of native* 
without prcpwinu them hy Kiirnpcun training. . . . My anxiety for tlio 
imprortriticnt of the natirrJ! of Inilin does not blind mo to the marked 
iaiinctions which exist between thcni in. Ih^r frr^mid riwml eotuHittm 
J tlitiT Enropean governors ; and I think it hi;,'lily ini|)iirtaDt that 
ui^b didliuctaoDS should not be iic^'leeted tu oou-itrucliu;,' institutions 
fur our EasbntD postessiona. 1 would not. for eiaingile, trust a uutive 
with |H>urcT over hi< eouatryiaeu in auy euite in wliidi pecuniary eon* 
sitlcrationi do not prevent the enijiloymcnt uf a I\tiri>pvaii. Their 
icnl contempt for the rij^htjt of inferior*, and the ahmniniihle apirit 
cmIc, raider tlicin very unuif<! do[ioKitaries of nich n trunt." 

Wc have, we confctu, a v«ry strong conviction of the utter 
unfitness of the unlive HiudooN at prvxtnt for any of tbp higher 
fnnctious of :ulmiiii.-<trittion ; and we wj^ili it wert- jWMible to 
lupcriHTcle tliem more completely than we have done. That in 
:C course of time, and by iK-duioti.i rare in their eilueation, thfly 
vt become lit to asaist tin in governing their country, wc hope 
.oabeliexe; but such is their actual inferiority (moral rather than 
tcUcctual) that wc can only retain this hope and faith by con- 
stant com|>arison of Eu-jiislimcn now with their aiici'storH in the 
dark a^s. That our nio^t ciitTfrotic cserlions •houhl be directed 
toruvU prvpariii(r the nativi-n for higher aiul more responsible 
{csitions than they can at prcacut occupy with safety, does not, 
wc think, admit of a doubt. Nor do we fear that the permanence 
of our Indian empire will he cndanp;crcd thcrcljy, l»ng before 
mive agency can be bo widely employed as to In; dangerous, t3tc 
natire character must have hi-cn so fur modified a" to render it 
•KuTc By that time the blowinga of onr rule will have Iweome 
M «i(!>'ly i>(.«n and .-u) fully e.'ttid>li!i|ie<l, that no native intelli^nt 
enooj^ lo lie eniploye<l by a* will wish to overthrow us. But 
wethtnk it ahould he our rule, only to advance to plaecs of au< 
t^tr and intlucneo ench of the Hindoos as have received a 
Sornjtoan education, have imbibed Eurojican notions of morality, 
Iwt lived enough amou^ l-'uropeaus to have licconic inipn-gnntrti 
Willi iliat wnsc of pnhiic <iuty without uhieh no man eau lie fit 
*• goreru other*, — auch, in a word, aa without having been 
tlvoim altogether out of liarninny with their countr^'mcn, ahsll 
btiv become c^ualifted to guide aiut to contixd thorn. Even nov 



86 



Principle* of Indian Government. 



the ableat, purest, wealthiest, and most sagacious of the Ilmdoas 
arc conscious that the ovenbrow of our rule would not only be 
tlurir ruin, but would be the greatest conccii*]tl)lv tai^furtuttc that 
cotild btrfidl their couutrr. It rests with ottnclrcs to to net, that 
all vrboiu wc in lime have tniincd to aid u», — all, in a won), 
wIiobc clianicter, under any re/fime, would mark them out 
iuflucncG and ftvray, — kIioII entertain the same ccniTiction. By 
" time," however, we mcau not a few years only, bat more pro- 
bably a few ^cDcrations. National pccubajitics ore not :>pocxlily 
effaced ; nor arc national vices to be eradicated by any viiiniiiarT 
pnXNSe. McuDwhilc wc recommend to our readers the following 
wise HUggestioiis : 

"It it no with t^mint to dire^ th* amBition t^tha nativa uJdg to 
iffflciai diftinelion; but you cannot exclude men From lulmitiiiiutring 
the aSairs of Ibeir own couutrj* withriut stigmatuiDg and dtM\>iira^'iig 
tbem. In addremini; tti« studeata of these univvnicies eight years ago, 
I aaid to tbem, ' Du uut iiuagiue that the sole or the uaio use of a 
liberal education h to fit j-ouraolvus fur tlic public service ; or rallier, 
do not ima^ue Ibnt the jmblic can only Iw served by lUe performaDGe 
of duticM in the offices uf guvcrnintuu' I uni <iuite rt-adj' to refient 
that ndmnitition. I KtmuK'y <l<^irc U> Hec tlic Dutive juutU diitinguiiA 
thcnuctrcM iti all linnoimliU ways ; but I tnurc Ktrongly dcnnj that 
oar college* should »end forth xemiiiiliirii ca]ial>]c of improving their 
«WD cetalcti and the condition of their ryots ; natural philosophers 
capable of collecting and utilising the vast store of iiudiscovend Cut) 
contained in the soil, cliiuuto, and jiruductioDB of their couutrj ; moral 
pbiloaopbera eapahlu of studyiug Uie [)eculiaritits of the ludiau not*, 
and of dircutiiij; tbuni, by elotiueiit exhortation, to virtue luid hnp])I 
DCM, tliai) tliut thne collese* nhould be Uuni«S of vminent juitge« 
Collcctoni'* {C'amenm't Aiiirti*, p. 153). 

Wc have left ourselves no space for lengthcvicd comment on 
any of the works whose titles wc have placed nt the head of tlus 
article. Nor Is it, [jcrhaps, neeessaiy. Wc may say, however, 
tliat no on« ciin carefully atudy all tlio«e woritu without attainv 
a very fair acfiuaintaiice with luditiu interests and the Tn< 
character. The able and judicious paiuphbt of Mr. Cam 
we have referred to more than once in the course of our remarks. 
The Lellerx of Imluphilua iirc believed to proceed from a gentle- 
man who once held a rei«|]onsilik- position lu India, and now 61ht 
one still more important in tiiin country, and they display an 
unusual iutimacry with the whole auhject. The Dnpatch on 
Education givei a full account of the new plana puratieil in India, 
and inaugurated, wc Iwlicvc, by Sir Charles Wood while at the 
Board of Control. Col. Sleemitn's book is full of entertainment, 
and throws a floo<l of light on Indian chnrneter and mannen^. He 
wftM |K>litical resident at Ijiuikiiow before Sir Henry Lawrence, 
Mr. Pmtt'a pa^iers are Haguciou.<t mid vuluuble; they oontx-y tbc 



^—1 

;on ' 

tliis 
..vcr, 
niiut^ 

diiJH 

era^^ 



George Sand, 



37 



deliberate conrlnsions oft nan whose lu-qnnintnnce vritli Iiirlia 
ia not 011I7 tliorouzh, but of recent dah; and will Kervc to (li)<|irrKe 
many errors and illusions. The book of M. de ^'lllbe^eIl i^ written 
in an excellent spirit, and abounds in succin^ information ; and 
IB pnrticnliirly valuable as contaiuiiig the estimates and news of 
an intiJligent and competent foreigner. 




Art. II.— GEORGE SAND. 

iTutoirv rff ma Vie. Par George SanJ, Paris, 1856. 
(Bueret de Ororge Sand. Pnris, 1867. 

;w travellers can have crossed the Channel on a fine day, and 
have reached the point where the coasts of Ixith countries are 
visible at once, without reflecting how wide and vast are the 
moral and intellectual difTcrcnces which separate lands divided 
by a material barrier so narrow. It is not only that race, reli- 
gion, langna^, history, arc all differont.^for this we .ihouid.of 
coarse, be prepared ; but tiic whole tone nnd turn of thought is 
dissimilar ; and whatever efforts are made to attain a superficial 
harmiiny, however familiar we become with the languages and 
literatures of the Continent, we arc always sepiiratcd from the 
oonlinental nations. Englishmen take much greater pa,ms to 
understand the manners, traditions, langunge, and writing's of 

»the leading nations beyond the Channel than are expended by 
Ihu inhabitants of those countries in gaining an acquaintanca 
vith as, or with each other And yet we never cease to seem to 
tlKm insular. Wc cannot judfrc by their standard, or feel with 
tW feelings. There arc whole portions of thought in which 
mil minds run in an entirely distinct channel. More especially 
•ith regard to those two cardinal points of human society, ro- 
lijion and the relations of the sexes, we seem to think with an 
■tnooDcilablc diffcrenco— our right is not their right, nor their 
wiang onr wrong. They reproach us as much 8S we reproach 
lh(aL We talk as if the wliole of Krench fioiion was a vast 
■"*» of corruption; they shrink from the iron conventionalism 
of Eo^ish society, and the coarfcucss of our public immorality. 
wWt we call license, they think the honest obedience to a 
^fm ptusion. What vv consider delicacy of language, they 
MMider the affectation of prudery. 

Sneh a difference pervades national life far too deeply and 
iridely to,be referred to anyone cause, or reduced under any 
oDt IiomI ; but we seem, at any rate, to present it to ourselves 
in a distinct shape when wc observe how much greater the 
inBoence of society is in England than in I-Vance or Germany. 



as 



Oeorge Send. 



An EnjEliftlinmn has hU plnce in fuinilT life, in a locality, in & 
political sj'slem. When he speculates, lie never suffiTs himself 
Ut leave the limits of the social sphere. He is content H> ucce 
the rvsulttf of cxiioricncc, bj the acceptance uf which practical 
8tatesnmn«bip is inndc pusitiblc in a free country*. He refers all 
proposiliuiis to the stiuulanl uf what Knf'li»h inslitations will 
admit His noti<jnn of love and marriage are subordinated Ut 
bin conception of the cxi^fencies of family life. He wnnU a re- 
ligiuii that will practically work, which real bii>hu[iN can i-x^ound 
tt> real j>ub!ic nicctiiigm which will ^uit the man who desires lo 
be left alone in the ho»om of hi.i faniily, and yet join with his 
neighbours in occasions of sacred solemnity. But on the Con- 
tinent there is a larRe number of persons, especially aniOD; 
those eminent in literature, of whom we may tay that eael 
individual seems left to himself. The first principles of eve: 
thing are debataiile Krouud t^ liini. lie receives aid uetth 
from >itate npr Church. .All that he has to do is to shape his owO' 
particular career by reason, by sympathies, by submitting to tlie 
teaching of cvonts. by trustinj; to tnc protection of that vaguest 
of deities, ^« bon Dieu, We cannot abandon onr own position, 
or admit for ait instant that things wliich we fully believe are 
morally wrong in themselTcs ceaAc to he wrong because fo- 
roigDcn chooee to make light of ihem. But if we wish to com- 
proii«ad rather than to condemn, our best road is, by the oxer- 
cite of what imagination we possess, to throw ourselves into th 
DOtition assumed by those whom wc are criticising^, and divnl-' 
ing ourselves of every thing in society and csialilishcd institu- 
tions which shackles orasT^ists lu, luok on human life with the 
eyes of a man wlio hus nuthini; to trust to but the play of bis 
own feelings, the whispers of his onn conscience, and the dii 
tales uf his own reason. 

It is not easy to do this ; and after our most hone.H elTorts 
to uiulerstand them, French novel)', the most characteristic ex- 
pression of what we refer to, will remain very different com- 
positions from any that we can fancy ourselves or any of ou^ 
countrymen to have written. And no writer is at once m 
tvpical and more incumprehensiblc than George Hand To 
tlie diliiculticB tiii}jlied in the fuel that slie is a French writ 
of the nineteenth century, we inn-st add those implied in the 
fact that she is a woman, and what '\» more, a woman with « 
philosopbicttl turn of mind. We have no English writer at all re- 
sembling her; but wc know enough of philosophical ladies gene- 
rally, to be aware that it requires eonsiilerable nicety ofpvreep- 
tion to distinguish the exact point on which ihey are speaking, 
and the precue object which they have in view. Sometim ~ 
in reading George Sand, we might fancy that she had sha]i 






m- 



je 

X- 

jm- 
ou^^ 

itu^H 



Oeorge Sand. 



39 






■at a defiuit« ny&tem of life and inoiul» for lion<-ir, saflicientlT' 

■scertaitieil to command li«r ou-n liclief and to hecnmti the topic 

bfpcnuasion to others. Sometimes it Hecms tta if she muM be 

Irrit'ing for m«ro nritiug'B sake, meaninpr nolhing, bcUeTing no- 

Ifaing, wishing nothing. As a general result, wc sec that $hc is 

po«s«ased with one or two lending idcaa. Shu thinkit tliv wurM of 

modern societ}' decidedly wrong on at least two distinct jKiinta. 

Her opinion is clear against the conventional system of marriages, 

d the vstablishcdrolAt ions of the rich and poor. But when we 

k with what Khc wishes to replace them, wo arc at sen ; wc arc 

lost in tlie h«autifnl hut obiicure iunguugc nf feminine philowjibT. 

But a person may be vague in thought and languare, and 

yet have a great dt^ to say, and exercit^e a gm&l inHucnce 

"ly wiyine it. Every century lias stirring within its breast a 

uiiibt;r of feeling dimly felt, of ospiratioii^ ini|icrrcctly under- 

', of desires faintly expressed. It is possible that a writer 

17 acquire a fcrcat )>i>wer hy givin;f uttvruneu to these first 

fititterin^ of thought and hope, and may he all the more 

successful because the utterance has an appropriate feebie- 

acM and inili^tiuctncss. There is a wide and very vague 

feeling afloat in the present day that some cln^es, though it 

is not known exactly wliieh. have nut the fair chance in the 

world tliat they otig'ht to have. There is a sort of readiness 

to take up the cause of siitners, a distrust of respectability, 

a recoil from the worship of success. [Something large and 

noble seems within the grasp of mortals, if their follow-tncn 

did uiit Klep ill the way. it is difficute to soy thnt cither 

iromeu or the poor find this the best of all possilile worlds. 

Ill England, when such a thought arises, ^y■n test it hy the 

ttauilard of social institutions. We think whether society 

does not demand a sulwrdinatiim of 6«x and rank, and strive 

tu hit on the principles by which this subordinatii^ should 

b« regulated and modified. But in a country where problems 

ofthought and morals exist for tlte inilividuul ritther than for 

*dcty, it is natural to give vent to the s<!nse of injustice with- 

W »By calculatiuns of expediency, and to believe that there 

1 in man nt large that power of quick and radical change 

Vaicli the individual fancier hu can rvcngnisc in him^vlf 

liwTije Sand is one of the prophets who take up this parable, 

^H uj «|i£ bju ji large number of votaries to sympathise with her. 

^M Tu this, her primary attraction, she adds others of a &»• 

H eohiuy but powerful nature. She lias a true and a wide ap- 

B pnciation of bciuity, a constant command of rich and glow* 

~ Mg language, and a consi'lemble faculty of self-analysia and 

■tu-reflection. And no one could poieeitsx more completely 

llucbann of unreserve. What »he thinks she says, without 



40 



George Sand. 



our 

I ft 
ry- I 



hesitation or subtorfufrG. She is undutcrrcd by any n^ard 
for the proprietict of lier ttntioii or ber sex. Slic ilittt creates 
an impression of trutlifulncss which mnkes ua ready to defend 
h«r agftinBt the numberless attacks of criticism to which ahc 
tsxpttscs herself. In spite of all her defects, she awakens ud 
admiration which cnnnot be rcusoiicd away. Her novel.* are 
often unmeaning, fnW to the realities nf life, weak in plot, 
deficient in artistic arranftcinent, dianially lon^, tedious, and 
wearisome to get through; but still they are never poor. 
They suggest many new thoughts. They arc Ht up with the 
glow (ifiicnninc feeling. They are Btanijii-d with the impress 
of an indisputable bunesty Such a woman is worth atudvin^, 
even at the risk of some shock to our moral feeling and our 
inaular prejudices, and under the penalty of some weaiy ho: 
si>cnt in wading through her rhapsodic;^ 

She has written her life in twenty vnbimw, and the mere 
fact thnt she has done so is cbaracttfri^tic. What haa ft 
woman who has done little more than live in a country- 
house in Uerry, write novels, and quarrel with her husbund, 
to «ny. that she must take twenty octavo volumes to expn 
iti The volumes arc made up uf commwnts, paradoxes, loni 
evolutions of feeling, digressions religious, j)hilosophica], aoi 
historical, criticisms of men and books, and descriptions of 
scenery. She goes off for twenty pages on the moat iosig- 
nilicaiit and irrelevant subject, and then informs us that it 
is her way. And yet if wc wish to know what Ocorgc Sand 
is like, what she thinks, and what Mhc means, we cannot 
refuse to read so instructive a guide as her autobiography. 
There is a very visible connection between her writings and 
her personal liistory, and we will therefore attempt a sketch 
of what she tells us uf herself in this fonnidable memoir. We 
must, however, confine imrselves to noticing those portions of 
the work which throw most light on the novels which have 
made her name so widely known. She insists so strongly on 
the influence which the history of her parents and paternal 
grandmother bad on her, that we will briefly truce its outline; 
but otherwise we cannot enter on the ininimerable details of 
her childhood and youth which she has thou;:ht it expedient 
to reveal to the public and to sell to her publisher. 

Madame Dudevant traces her parentage by the father's 
side up to royalty. The famous; Marshal <]c Saxc was her 
great-grandfather; and he was the offspring of Frederic Au- 
guittufl king of Poland, by the Countess of Kcenigsmark. It 
is not, as Madame Dudevant modestly acknowledges, any 
very distinguished honour to be numbered among the do- 
scendants of this sovereign ; for he had several liundred i 




George Sand. 



41 



N 



cliililren. None, howcrcr, of his b(i*t«ril!! was so 
famous ftg the Mnnthal lic Saxe; anil Maditme Uuilevatit ilia* 
plays s»me pride in claiminff that coarse but able general 
OS ner roreratner. Tb« marshal had an intrif^ue wilh a htdr 
of the opera, Miulemoisellc Vt-rricrcs ; nod a daufrhter \ras the 
rcoult of the union. Whon Awn»ri; dc Saxo, as thu daughter 
iTM called, came to jears of <iii«crftti<>n, she was inurned to 
the Count of Horn. But her hushand was »ooii killed in a 
duel ; and some years afterwards she was a^ain married to M. 
Dupin dc Fmncuoil. This lady, iiavin^,' been twice Icjiall)' aud 
hoitournbly married, fonns a marked exception to the general 
i<tan<Ianl of Madame Dudevant's ancestors, who were mt)«lly 
accustomed to illicit connections. By M. Dupin she had a son, 
Maurice Dupiii ; and Maurice was the father of fieon:e Sand. 

M. Dupin dc t'rancueil was an elderly man when he married, 
and for nitie year? he hud no child ; at last, when he was up- 
wnnl;! of seventy, he wiw pres^^ntod by his wife with a sou. Hut 
he did not do much more than welcome his son into the world ; 
for he died a year after Maurice was born. Ilis widow found 
herself in circumstances of comparatiTc poverty ; for although 
she had a luindsomc maintenance, vet she was oMi;n.'d greatly 
to retrench the extravagant establishment of her hn^band. She 
lived ijuietly for many years, partly at Paris, and partly in the 
country, devoting herself to the maternal duties of spoiling hor 
boy and superintending his education. He was placed under 
the tatelago of a M. Fran9ois Deschartres; an amiable scientific 
pedaat, who occupies henceforth a very prominent place for 
many years in (lie family lii.story. The quiet of the little 
party was at lost rudely shaken by tlie Revolution of 1789. 
Iladame Dniiin. however, who was a warm admirer of Vol- 
taire, looked with as much pleasure as surprise on the first 
outbreak of popular fun,', and delighted in the security of 
which she herself, as a frienil to progress and liberty, was 
ansured. Hut the hour of misfortune and danger was at 
hand. The proprietor of the house in which she resided in- 
formed her that there were secret hiding-places in the walls, 
where papers and valuables could be stowed away. She 
availed herself of the infonnation; hut, unfurtuimlely, at the 
commencement of the Keign of Terror sii.i])icion was excited, 
and an order was given to search the house. A guard was 
placed over the apartments occupied bj her; but Deschartres 
and her Bon Maurice, then a lad of fifteen, contrived by night 
to obtain ncce^ to the room, and rumored all the papers likely 
to compromiitc her very seriously. Hhe was, however, sent as 
a prisoner to the C'ouveni des Anglaises, and her sou was 
debarred from communicating with her and forced to reside 



4A 



George Sand, 



outside the limits of Paris. In August 1791 she was relctLsed, 
and retired U) KoIiBnt, a couiitr}'-svat in ficrr^' which she bad 
purchused a shorl lime before she vm imjuiwiiKil. 

Her son had from Ix^yhood a. stnttig desire for a tnilitaiy 
life; but Madame Bupiu felt a natunil reluctance to her only 
child embracing a coxccr eo full of danger. When, hovrcTcr, 
he was twenty years of age, the Direelorj-. baring decided oa 
an energetic prosecution of the «ar with Austria and her aUics;,) 
called out a Wvy of 2(Nl,oriO tix-n ; ami Uauricc thus found 
an opportunity of serving without his mother l^eing able to ob- 
ject. He joined the army on the Ithino ; and in the next year 
passed into .Switzerland, and crossed the Su Bernard under 
Napoleon. He was present at tlic buttle of Marengo, an 
saw u great {torlion of the famous Italinn campaign, actin^ 
aa aide-de-camp to Genei-al Diiuoiit. When peace was de- 
clared, he returned to Paris, ana remained there until lSi)4, 
when he was summoned to Boiilojnic to join tho expeditionary 
force intended for the invtution of England. During hi» lone 
uhseuccat from home lie wrote frequently to his mother; and 
his letters, being preserved with maternal fondness, have come 
into tho possession of Madamo Dudevant, who has thought 
proper to give them to tho world. They arc printed in full 
and make up nearly four volumes of the work. "Chaiactcr," 
says Madame Dudevant, "is in a great measure hcreditarr; 
if, therefore, my readers wish t<i kn<3w what my character is, 
they should first study my father's character; and they can- 
not do this properly unless they iieruse several hundred of bis 
letters," If biographers generally adopt this theory of th«r 
art, and consider themselves bound or entitled to colloct 
together all the writiniw and traditimis of the ancestors of 
tho peraon whote life tliey ;ire narrating, a hundred volumes 
would soon bo considered a very moderiilc size for this kind 
of book. Fortunately, tho maternal ancestors of Madame Du- 
devant did not know how to write, and wc are therefore saved 
the jLHycliological study of rending their letters; and her 
ternal line is so noon lost in a chaos of illegitimacy, t 
family records connected with its hLitory were not very like! 
to have boon preserved. Otherwise, there is no saying how 
this Kreat triumph of book-making mi;;ht not hare extended: 

When Maurice was in Italy, ho fell in with u lady who made 
a great impression on his heart. She was at that time liTing 
under the protection of a general ; but the young aid6-de-eamp 
Tentured to fall in love with her, and she verv disinterestedly 
returned his passion. He wrote frankly to kis mother, and 
gave hera full account of the progress of the intrigue. Perhaps 
nothing in the whole of this biography seems mure s'.rango 






vod 



George Sand. 



4S 



K 



Enslish readers than that a man sbould select hia mother as a 
ctn^tiante to share bis dcUfiht at pcniua()jii<; the mistress of 
acuitiicr man to come under his cure. Mudiime DupJn, however, 
responded to the nppenl, uud, treating it lU! ii puttsing affair, ww 
very pleasant und i;oiid-humflurod nliout it. ^;)ie wuH, Iiuwcver, 
destined to lind the ;;reat unhapjiiness of her life in the seijuel 
f this amonr. When Maurice riiturncd to Pans, the lady went 
■ere too, and even fulluwcd him wht-n ho went to i-oc his 
lother at Nohunt She U>i>k up her uliudc in a neighbouring 
wn ; and Maurice's vtsitii to her niituraily excited miicli scuu- 
dal, and caused Iiis mother serious annoyance. Uescliartres, who 
continued to reside at Nohant, tried to effect a coup-de-main, 
and induced the maire of the phice to pay her a visit and threaten 
") expel herfrom thetown. But the is«ue wns very unfortunate; 
tr OM wiie rcfuftd to ^O, Maurice Inid no choice but openly to 
defend her, pmclitim himself her pn^tecttir, and thus apjtear in 
direct opposition to his mother. Uencefonh there was a quarrel 
between the mother and son, which was never really healed. 
Maaricc lived wiih his mistress at Paris ; und at length, after 
havinj^ had one or two children, who died in infancy, he came to 
th« determination to marry a woman from whom he could not 
l>ear to part. One month after their union, on the J>lh of July 
180+, Aurore Dupin, since so well known by the name of George 
Sand, came into the world; and therefore, more fortunate than 
io«t of her family, Madame Dudcvant can just boast of being 
timate. Nothing can be more frunk or candid than the 
manner in whicii she lays the wholo suiry before the world : and 
«« must confess, that if the elucidutiim of a female novelist's 
tWacter is a sutlicient excuse for publishing the shame of de- 
tcued persons, the (Mint at which she aims is certainly achieved, 
■ndire do find that the history of the stock, from which George 
SmA iipranf , may easily he tujiposvd to have bad ouinething to 
^_ 6e»ith tlie startling license of many of her romances. 
^1 Hie family party was curiously constituted; for Aurore's 
^B lUtlitr had had a daughter by an earlier lover, and her father 
^P |>d Wl a son by another mit^trcss. Aurore furmod the uniting 
™^—C'andiiie was her sister, Hippnlyte wwher brother. Thus 
"Wn her cradle i-he was surnmndeil with anociNtions adverse to 
^7 lii^h-strained notion oftlie sanctity and necessity of mu^ 
'^fie. lier grandmother was almost her only relation whose 
**MB««r was unimpoacbed; and her grandmother had striven 
•wi earnestly t" prevent her father from marr^'ing her mother. 
"Iieii she became old enough to retlect on licr p<jsition, she 
■iiin have )>een inlluenccd bylinding hen<«lfin daily contact 
*itli the illegitimate son of her father. Probably from an early 
*(« litis arrangement presented itself to her not as a sacrilico 



^Sant 

^UAOSt 

■ nan 



GeoTffe Sand. 



n 



of purity and an infraclion of decorum, but as a triumph of na- 
ture and natural nfTcctions over the conventional pr4-judicc< of 
sociotr. We cniinot discovt-r t)int at nny ]icriod of licr life rhc 
tbougDt that there wim any nhame alluching to illenntjmacy, nr 
to the connections to n'hicn it owes its origin; and it isnotdif* 
ficult to see that, as all the recollections of her early life, the 
memory of her mother, and the history of her unccslry, were on 
the »iile of natunti piission as iigiiinst the urtifici»] rentruints of I 
le^Iisei) utiion.t, she wmild be very much predispoaed to make 
the heroes and heroines of her romances take their stand under 
the name banners. 

Her father was killed by a fall from his horM when she was 
quite « little girl, and she was at fint educated under the joint 
management of her mother and her grandmother. But these 
ladies soon quarrelled, as it was only natural they should dot 
The KTandmothcr was a lady of the style of the cijrhtccnth cen- 
tury—philosophical. Vollairiaii, shrewd, fond of giiicty. fond of 
her grandchild, fond of ruling all about her. The. mulhcr was 
the daughter of a bird-seller; !<he was utterly uneducated, was 
devout in her own way, and was as much like a spoilt child as 
» grown-up woman can be. As women in every way so dis- ^J 
similar were rIko divided by the recollection that the younger^! 
had iriuitiphed over the elder, it is not to be sup)M)«e<i that " 
there va.n much love hist between them. At last the end cnme ; 
Aurore was left to the charge of her grandmother, and her 
mother went off to Paris. The elder Madame Dupin was pos- 
sessed of a competence, and divided her time between her 
count r}'-Hcat at Nohant in Berry and Paris; and Aurore bad 
thus considerable advantages in cdncution and in aocial posi- 
tion B» compared with what she could have had if she had ^d 
lived with her mother. ^| 

But her education was very irregular. She was taught Latin 
by the old instructor of her father. Dcschartrcis, and received 
some instruction in histury and music Her grandmolhcr's 
notion of training a girl wa» to make her. read enough to take 
a part in the conversation of educated society, to make her go 
throuph a very few of the outward observances of religion, to 
let her understand thoroughly how little sensible people believe 
in their value, and in other matter!! to bid her follnw the bent 
of her own inclination. But Aurore was a child uf lively reel- 
ings, and a strong turn for all that was romantic and fanciful. 
She went through the course prescribed her ; hut her heart was 
elsewhere. She made romances out of her histories; she in- 
vented fantasies on the piano: she composed at a wnndcrfully 
early age a long Itclion, of which a seniii:livine Inking called . 
Coramb^ waa the hero ; and she was so delighted with her crea-^l 



George Sand. 



46 



tion, tliat CoramLe almost became a real object of derotion to 
" icniclf. Abovo all, bIiu found in ber separation from her mother 
ibun<I«nt ftxxl for fuvlirij;. 8he worked hcrsulf up into a belief 
that her mother vas incxpresnibljr dear to her, and ahe to her 
motlier. She appointed ber^If her iiiotbor'ft avenger and jiatron 
Sf^nst tlio cruol neglect of hergranduifither. When in Paris, 
ic was pcnnitted to iiay her mother occasional visits ; and she 
en gave vcnC to tne outpourings of her cnthusifisni. Ilcr 
mother was a weak but iitleclionatu woman, and her vcr}- child- 
ishness made her more attractive to her little il;iu;;bter. She 
VM, too, of a religious turn of mind, and her religion assumed 
a fonn so common in France, but so rare in England- She 
was supporting herself in the way in which a pretty woman 
without » fiiriliing was loo apt to sujiport herself; but she used 
to remain on her kn^-es ab:«orbed in the emotion of passionate 
prayer, and seldom failed to attend Sunday mass ; combining, 
However, with tliia private piety a great distrust and liorror of 
priests and of the respectably good Thus, by the circunutuuccs 
of her childhood, (ieorgo Sand was forced in the direction 
in which she afterwards made herself conspicuous^ ; and was 
taught to seek a refuge fi'om the dullness of ordinary life, and 
the straitness of ordinary propriety, in the haU-prohibiicd so- 
ciety of a woman of untutored affection, of tainted character, 
»and of a vague sentimental piety. 
She was abo subjected during her childhood to another 
influence, the fruits of which may be traced tbrou^b'iut her 
wrilingis. Her country life at Nohant fusti-rcd and elicited her 
naturally strong taste for the beauties of nature, the delights 
of rural happiness, and the society of the agricultural poor. 
She describes in one of the prettiest pussajris of her memoirs^ 
msuy parts of which arc written with much gnice and force, 
tbt Veen pleasure she took, when quite a little child, in huild- 
1*1 a tiny grotto under the superintendence of her mother; and 
ho* she collected for its decoration the tcndgrcst grass, the 
Mfteit moss, and the most brigbtly-cnlourcd sti'nes. She had 
•huagrcat fondness for animals, wpcciiilly for birds, — a liking 
sbe conceives herself to luive derivt.d from her maternal grand- 
f^thcTi "id she tells us that birds will obey her and will confide 
'■ her to a degree which astonishes ordinary observers. She 
iM ftlso abundance of playinatvs, for she mixed freely with tho 
^wlJrcn of the neighbouring poor; and she describes her delight 
'" iPmii in winter-time with twenty or thirty young villagers to 
**ttt larks in the anow. She also freiiuented tho homes of the 
IMuaots when, in iho long winter ovenmgs, they told their niar- 
^bDaus stories, and kept alive the romantic traditions which 
luve txisted from time immemorial in the centre of France. 



^P' George Send. ^^| 

Wlien slie wm nlmut twelve y«ar« of mre, she was sent io 
i.^eCouvcnt des Anjiilaises, in ihc Ruo de* Po6s£s-8Aiiit-Vic!or. 
fFhe account oftlie time she passed thore is tbetuost interesting 
part of her memoirs. TLo young ladies received by the nuns aa 
pupils were divided into asoniur and u junior class; and the junior 
class wiiK said to he composed of ihrwj divisions, known fuini* 
liftrly a» lex ili'iMe*, let bite*, and ^k gane$, ac<rordini: as iht; fiirls 
were frisky, stupid, or pious. Aurore I)upin, though forward in 
leaniiij?, helonRcd by tier years to the junior class ; and being 
placed in it, she t;oun took rank as a leading "devil." 8bc tells 
us that sliti jvus jTravc, silent, and demure; but could always 
make athers Uugh, and was fertile in inventtnic every kind of 
mischief. The convent was a lapRc ramblintr building, and she 
and hor companions persuaded themBolvcs that there wen? un- 
happy victims concealed in »ucrct chambers whom it was their 
duty to release. They ecratcla-d the pIiKter ofl"tl»c wall!* in 
order to find the springs and liiiif;4!S of hidden doon; and they 
even scrambled on to the roof, and ran atwut the leads, with a 
vague wiah to drop down somewhere and effect an heroic de- 
liverance of a prisoner. Perhaps it is not fanciful to tracv in 
the perilous frolics of the little girl the signs of that niiion of 
boldness and imagination which »\w. afterwards di»|>iayed as a 
writer. At length her mistresses became alive to the fact, that 
she was the prime cause of all the " devilry" of the youncor class; 
and she was removed to the older one. Thenceforward her con- 
duct became much more steady. The narrative of the years sho 
spent among the elder girls is very readable, nnd is intersperses! 
with many excellent remark.^ on convenlua) education ; but we 
can only find room to refer to what she says on two subject9^ 
her school-friendships, and her lirst impressions of rtflitrion. 

No one can read the namitive of George Sand's school-days, 
or the sketches which she <lraw« of her companions, without 
being stnick by the union which they indicate of sensibility 
and senses Thore is a great deal of romance; but there U also 
a great deal of calm judgment and sober appreciation ofcha>j 
meter. The school- friendships of young ladies havo bvcorafi 
proverbial for the oxagseration and want "f reserve which they, 
so often betray. The girl fir^t has her dull, and pUys at t>eing a j 
mother ; and tnen fmd>« a school-friend, and nlavs at being a lover. 
In the oonrentual system the possibility oi this parody of love- 
making is keenly appreciated, and regulations oi^ the most su;?- 
geslive nature arc enforced in a spirit of prurient purity. It is ' 
possible that such a sv.stem may be harmless for the ordinaiyJ 
run of young women; but it is obvious that girls of a passionate 
nature must experience, when the crisis of passion comes, a great 
bcightcning of emotion from the power of detecting and thai 



George Sand. 



47 




^^Abitof mngnifiriiigMM:]! Itiiy step in (he path of intimacy whicli 
^Havy liiivu iic|ViinHl in tlieir sciiool-duys. Thvrv wtis nothing, 
^BDwevcr, ill the discipline enforced at the Convent rle« An- 
^Hlkiaea to preveut the formation of very romantic friendships; 
iuid these friendships were orf^nised on an cstaWishcd plan, 
the mysicr}'. and the vnry tnirnmcls of which, probsihly uducd a 
zest to the delii:ht» of tliis fi^minine imstinie. Not only v,crc ihe 
yoong ladief hound to arrange tlicir frieud^ in an order uf pre- 
ference publicly announced, hut they were hound lo adhere to 
"i8 order when once made; bo that Geor;^ Sand waa ohligcd on 
ae occasion to explain to her third friend, whom she was really 
Snd of. that >lie much n,(,Tctted heiiifi obliged to love best her 
Ht and M:<^>nd friend.i, fur nlion) vho did not imrticiiUrly care. 
ler list included four in all ; and conibininf; tlufir initials in a 
rord, she scribbled the word whererer she could find room to 
write it. There wan therefore no lack of warmth in her scnsU 
hility; but she never speaks of her friends or her friendship 
with any foolish rni>t«re.t; and she ihows that she understood 
them and valued tnem on Hober |iround». The description of 
Fannelly, the best loved of her four friends, );iven at the end 
of the fourteenth volume of the autobio;;raphy, is as cliarmtng 
_^as any thin^ which (Jcorgo Sand ever wrote. Xo one can niis- 
ako the pure and lively aHection with which she cherishes the 
nemory of the " briglit-huirvd girl, so ^y. and so heedless, that 
lyou would vuppOM ehe never thought of any thing, whcreait 
idle wad always thinkinj; how she could j)teu»it- you." And ret 
'IIQ one can fail to observe that the trails of Fannellys clia- 
iwter are sketched in by a pencil, which is not that of a 
btated fancy, hut of a calm and delicate analyviit. The name 
iif George i^nd 19 so associated with the cxpres^iion of feelins 
aad pwuion, that, unlee-s wo take every opportunity to mark 
the strong uoder-cnrrent of sense and the justness ofobeerra- 
tiw, vhich also form a part of her character, we shall fail to 
^0 bcr jusl^ce, and shall mi»s a very important cau^c of (he 
uAncitcc she Iihm exerted. 

Tbe history of her religious struggles at the convent at«o 
CihibiU the same combination of f|ualilies. At fifteen she ex- 
ptrieiKrd, shortly before receiving her first communion, an ac- 
5**s of devotional ardour, the pntractod effects of which make 
it indisputable that, in the reiigiims rlni[>»id!cs of her novels, 
liu is not talking rain words, but is portraying what she has 
jwrstlffelt, or what she feels herself capable of feeling. Look- 
ing lack, she calls her state of devotional excitement a " sacred 
miimiy;" hat at the time it was sufficiently real. Untroubled 
^J doubts, she acceptwi the mysteries of Caihoiictani with 
•citasT, and fed on the thought tliat she had eaten the flesh 



48 



George Sand. 



inrKftlf I 

TrtHM 



and (Inink tlie blood of her God. ]i(ontlis passed awaj*, and 
she still remained absorbed in the reveries of religious fancjr 
— outwardly performing all her duties well, but holding h 
aloof from her conipauioni;. II10 first shock came not 
any diminution of hi^r faith, but from an appeal bein? triad« 
a wholly difl'i.-ri>nt side of her character. ^^\>& lliou^ltt thai a 
coin |>an inn, whom she dearly loved and biRhly respected, was 
unjustly treated by the Superior; and this sug{;cstcd ihc doubt 
whether all was iso perfect iu the religious world us it seemed. 
She ulsu u»ed to unite with a devout friend iu relifiious exer- 
cises, am] assiiit her in decking with flowers the altar where they 
used to [iruy. Hut she began to ubservc the excessive import- 
ance which her companion attached to these decorations; and 
recoiling from this occiipnti'tn at petty and at) materialising relt- 
giiin, she said U> herself tliii I rneHtid union with tiod Ka« every 
thin^, and the form nothing. While she wa.> in this frame of 
mind, her bodily strength gave way. fihe found to her sorrow 
that she had no longer her old fervour — her old power of en. 
during auHtcritic!) — her old habitual state of rapture. She tor> 
tncnted herself with Hcruples; she accused herself of constant 
sin ; she despaired of her salvation. Korlunalely she was not 
under liie care of mystic-§. The nuns of the English convent 
vfere by no means anxious to foster the spirit of ocstatical 
piety; and her confessor, a Jesuit, gave her sound practical 
advice. It has been the great work of the Jesuits that, in ihc 
bosom of Catholicism, they have asserted for this life its dui 
perhaps even more than its due, importance; and refused 
remit everv hope and interest of man to the world beyond l! 
crave. When George Sand told her scruples to her ct>ufessor, 
ne at first cheered her and listeucd patiently ; but, after a 
time, ortiercd her to change her way ot life idU.>geflier — to re- 
join the society of her old friends, to take plenty of exerciw, 
and enjoy all the amusements of [he convent. She obeyed, and 
became again the centre of life and gaiety. The consequences 
wore most beneficial ; she recovered her health and spirits, and 
look a much more composed view of her religious state. The 
crisis of euthusiii-ini was over. l?he still piupoNcd Iiecomiiig a 
nun, and retained this intention some time after she left the 
convent ; but she was happy, tranquil, and moderate in her 
zeaL yhc was certainly aided, in this instance, by the good 
sense of others more than her own ; but in a mental cure, 
good sense must always be shown as well by the ]>atient as by 
the physician. The heartiness of her obedience to her direc- 
tor's injunction, and the rapidity of its success, both te.'itify to 
the original strength of her mind and the even balance of her 
natural character. 



he 

94 



Gtorge Sand. 



49 



•Sho loft tbc conrent to reside with Iier crandmother ftt 
^ohanL The uM lady was shortlv afterwards s«ixed irith a 
Jytic ftltiick. And Iity for a year bvtvrocn life kdA death. 
Iiis year decided the future career of George Ssiid. 8h« viu 
left altnofit entirely her own mistrex^, without any guide or 
concro). and without any duty except that of rendering the 
few KttentioiiM rcjuircd by her ;rraQd mother's state of health. 
She took violent exercise, and her spinu ruM; and her bodily 
streneih grew pr<>«ttT. Siw hegan t" read, and the first hook 
which her confesAur adviwd her to study wak the ijenie du 
Chrittianisme. It wae exactly the book to awaken thought in 
her mind ; it showed her that Catholicism had taken a new 
direction — that its adherents were not satisfied with the reli- 
gion of whieh sho had lonked on a cwnvcntiml life as the ideal, 
and which she had found embodicii in the r»iiiilinr He ImiUf 
tione Chfisti. The author of that work saw all wisdom iu tdiun- 
ning the world, all lore in divine love, all duty in isolation 
fix>m the sphere of duties. Chateiaubrland held up » very dif- 
ferent picture. Christianity was with him the umMt humanOi 
the most genial, the most sociable of religions) — the truest 
friend of Feaming and knowloilge. Khe put away the old 
teacher for the new. She detennined to devote herself to her 
family duties, and to seek for wiedom in the study of all the 
famous Uwks to which she could get access. She ^i^es a list 
of the philosophers whom sho attacked, includinj; Locke, Lcib- 
nitz, and Aristotle ; and as she was seventeen, and about as 
uninformed a.i moHt French girls of that age, it ia not to he 
wondered at that she got no great profit oui of the works of 
those eminent writers, except the knowlcdse, so instructive to 
tlie young who can think and feel, that great men do not all 
tbink alike. Profitless as such vague study must mherwiM be, 
it nav convey to a mind that needs it a notion of the greatness 
ud aiventity of human thought. At la-tt .ihe came toVous- 
•••u ; and here was a philosopher exactly suited to her. She 
*>«, as she telk us, " a creature of sentiment ;" and Itousseau 
*is the apostle of sentimental philosophy. 8he had l>ecn 
W^ht up in the democratic Imdition.* which, after the Ke- 
*l<>ration. ranged themselvcH around the memory of Huona- 
pHle. Kouaseau waa the herald of the great doctrines df 
y*'it,» and fraternity. She was at once attached to and 
" fas i ig fied with Catholicism, and Rousseau preached to her 
^ (tnepel of natural love and liberty. KiMisseau was easy to 
*>ietHand ; his passion overpowered her, his language fasci- 
Wtd ber. She *om\ alw) twgan to read the " literature of de- 
^jr;" she pored over RiM and Byron. The melancholy eo 
<Uiami9 to youth fastened on her. She bad at oucc the satis- 



so 



George Sand. 



faction of thinking tli« world out uf joint, and of hating b< 
owD cxifltvnce ; >ihe mourned over the con<liti(>u of thu 
and the opprfissed, and she liad serious thoughts of drowning 
herselt In time, the first flush of these fcoliogs passed away ; 
she got over the childish stage of big thoughts ; but the influ- 
ences of that year never ceased to *ct on her. The sin^ar 
tenacity of her diameter liat] been made to cling to u few lull- 
ing idotu, \vhich nhu never itftcrwards aliandoned. HoucsCAQ 
uud Chateaubriand have been the stare of her destiny. Sheis, 
indeed, the Uuusscau of modem Fnuice; like him in her paft- 
sion, in her sympathies, in her detcxtation of established so- 
ciety; but unlike him, because ii piietical, vague, luul vsscutiallT 
mundane Christianity has worked itself deeply into all her feel- 
ing, through the interpretation which Chateaubriand taught 
her to ])ut up<m the lessons of the old mystical Catholicism. 

On her grandmother's death, she became proprietress of 
Kohatit, and shortly uftvrwanl» was married to M. Dudcvaot, 
a liuuteiiiuit in the army. Gossip has lieen so bu>y with her 
name, that few readers require to lie told that her murrii:<l life 
was not a happy on& She does not, however, permit henielf to 
speak ill of the man whose name she bears ; and she narratea 
the incidents of their courtship with an animation uud tender- 
ness which show that she married by her own free choice : she 
acknowledges that her husband's ta.-<Ci:3 did nut liumionist; with 
hera, and that she neither liked the society he cared for nur 
succeeded in the maiuigcment of her househuld. For many 

J 'cars they lived at Nohant ; and they had two children. At 
ongth, in 1881, she asked to be allowed to live scjutrately, and 
earn her own livelihood in a way congenial to her; her hus- 
band assented, and she went to Paris and began uovd-writiiigf 
an occupation she has now fullowed almost without cessatio 
for a quarter of a century. She gives no clue as to the sources 
on which her novels are fouiiiled, — if it is true that they are in 
a way based on her personal history, — and expressly assures ns 
that she did not sketch any circumstances in her own expo* 
rionce when she wrote Indiana, which, being her first novel, 
has natimilly been considered most likely lu contain autobio- 
graphical reminiscences. The latter part of her memoirs con- 
tains tew fact* reluiing to herself, and consists principally of 
criticisms on French literature, accounts of literary amtotn- 
poraricE, and expositions of her leading opinions on religion, 
morals, and art So far as their contents demand notice in a 
sketch like the present, they may therefore be most conveoi- 
Itly noticed wlun we s]>cek of" her novels themselves. 

' Klie tells us that when L^lia uppearud, an intimate frico< 

wrote to express his extreme surprise that a book so wild, 






n 



George Sand. 



SI 






^extraordinary, and so evidently the fruit of deep personal feel- 
sliould huro been written by a lady whom he }md only 
nown as a very <iuiet person, fond of sewing, and a good 
hand at makiiifi; preserrest. Hlie livc-d completely in an inner 
world of Iier own, fosierinp bcr fancies, brooding over her griefs, 
survcyin<;iis in a vision the men and things of tiie actual world. 
Hence, perbaptf, Hruse inucli of the singiilar fearlessness with 
which she wniie, much of the intensity with which she ex- 
pressed her feelings, and much of the very unpractiuul character 
which her theories assumed. She was also acted on very power- 
fully by the general influences of the time in which her mind 
WM matured, both by the tunc of the current literature, and by 
the sentiments which pervaded the [Kilitical world tif France. 
She fiiund that the literature of despair was echoed in the pro- 
found disappointment caused by the failure of the Uevulution 
of July. Nothing can be more f^loomy ihan the picture she 
draws of the state of ParisiAn society and Pnrisiiui feclin);, whea 
she came to take a part in it as a writer and thinker. The re- 
public dreamt of in July had ended in the massacre of Warsaw 
and the bloody sacrifice offered to the dynasty of Louis I*bi- 
lippc Tile cholera had just decimated the world. Su Simon- 
isni had failed Art had disgraced by its deplorable errors the 
cradle of its romantic reform. The time was out of joint ; and 
.the men and women in it were either given up to the depres- 
I (too of disbelief, or to the search after material prosperity. 

It was when subjected to the first great pressure of such in- 
lunoes M these lliat George l^nd wrote LMia, the most famous 
nA the most typical of her novels. It is to an Kngli»h reader, 
Md judged of from the [)oint of view of common sense, one of 
tW most incoherent, fooli-^h, morbid, bla-tpbemous, and useless 
wokt that bare been sent across the Channel during the present 
"ntory; and yet no one can deny that it discloses much power 
^ vriting, and some of thiuking. Viewed historically, aud 
j>^ of by the circunisUnces under which it was written, 
It Undoubtedly sives a very bold and forcible expression to 
(■Uibts then widely current in France. There is, too, a kind 
•'wectoess and sincerity in it, which gives it, even in the 
^doesi of its ravings, the charm of honesty. But whatever 
l^ib merits or faults, at any rate it contains the doctrines of 
wjge Simd — the innermost thoughts of her heart, the ideas 
™ W life — in their mast salient and repulsive form. The cha- 
^in arc removed into an arena entirely apart from the pu«- 
•iltilities of real life. Each represents a phase of the s<ieiety 
*< taw around her; and as there is no plot nor any dramatic 
Wtereit, the only aim is to work out this representation to its 
fnlleM and last coasequenocs. In Lilia society is entirely di»- 



fnlleu. 



69 



Gewge Sand, 



9oItc(I ; tbc Family is not ilcscridcd even as a. feature of human 
life ; Gild is tiUernately prunmiiici-d nut to exist, «nc] )rermitlec1 
to enjoy the preroj^ative ofblciiaing the most vtciuuK &nd weak 
fools vho wilt shed a few tears over the cessation of their 
power to Bin. Catholicism b a pageant into which poetical 
mindjt in vnin endeavour to infuse a new life. Women bi* 
cither pniMtilgtec, or tmly rofuwe to be so because any Borrcnder 
to the other »ex tiramls them with inequality. Coarseaess of 
ihonjtht is equalled by a curiou<ii frankiieKS of exfiression. L^lia, 
the heroine, cannot make out whether she ought to hate hei^ 
self as "the mM^t cuiiiiiiii; and revoltinj; combination of an in- 
fernal will," or whetlier sho ought to despise hcrwlf ax "an 
inert production, engendered by chance and matter." Her 
lover asks what be can do for her. She sends in return the 
following modest list of her requirements: "Will you blas- 
pheme for me t That may perhaps console me. Will you cast 
stones nt heaven, outrage tiod, curse eternity, invoke annihila- 
tion, adore evil, call down destruction on the work* of Provi- 
dence, and contempt on its worship! Are you capable of kill- 
ing Abel to avenge me on God, my tyrant? Will you bite the 
dust and oat the sand, like Nebuchadnezzar? Will you. like 
Job, exhale your auger and mine in vcliement imprecations I 
Will you, pure and pious young man, plu?igc up to your neck 
in sccptici.-)Ui, and roll in the abysa where I expire?" And 
so it goes on ; and this is the way in which I<<dia and her 
friends rave throujih page after page. The impression which 
L^ia loaves on us cannot be shaken off. George Sand has 
long lefl the stage in which it was written, and. in her me- 
moirs, speaks of it as very crude work. But the mental history 
of men hangs together; and even in her best and pumst and 
soberest works there is a touch of L^lia to be found. 

Love forms the staple of George Sand's novels, as of moat 
of the works of other novelists. But with her neither the 
analysis nor the description of passion, subtle as she often is 
in Ine former, and rich and delicate as she often Lk in (he 
latter, is the most prominent feature of what she has to sav 
about love. She has a persuasion, we mav almost say a creed, 
(o enforce and advocate as to the relation of the sexes. It 
is high-flown, unpractical, and impossible, of a tendency, per- 
haps, more than doubtful; but it is sincerely felt, powerfully 
Qplield, and in itself appeals to the loftier side of human 
satura It is not a doctrine wholly bad to preach, that per- 
sons should give play to their genuine feelings and despise 
conce«eions to a mcreenary world. We are, of course, temjjtcd 
immediately to ask whether the fcclinjfs gratified are pure as 
well as sincere, and fostered not only to the gain of the indi- 



George Sand. 



58 



¥ 
^ 



viduftl entertainiuj; ibem but without harm to others. It U 
almuet im|M>ssible to aroid confounding a fre« expression of 
feelings with a blind obedience to animal instincts, unless wc 
are allowed to lest the worth of these feelings hy looking at 
their iiiialitjr and their conse4]Ucnces ; and it mutt be n« true 
in France as every wher« else, that love is i^nsual and de- 
grading unless it raises the moral character, and i^ fulfilled or 
repressed according to the dictates of unselfii^hness. George 
Sand states her theory to be, that lore is a solemn sacritico 
t« be ofi'ered in the presence of Uod, aiitl neceimury for the 
}ierfectiun of individunlM. At first thi« seems a mere common- 
place; but (ieorge Saud draws two conclusions, which society 
— Eni^lish society, at any rate — rejects. The first is, that lovo 
is its own justification. The lovers meet ; they are fitted for 
emch other, tliey arc framed to go together through a proccHs 
neeescary to complete the growth of their religiout nature. 
Society must not interpose any arrangements which will ]>re- 
vent the happiness of the lovers. The barriers of class, the ties 
of a union that is conventional, not real, must be swept away. 
Tb« second consequence is, thiit when the religious feeling, 
the highest exaltation of jiussiou, ccu»e8, the tie cca«c« also. 
There is nothing binding in love excepting the completeness 
of its exisienca Common sense will imm^iately tell ua that 
this will never do. Society cannot go on, if adultery is not 
Bo much justified as abro^ted by the assumption that lovers 
have a right to love. Right feoHng warns us that we are 
here brought to the verge of impurity. Family life, we per- 
ceive, LMuld not continue, if the calm and moderated flow of 
matured alTection, although fallen tu a lower level of excite- 
ment than the first transports of passion, were not sufficient 
to make the continuance of the mo«t intimate relation of the 
■exes permissible. But setting aside the ultimate result to 
which such oonsidcratiou* will bring us, we may easily ac- 
knowledge tliiit the HiT.ingemeiits of modern society, or rather 
of society in everv age and place, sacrifice many individuals to 
ibe interests of tlie community ; and also that there is much 
in the tone of society which brutalisos and materialises feel- 
ings, to invest which with a poetical and spiritual liulu is one 
of the highest achievements of man. Ueoi^ Hand seixcs on 
this Irulii; and, regardless of the limitations which common 
■cDse imposes and muraliiy enjoins, gives the rein to her fancy, 
ber sensibility, and her enthusiasm. 

In judging George Sand, wc cannot too often call to mind 
that she is Frendi, and that in many of the things which 
aeetn strange to us she is but describing the habits, or fol- 
lowing iJie fashion, of her countrymen. It is not only that 



54 



George Sand. 



she XooVs on life Rcncrally from tlio forciim point of view, and, 
more especially, treats miirrin^p tu; the nccessiirj' {trclimiiiary, 
not the end, nf toYe-making; )iut there are a thuiiMnd minor 
touches which Hcparate her widely from English readers, and 
which belong more to the country than to the individual 
writer. Not a little of what seems her «cntimcntallsm is 
really the reflection of actual life. Wo prejnune, for cxmnjile, 
lliat we may take tvs founded on an, ade«]uatc induction the 
eitrioua fact that Krench lovers crv. This alone places the 
love-stories of Franco in quite a different aphere from those 
of England. George Sand's young men think nothing of 



hsTing a ^ood gush of tcar«, real runninj; team, becituf« the 

hem, or smile* or frowns, < 
keeps or misses an appointment. An Knglishnuin cryinj^ and 



mUtress pleases them or offends llicm, or smiles or frowns. 






weeping because a young woman whom he is fond of docs not 
come as soon as he expects, is an impossibility. And if men 
can cry for such thinjrs, how can we, who have no similar feel> 
ings whiiteTcr, say but that at a stage of excitement a little 
higher, Frenchmen might feel it not much out of tlie way if 
a young lady, when she did come^ were to ask them to curse 
eternity and eat grass ! Then, again, George .Sand is most won- 
derfully coarse. Uer languafre would be considered rather plain 
in England for men to use in conversation with each other; r 
apppar!* doubly strange from the pen of a female writer. Bu' 
the French are habitually what we xhould call coane, and the; 
call plain-.tpoken. They call a spade a spad& They do not 
distinguish between the pas-iions, and speak of the phvsica! 
symptoms and issues of love as they would of those oi' fear. 
We may say of them what Dr. Livinfjstonc says of some of the 
Afri<;an tribes, that "they seem to have lost all tradition of 
the fig-leaf." When, tberefurc, a Frenchwoman speaks a little 
more openly than we should, we must not look on her as 
should on a woman who violated decorum in a country wh 
vestiges of the tradition still remain. 

Nor ought we to call (Jcorgc Sand's novels in a very high 
degree immoral, if we judge them by the stAudard of French 
fiction. No test of immorality can be more crucial th.->ii the 
mode in which female chastity is regarded. Now, although 
female frailty is the topic on which George Sand writes most 
largely, it cannot be said that she takes pleasure in the over- 
throw of chastity, or even that she regards it as n matter of 
indifference. In most tVench novolm that can fairly hv called 
immoral, the author looks on chastity at a thing which it is 
a triumph and a glory to siirmounL Hut George Sand feels 
truly and deeply the mournfidness and the pity of the termi- 
nation of purity. But then she goes into a field which moderi 



J- 

I 

.t~ 

U I 
r. 

1 of I 
Itlg^ 



George Sand. 



BS 



I 



English writers wholly avoid, not Because it does not exist, but 
b«cuus« tlicy do not lik<; to enter oa it tixQj never let tlicir 
femalu oharact«rs wander bcyund the influence of those safe- 
i;uarda which the fahric of fiiiiiily life pinnlit round Englifh* 
women of the upper classes. iJut in (ii!<)rgo Sand, as in almost 
all foreign writers, these external safeguards are never allowed 
to interfere with the (rreat problem to answer which is the 
main object of interest with her. She only asks herwilf what 
will be the conduct of lovers under given circumstances. In 
Coisueto the heroine is thrown into every temptation which 
can endanger virtue, — ardent passion, dangerous proximity, 
and isolation from the world. But she has a simplicity which 
gnanls her, and she remnitis pure because she hiid promised her 
mother that she would be so. The whole object of Conxu,Bto is 
to show that by the possession of this simplicity, and its con- 
sequent purity, she was raised above the women around her. 
In KtUffn/iW, the most touchinj^ and beautiful of Goorj^c Sand's 
earlier tales, the heroine is overcome ; but it would be absurd 
to say that a person who conceived and worked out the cha- 
racter of Valentine thought lightly of chastity. Valentine 
struggles hard, she watches herself, she has little sentimental- 
um, she honestly and truly desires not to deceive her husband 
and lose her self-respect The authoR-sa undoubtedly impclfl 
Valentine to her sorrowful end in order to illustrate her main 
theme, that society has no right to interpose barriers in the way 
of true affection, and thus create scruples which must linally 
give way. Kut the tone which pervades the tale is not at all 
ihat of a woman, who could behove that the delights of sen> 
Buous passions arc any compensation for the loss of purity. 
To an Knplish reader accustomed to tlic safeguard!* of Kng- 
lish society, a novel portraying the guilty love of a married 
"Woman must seem in some degree immoral; for the whole 
range of thought is one which it is the object of Englisli 
society to eliminate from at Iea!;t the surface of family life. 
But to a person within (his range of thought, and accustomed 
to lo'ik on such tuniptaiions as vvry poHvible and real, we can 
conceive the best of Oeorpe Sand's tales might prove a source 
of strength quite us much as of weakness. We cannot deny 
that their wannth of language, their fatalism, and their tend- 
ency to shil^ the blame from the individual on to society, are 
sources of weakness. Kut the high value set on purity, and 
the general elevation of the standard by which the worth 
of love is tried, might, on the other hand, prove sources of 
•treiigth. 

If we want to seo George Sand on her best side, we must 
obecTTC her estimate of men. The great source of that superiority 



66 



iStorge Sand. 



of munU tone which, umidst «11 the iiniiioralitiiw of hur novels, 
niukcK itduir fvlt vrlivn WO curilra»t her wniiii^ with Uiuse of 
tlie ordiiiurv li)»^ novclUu of mixlern FrAiice, is the hearty 
contempt which she entertains for the kind of lovers who form 
the heroes of wurso DuvelistB. The blatf, cuptivatinz. puluskvd 
PurisiuiiH to whom the hcruiace of her coutvniporaricM are wont 
to sacrilice tlicir c»»y virtue. »ru iiivurislily represented by 
George ^nd as the Luineii of women, as the characters in the 
tale leatit to be sj-nijiathised wiih, a& the foiU of the men who 
can feel true love. M. dc Uuitiier«, in Indiatta, is exactly the 
lover of the ci>minon French uovcL lie wins Indiana's heart; 
but the whulv point of the hook is to show his iniuieaiturahW 
iuferiorit)' to her, and the peitini^s of liis timid selKshnesa. 
Indiana lioii that degree of purity and sincerity which makes 
her loathe the tbounht of deceiving her husband, and pi'ompte 
her to throw hurself entirely on her lover, if she throws heiwrlf 
on him iit all. lie is busy with a thousand other thou^lit.4 — 

fiulitics, siicce» in wiciety, advancement in the world. 8he 
lus no ihouicht hut for him. £>he inakeK a jireat eSort; she 
determines tu brave every thing, to suffer every thing, and 
to Rive herself wholly to her lover. She loaves her husband'* 
housu, and in the middle of the night flies to Itaymon. Ho 
receiver her with earnest entreaties to be allowed to get her a 
cab, and to «end her buck before any of the servants can have 
nottced her absence. With him is contriisted Sir Kalph; an 
impassible unimpressive character, hnt poHseisintf such tena- 
city of afl'cction, and a love ao complete, so regardless of conse- 
quences, that he loves her equally whether she is chaste or 
unchaste, kind to him or unkind, and is as ready to die with 
her in the ji/nit suicide which they take four months to cany 
out, ao to live with her in the f:Iorificd but at the top of an in- 
accessible mountain, which is their ultimate destination. So 
too in Valfntine, M. de Lansac, the lover whom society forces 
on Valentine, is contrasted with Benedict, the lover against 
whom society wani.'i her, not because she belongs to auotliw 
inan, but because he iit poor and ignoble. Acconling to the 
standard of society, M. de Lansac iJL-lilave^ admirably to Valen- 
tine, lie is too much a man of the world either to notice or 
to interfere with her love foT Benedict further than to put on 
a little stronger screw when he is negotiating money- matters 
nrilli her and her friends. He lets her know, but with the moct 
cuttin;; politeness, and tlio most a^ravating considerat«nes«, 
that he is perfectly aware of her secret ; but when she implores 
him to protect her against herself, he tells her that she hadj 
better enjoy her lirst love as much as she can, for she will findl 
that, at she begins to change her lovers, second and thiru 



Cton/e Sand. 



ad 



W^. 



Ds arc less nnO l«ss delightful lu Benedict there may 
jntrKuiM Uc DiMiiC'lhiii^ uver^trainticl, but ut any ntte be la so 
drawn that be gtvet) the impression ofa «iin|iltt ciirui:stucss of 
affection. It would be, of course, absurd to say ihiu sucb con- 
trasts pmre any thing an to Parii^ian society. Oeor^fe Baud, 
]ik« every other novelist, arruiigLMi Iier puppou as she pleases; 
and it is il« cusy to imike all dandy lovers benrtless inn to make 
all humbler lovers boon. Itut ibe puppets indioutc tbv direc- 
tion iji which their miiitres.') moves tJtcin. ^\w liunillcs them 
so as to show her ideal ofaSectiou; and puttinii: aside all 
collateral questions ns f> the manner ia which it is worked 
out, wc must admit that, as compared with the ideal of most 
French novelists, hers is a very g\iod ideal. 

"1 think," she says in one of her tales, "that a iiublc 
passion ouj^ht to be defined as that which elevat>:s us and 
streng^tliens as in beauty of sentiment and grandeur nf ideas: 
a bad passion as that which leads us to cf^utism, to fear, to all 
the pcttinessc* of a blind instinct. Every passion, therefore, 
lawful or criminal acoordinjK as it produces the »ne or the 
her result ; although society, which is not the true expression 
of the wishes of mau. olWn sanctifies the bad pasj^ion, and pro- 
scribes the pood." This passage, which may be taken as a 
formula of her whole creed on the subject of love, occurs tn 
Horace, a very sini^lar and not very pteusinj; talc, tlie drift. of 
which is to exhibit another kind of man's love falling short of 
the ideal The whole story is an exemplification of iJic utter 
abandonment of the oonTentionalities offiociety in which tieorge 
Sutd places herself when striking the balance of virtues and 
vices ; for the good character of thv buok is a griacttc who acts 
Uiruughout with the greatest nobleness, discretion, and evlf- 
tei|Mct, and tlie two Wrers are a barmaid mid a student. Sur- 
veying the world to 6nd the desired kind of love, tieorjie Sand 
uoted a counterleit which evidently filled her with a mixture 
4(|iity and lodignnlioa This was the love of a man whoso 
MKf only is touched, whoM vanity is pleased, who feels it due 
to himself to have a mi.->tre«, and a proper rirvult of his culti- 
Ulcd taste and varied education that he >hiiuld lnok on her in 
>gmt many lights, all highly poetical. Fur the moment he ia 
Wttcre; but there is no depth in a feeling at the bottom of 
vhkh lies a shalhtw egotism. When Horace read Alfred dt 
^MMrf, lie insisted un picturing Marthe — a simple, good-look- 
■■fc t«ndcr-hvurtcd, stupid country girl — as one of the dangerous 
0** d'£te of that writer. The next day, after ]>erusia^ a/euUh- 
'mdT Jules Janin, she had to become in his eyes an elegant 
ud tiiquettish woman of fashion. Then, after he had pcnisod 
itw ruBHuicea <^ Dumas, she wiut a tigress, whom he must be a 



58 



George Sand. 



tiger hiTnc«lf to manage. And, after he had fiDishcd Balzac's 
Peav <ie Chagrin, the ira« a mystvriuus benuty, whose Vtci 
look and every woH )md a ])rofound mcuning. The iraiie ol 
this versatile p&ssion is, that Horace gets tired of his mistress, 
and behaves so cruelly to ber that she leaves blm, and he 
thinks sho has committed suicide. The flutterJngs of t«inpo- 
rary rcnKjrsc. which this event produces in his mintl, arc stilled 
by lliu adviinccs of a Mitncinii c<wiiiettc and the itdvioe ofa 
patrician debauchee, vrho explain.'* lo him that the suicide of 
nis mistress will be the greatest of advantages to him, asi' 
make him irresistible with the fair sex. In the background 
the sUtry there is the dim figure of a hoarenly-minded waiter, 
who has nourished a deep lore for Martbe through all the 
vicisiiitude?! of her unchastity, and who, if he is not allowed to 
adorn the tale by very frequent intervention, points the moral 
by the superiorily which his steady flame evinces over t" 
evanescent scintillations of the student's love. 

In Ziicrftria FloriaHt, the iin]ierfcct lover is viewed from 
very diflerent side. Prince Kajol loves well enough, but n 
wisely enough. U'e know from the autobiography what wan 
the character attempted to bo dran-n under this name, 
have traced." says the authoress, "in Prince Karol the cha- 
racter of 11 niiin limited in hiji nature, exclusive in his feelings, 
exclusive in hi^ rcqiii rem cuts." He represents the ntfcctioos 
of a man without manline^ The leAdiug thought of the 
writer seems to have been, the imfmasibiUty of a woman being 
happy with a love which is in its essential qualities feminine. 
She finds no strength to support, no calmness to tranquilli^ 
her. Kurol's love is intense, ciinstanl, unscltiKh. A ;roo<l- 
hcnrted cheerful man of the world >!< inirwdiieed iw a rivjil, in 
order to exhibit a contrast t^alvator, we read, sought for hap- 
piness in love ; and when he could not find it, his love vanished 
gently awav. But Karal loved for the sake of loving ; no suf- 
fering could repel him. And yet he killed his mistress, a 
woman of large overflowing heart. Hi* eagerness to nbsorb 
the whole of her being in rettirn for the surrender of hi« own, 
cut her oiFfrum every enjoyment, and at length from the poaci- 
hility of living. lie was jealous of her performing the simplest 
action fi^r auother. " If she smelt a flower, if she picked up a 
stone, if $he caught a butterfly tu add to her child's collection, 
if she caressed her dog, he would murmur to himself, 'Every 
thing pleases and amuses her; she admires ami loves every 
thing; she cannot, then, love mo, — me, who do not see or ad- 
mire, or cherish, or understand aught in the world but her. 
We are sepuruted by an abysn.' " His love is a]>tly compared 
a procesai uf kiUing by sticking innumerable pins into thcfieshi 



or I 



George Sand. 



Bd 



and (lis mistress suiks under the agon; of&n endless S6ri«8 of 
trifliiijrin-iUlions; 

It IS niudi, easier to paint the wrong love than tlic ri^it; 
bat in one tale George Sand has atU-tiijititil to f^kctcli an tifivc> 
tion which is C4]ually proloHmJ and (liiriible. Mmiprat i» one 
of the Iwst of her novels, nnd Eihiite is perhaps the liest of her 
hemiiies. The cirvum.'rtaiiees of the story are so exceptional, 
that the diliicuUicK of portmying a worthy love in man ore 
hardly met. It is tnie that liernanl t«ll» the tnle when ho is 
eighty, and can say that from his tioyhuod to his old age he 
never loved any one else, nor ever for a moment ceased to love 
Edmvv ; but the plot, which turns on the moral education of a 
fierce nmli^cijilincd boy, under liic guidance of a refined high- 
spirited girl, enables the writer to avuid dmwini; tiic perfection 
of love by drawing the imperfection of an unformed eharacter. 
What Bernard was aflor his traintn;; was finished and he had 
won his wife, we arc not told ; we are only asked to watch how 
his passion, at first brntal and instinctive, becomes gradually 
heightened and purified. But we mu.'*t, not examine such points 
too narrowly. It is seldom that a novelist keeps any purpose 
in view ihrouehout, and we look for something else in a .'■tory 
than philosophical c()mpletencsfi. And certainly the picture of 
the two euusms Edm^e and Bernard is exquisitely drawn, and 
the gradual progress of the education conceived with great 
nicety of thought and worked out with admirable skill. Edmce, 
caught in the robbers' .stronghold of Itoche-Mauprat, in order 
to nave her honour purchases her deliverance fn>m diflgracefut 
Tiolence by a vow never to belong to any one but Bernard, 
then a hot-headed young savage. Uis first step in education is 
the victory over himself which let« hU cousin go free ; and the 
nature of the victory shows the extremely low moral point at 
irhich he begins, ilis next stage is the determining to obey 
her wishes — not to get drunk, and not to contradict her father. 
Then he discovers that she recoils fn^m the childish savage to 
whom she has bound henelf, alclnitigh she secretly loves him; 
nd he comprehends that she will kill herself rather than give 
erself to him before he has learnt the les.son of which he 
ids in such pressing need. The comprehension of this, the 
realisation u> himself of the fact that a woman would rather 
die than allow horsolf to be bmtalised to his level, is the great 
awakening force which stimulates him to a new life. It is 
impossible Xn describe the beauty with which the action of 
Edm*'e's influence is conreycd. Mauprat is not written accord- 
ing to an English model. The handling is bn>ad. Ocorge 
Sand tries to imagine clearly, and she certainly expresses 
openly, what would be the real feelings of a hot-blooded boy. 



wnt 
^and 

^*tai; 




eO George Sand. ^| 

8lie neither shrink!) frura the subject of physical iwtibations, oot 
veiU it ill the obBcurity of pctiny-tt-liniuj; cupbciniEiitB. But 
if she ii> so far truer tt> iiuturc thuu would b^rc bu thought 
decorous, she \a aXtn true to nature iii u manner that u really 
udniinible. Siic is true to the power of purity, to the siut^n- 
ing force of generous thought^ and to the docility of a poadon 
great enough to he humble 

When, in a love-story, one of the loven is u married woman, 
there is undoubtedly a dtsogreuablc aspect in wliich the p: 
grcss of a wife's pii.v»ii>ii uiity Ite viewed. The liusband in ve 
much in the vrny; what m to becoiue of biin? Norcli»ts have 
very often solved the problem by making; the husband ridicu- 
lous, or stupid, or worthless. But this is a very shallow coq> 
triTancc. i^uppoMi the husband is a worthy, honest, tender- 
hearted, gunerouM man, is any regard to he shown to bis feel- 
ings I And if lie perceives v^bat is goiriji; on, what is he to do t 
Ocorge ^an<], who likes didicultivs of ibis sort, and never re- 
coils from any task simply bocaiiso it is arduous, faces the 
question boldly, and in two of her noveii; liaa given us b< 
opinions, or rather sentiments, on tbc subject. 

In Jacrjues, the buiilmnd, who is in middle life, marries 
voting wife to whom he is pos^iionately attached, and then at . 
her lasciuatcd by the attractions of a young man nfher own 
age. Fernande, tlie heroine, is a ver>' good girl, and tries hard 
to please and love her husband ; but she is only at case when she 
is with Octavo. The young pair discuss thu character and oo 
duct of tiie husband in a very impartial and ingenuous inanu 
and are mo»i hearty in nntnouncing that ho is the object of tli 
deepest respect and adiuiration. Still love will have its way, 
and the inexorable affinities impel them to combine Jacques 
sees as cleurly as possible what is hnppening. He understands 
that he is not wanted. He comjtluins tluit society will not I 
him act as he would wish ; it will not permit him to stand 
and calmly bless the union of hU wife with ber paramour, 
he considers that no choice is lofl him, and ho prepares to con^ 
fort her by his suicide. But so great is his generosity, that he 
fears le»t he should mako the lovers mi.'serablc if he leaves them 
with the Mling of thinking they bave driven biui to deatlu 80, 
by adopting a few clever precautions, he succeeds in making 
them supp»:^e (hat be has accidentally fallen from the cliff at the 
foot of which his corpse is found. This is one way of getting 
over the difficulty. The husband behaves must haudsomcly, and 
withdraws. 

But the hu.tband in the other novel to which wc refer. Le 
i'AArf ite M. Aiitoine, behaves better, or rather, the circum- 
stances of the plot permit him to take tlie step which Ueurgc 



the I 

-3 

"wn" 

ihe j 

m 

»y. 

les 

ids I 

I 



Gtf^rge Sand. 



01 



^ 



Sand woald h»vo wcietj make open to erery haslniid. The 
nlT-prini! of ttic Adultery U thu hcri>inc of the stoiy, and she 
brinL'* about a hii[>]>}' recnnciiifttinri Iwtwci-n her father nnd 
tli« hufllmnd of her moiher. An u>i{>hiIiiNi>{ihi(-al irritntion has 
kept them axonder ftir years ; but (iillierte, the heroine, when 
driven by a storm to seek for shelter, happens to see a portnit 
of her mother in the hnuse of what, spcakin;; conveuliooally. 
we inny c»ll the injured hu»biini), und she is struck by its like* 
nfVi to a miniature which she haK nfien ststm in the hands of 
her father, who, contrary to the uHUal practice in such caseH, 
has brouitht her up, " lier modcL§c imagination refusing to com- 
prehend the poisibility of an adultery," she is naturally puzzled ; 
but she take« advantage of the occasion to make friends with 
the first po«M38ur of the nricinal, and at Icnfiih pets him to par- 
don the second possessor. Friendship survives th<> conflict and 
oonseiiuences of youthful pa^^ion, and they are all happy at the 
end ot the b<K>k. This, then, is the moral : for;;ivc and for;;cl 
if you can ; or if not. shoot yonrscif, so as not tn annoy any 
one. If we c-imparc this with thu ftlMndanl of ordinary society, 
it ecems absurd ; if with a high standard, it seems lumentably 
inUe; and the whole doctrine of elective affinities on which it 
reata is worse than ridicuh>us. but it bears a sort of rolationship 
to many lfaou|;hts and feelings which we cannot call absolutely 
untrue or wholly depraved. It belongs to that flux of opinion 
which is the great characteristic of nMidern society, when men 
are strivinft to gain a subatitute for the construction which a 
pnst age pnt on Christianity, and to incorporate their religious 
traditions and feelinj^ with a mass of thoughts at present ut- 
terly confused — partly derived from the notions of antiquity, 
jiartly the growth of political chan;:c», and partly the fruit of 
a real progress in a scientific knowUrdgc iMtli of the moral and 
the physical world. 

It is because there is something elevated in Iter tone, and 
because she encounters groat and embarrasstng problems, that 
Qeorge Sand has made hcnelf a name. But the minor charms, 
and the minor merits of her wrilingn, ought never to be for- 
gotten. And while we are speaking of her as a portrayer i>f 
passion, we cannot omit to notice tho many subordinate ways 
in which she shows her knowlcdjre, her power of reflection, and 
her sense of beauty with nrgaril to love. Even the physical 
minutiie, the magnetism of attraction, the nervous crises, tho 
effect of dress, carriage, and posture, which she notes ao care- 
ftdly, an<l introduces so effectively, although they belong to the 
sensual side of love, indicate great power of observation. 8hu 
constanilr makes general remarks on the situation of lovers in 
the different stages of passion which betray accurate knowledgu 



63 



George Sand, 



and a faculty of sympathetic peReiration. Lueresia FToriam 
obouDda ia such remarks. When, for instaoce, Karol knows 
that hu lovi; U rctuTDvd, he K'^ns to tremble at his own suc- 
ocw, and think his victory hail hvi-n too Liuy. "Korul fvarcj 
to see Lucrczia's h>vu cvtun fu> ciuickly ns it had b«en kindled ; 
and like all men in Huch circuinstuices, he sot alarmed at the 
impuIsiTo baste which be had so much admired and blessed." 
Sometimes a little touch of sontimouuiliMn is tbrown in so as 
to double and complicate th<; feclinin. When Muupnit r<.i:ciTu« 
his first kiss frum Kdmec: "'r\u» kiss, the fir:«i u womun bad 
given me since my infsncy, recalled to nie, I know nut bow or 
■why, the last kiss of my mother; and instead of pleasure, it pro- 
duced in me a profound sadncsv." But the power of George 8and 
cocit much further. She bati shown ibat she can do what so few 
nave ever really done; she can describe young, fresh, pure love 
so as lo make it seem something new, true to life, and yet her 
own. There is perhaps no passage in ber works which, taken 
by itself, can rival the beautiful account of li^ncdtct's feeling 
for Valentine, as be sat with her and her friend on a Kumraer, 
day by a tiliect of water, and natehed her ima^e ultcrnatcl 
formed and broken on the ritiiiling surface. No one witbuut 
real Rift of native poetry could have conceived or written it 

Next to her treatment of the passion of love, hereoc: 
in the most salient feature in Georjje Sand's writinRS. She 
giuatedly proclulins hcnicif a socialist; and in LeP^cH^deM. An- 
toine she lias given tlie world a novel in wbicli ber doctrines on 
this head are suppoited to be embodied. Hut fret]uently as she 
recurs to the topic In her writings, we must not ask too narrowly 
wbat her creed is, or what she means by socialisin. In the first 
place, she uses the privilege of female philosophers to avoid 
bringing any point to a direct und definite issue. But she is 
also cheeked in ber eoiiiiriiiiii.ttic aspiratiom* by ber common 
sense; and in no direction is her combination of sentimentalism 
with a sound appreciation of actual life so visible as in that of 
her socialism. She is alternately very untrue and very true, very 
blind and verj' clcftr- sighted. In her grout suciali^t novel, she 
lays down two propositions, which, if taken out ofthehazeof 
fine writing, arc simply absurd. The tirsl is, that a cajiitalist, 
by setting up iimnuJactui-es in a noor neighbourhood, and em- 
ploying workjieupie. ruins every l)ody about him. The second 
is, that a proprietor who never interferes with, or is on his guard 
against the poor, is never robbed. If any one luu lived in the 
country for a fortnight and believes either of tbe»c two state- 
ments, all reasoning would V)e powerless to convince him of his 
error. No wonder that George Sand, who owns sho ooutd never 
manage her owu property, and tclU us that she never cxactl 




George Sand. 



63 



I up 



ascertained which were her fieliJs »n<] which were not, and 

whose notiom of the pnahion of a rich man in the country are 

of a corresponding dimness, should let her pen loose in dressing 

up the fancies of a socialist paradise. But, on the other hand, 

' e nwvr Io»«h her commun sense altogctlicr. There is a re- 

i&rkable passage in Maupiut iu whicli nhc expresses her recog- 

ition of the sciliditj of society. It is, she says, a atranfte 

Ihuildini;; but it all coheres, and none but a great gonios must 
Ihink of 8Cirrin<;iLsboDc in it. In her autobio;;raphy, agiun, she 
KII9 us thitt t\iK meiUtiited over her own practical duties on the 
phject of giving her guodv to the poor; and she came Kt the 
Ipnclusion, that charity did as mnch harm as good. The up- 
Ikot of all this is, that the sucialLim which she recoramenus 
B remanded to a fature far cnouRh off to bo comfortably safe. 
Nu model socialist in the novels sctA about doin? any thing at 
once. In Con^uelo, the ma<l euuut and his bride dt^cide tliat 
after a long interval of time Ctmsuelo shall be the iiiAtrnmont 
of bestowing unascertained blessings on some unknown per- 
ns; and L« PAh^de M. AnUtiiie cnda by the socialist marquis 
forming the hero and heroine that he is going to bequeath 
em a property on which he has already lai<l out a garden, 
here the peasants of the vicinity, wlicn they have all become 
good, pious, and wise, are to walfc gratis. This may be non- 
•onucal and visionary, but its liarnilensness is extreme. There 
QUI be nothing dangerous in socialism like this. 

For the purpose of studying George Sand as an author, it is 
niiich more important to look at the sources thau the results 
of hor socialism. The opinions are of litllo value; hut it ia 
uMructive to see how she came to hold tliem. The situation 
•f Pnnce during the last twenty years has certainly had some- 
thing to do with the formation of her creed. Not only is the 
wnttast between luxury and poverty, palaces and hovels, as 
**rii«d in Paris as in any spot of civilised Eurojie; hut in 
PttQce, as Uf^ni^dict complains in ValerUine, the notion of 
ntizeiuhip has been lost If an Englishman feels a desire to 
^moYt wciul evils, he has at least got the advantage of a 
^tfiaite starting-point in society. But in France ihif^ is fur less 
fwcase; and lutnough there is undoubtedly something morbid 
*■ ndi moanings against the existing state of things as are 
fV iito the mouth of Benedict, yet an Englishman may be apt 
J" fcfgct how much he is supported by the consciousness that 
"•fcnni part of a tiystem of government which he is proud of, 
■od how jHtwerfully the alienation of honest minds from a rf- 
fi"* like that of Louis Philippe must have tended to produce in- 
•••iwi and apathy. George »ujd came to Paris with a sense of 
pinHial injury, and aa aversion to the constitutiou of society, 



Gl' 



George Send. 
or other. gIic eridenttj thnufrlit 






which, for some reason 

hardly on hor. When 8tie amveij tlinri.'. xtie lell in witli many 
writinzf, and many [lenons, of il Mtcwlijlic cb»racl«r; and it 
was very natural that she flhould readily accept a scheme which 
ratislicil her imagination, Htimalated her enthusiasm, and jntve 
an ex)>re««i»n at once to her personal dieatisractioR and to tho 
diKflatiiifaclion (lervnding the vnciety anmnd her. It aim «}>- 
pealed to a very ditl'ereiit claM of her sympathies — to her love 
of the country and of the dwellers in the country. She detiehta 
in tcllinj! us that the pour and the uneducated are ofteu much 
viacrand nolilcr than the rich ; and she has twice drawn, in tho 
Jean Jnpi>flinii> of Le P6:hide M. Antoine, and the I'attcoco of 
Mtauprat, the cliaracter of such a i>ea«ant — a thoughtful, benevo- 
lent, eccentric man, the terror of th« selfinh rich, the darling of 
the socialist heroines, and the champion ofthe surrounding poor. 
When she is puidcd. not by her feelinsrs, but by her experience, 
and R]>caks of the real r>c»sants t>)ic had known in BchtIf'. s1i« 
very hi>nv»tly descrihes tlicm as cuiiiiintr, superstitious, and pl^ 
heaidnl. Hut .the could not be happy without her ideal peaiant 
also: and as it cannot be denied tnat there are exceptional pea- 
sants, she duet! but niarnify and clothe with asentimcntal gloi 
virtues that cither exist, or might very possibly do so. 

George Hand talks ho much of art and of artist*, she alludi 
to worksof art so repeatedly and so enthusiastically, and she bu 
inadi- si> many of her novels turn on the adventures of persons 
who have sought a livelihiind in itome kind of artistic occupa- 
tion, that we might eaoily imagine a love and knowledge of 
what we technically term ' art' to be a prominent part in her 
iutcllcctuat culture. But when w« examine what she ha* 
wrillcii, we find that what she realty CJire* for in art is a cer- 
tain mode of living which itlio coni-«iv<M artists at lit>erty to 
enjoy, and that her appreciation of the works uf great masters 
is very sli;rht. her judgment very untrustworthy, and her ac- 

Suaintanec with the principlc-s and history of art very super- 
ciaL She has given us a most hiuhly-wroiight and seductive 
account of the labours of the Mattres mosn'iKUa ; she has 
broujEiht before ua their noble patience, their honest mithu- 
siasm, their disinterested carefulness of execution; but of any 
thing like intelligent criticism on their productions there is 
not a trace. The compositions of these Maitre* mosftisffs still 
exist in Venice, and they are indisputably of a very poor and 
second-rate order of merit Ijut the quality of their perfonn- 
ance is a matter of utter indifference to QeorgeSand ; ner only 
interest is in iheir biography. When she givca an account of 
the works of a really great artist, as. for instance, when in her 
htttrts d'un Voyageur she speaks of C'anova, tlie writing is as 



Georgt Stmd. 



OS 



frraceful as her writing ulwurs i«; but the cnticUm » of the 
mo9t com mut) place kind. H«r ailuiinition ofirliut excvllence 
she has seen in urchitccture, sculpture, aii<] (minting; id ge- 
nuine ; but it LI nninstructed. She is an imaginative obserrer, 
but not a connoisseur. 

Artists, not art, have hwin her real study ; and for many 

veurs of her life, as we lufttu from hur anto^hiojnuphy, artists 

Have been her c<in«tAnt coinpanirtn». 8i)« delights in tlicni, 

becnww she believes that they are more independent of society 

than any other set of people: they life, or are suppoiied to 

live, in their own world, with their own rutes of conduct and 

their own code of morality. Qeorgc 8and admires excessively 

what she calls their me beh^mienng et ianouciantt. She ahio 

likes them because women are brought into a greater equality 

in thoir world tban eUewhere. In the theatre, a prima duuna 

in a very great person. The equality of the sexes seems re- 

sbired if the female contralto nun snub the male bass. All 

this Koea stnugbt to George Satid'H heart, and wc may be sure 

manages to idealise the most ordinary of these facUt. She 

imisbc*. for instance, Cooauelo with excellent reasons for 

uing OR the sta^e; the (list of which is. that in Druidical 

aes the attractions of the theatre and the ultar were united 

fia tbe solemnities of religious ]l^»ce^»iuIl)l, and that women 

I'Wsre then pricKtesses. In these degenerate days, if a woman 

1'*ishee to assume a reli^ous character she has to become a nun, 

tnd is then buried alive; so her only way of retaining any 

tiling of her sibylline pririlegea is to look to the other hair<u 

the vocation of a Druidcss, and get a satisfactory engagement 

Mu opera-singer. But it would be unfair to say that George 

Sud passes over tlie itighcr side of an artist's life. 81ie has 

dnm in Co)tm«&> a very beautiful picture of an artist who 

b*ts what is btgbest in her own branch of art, and whose 

JMrity of mind is allied b>, and litrvngthcncd by. her rehuo- 

iBtunf taste. In the Maitriai vwnautea ul»i she has exhibited 

*■ hnpresfive type of the conscientious, lalionoiiH, far-seeing 

*DHc«an. But it is to the lower side of this life that slie go- 

Xnlly liMjks. Her whole conception of an artist's life, so far 

*> it it founded on fact at all, relates eutircly to the secondary 

^>a uf artists The great artists of each generation do not 

"xl a rts bohcmiiitne tt inioudaiUe ; or if they do, their work 

■ofen pro{M>rtionaiely. But it is quite true that tliere is a 

Matty of more unpretending artists who have a sort of worJd 

**IMr own. and whose life, if regarded in its hours of gaiety 

ttd inspcrity, may be said to possess that careless ha)>pine«s 

vldoi is iHjpuhirly ascribed to a gipsy existence. 

George Sand idealises this lower artist-life in one way ; for 



66 



George Sand. 



j-pi- 



mUc represents it in it« brighl«st )ii>ur» niid ino»t lucky v«in. tn 
Im ilemiire Atdini sha has recnunted ihc adventures uf a trpi- 
ea\ arlist, an opera-singer, who Itad the good fortune to w 
the afTectioQ of a countess, and also, fifteen years aftcnrai 
to fascinate Iicr daughter, tlic lost scion of a nobl« rmce ; 
who hud the courage and wisdom tw rc»i«l the Advances of W 
the ludie^ On the otlier hand, the proMiie truth is sometimes 
told very plainly, and, we may perhap* say. coarsely. The artist 
JBoccasioually represented as neither very fortunate nor very Tir* 
tuous. Lucrczia Floriani.a heroine oflhe noblv»tturn of mind, 
»n4 a» fine a inodeni Druidittut u« c<>uld be desired, ha.4 fourchiU 
dren by three diflereril falher.4, who have all treated her badly. 
The accessories of the life are idealised more perhaps than 
the life itself; and much of the idealisation arises frum art 
and artist-life bcinff associated in tivor^ Sand's mind with 
recollections of Venice. She went there at a critical pcrioil of 
her life, after she had written Indiana, Valentine, and Lrtia, 
and therefore after she had the consciousness of recojicniaed 
power to stimulate her, but before her mind was fully set and 
fbrmod. Uvr imagination was much excited by a maimer of 
life wholly new to her, and by a clnsK of asnociations with 
which she previously had no acquaintance. Two inflnencea 
more especially appear to have worked on her mind. There 
were the great buildings, the historical monuments, the famous 
works of art, in which Yonicu abounds; and there was the life 
of tlie common peoide, with their vivacity, their Italian morals, 
and their va^hond gaiety. Contwlo showa how her observa- 
tion of the Venetian populace coloured her theory of artist- 
life, and the poetical feehng which from so many siaes attaches 
itself to Venice throw a halo over all that she considered to be 
artistic. In the portion of her writings relating to Venice 
Uiere is the same combination of qualitiea that i» observable 
throughout her works. There is the acuteness and commo^^ 
sense which guided her daily experience, and taught her t|H 
portray the early loves of Angolcto and Cunsuelo, — a pictur^^ 
of humble Venetian life at once so fnitlifnl to local truth waA 
to the general truth of human nature ; there is the vogucnevs 
of eloquent rhapsody, proccedintr. however, from feelings winch, 
if uncontrolled, arc genuine; ; and lastly, there is a real crea- 
tive and poetical power, of wlnvh perhaps the little tale 
L'Orvo is the mo»l perfect expression. 

But if (Jeorge Hand's love of art is neither very greot noi 
very real, her love of naturo is profound and genuine. Not only 
docs she invest scenery with a sentimental colouring vhicli, 
when not in exce»», lia^ an undoubted beauty, but she shows 
an intimate familiarity with couutr)' pleasures, and mors eepc- 






George Sand. 



67 



ciftUy a native sympathy with the aniumtci] lif« tlint mnkcs th« 
dead rocks aii<t lree« iniiabittid and Kiive. In thu timl chiiiiur 
of hor autobio^niraphy, she tcUs us how ilearly n\w. haa diemhed 
tbruugh life a series uf feathered pets, and hi>w strange \s tlie 
domiiiiun which, as wc have alrcaay said, she finds herself ablu 
to exerni^v over t)ii.-m. One uf the first anecdotes she records uf 
her childhuud i^ the gift of a Itvc pigeon, vrhirh si'emed lu her 
an inestimalile treasure^ And in Iter latest novel. La J)anu!lla, 
ftb« describes at that extraordinary length, to which most of her 
descriptions are spun out, the solace which ihc hero derived, 
when shut up in a lonely custle, from watching the butterfliva 
play, and feeding a goat that ntrayed abuiil the building. She 
oas also told us with what enthusiastic joy she used to roam on 
foot or on horseback over the wilds of lierry, when she first re. 
tnmed to Nohant after her return from the convent ; and trans- 
ferring her rcciilleetion.'* t^i one of (he best of her heroines, she has 
irorked up in Kdmee a chamitng picture of u young light-hearted 
girl revelling; in the first unchecked communion with nature, 
stimulated by fresh air and exercise, and excited by the spectacle 
of a varied scenery* into the first sullies of meditative romance 

How deeply .■<lic has been penetrated by what shu lia» ob- 
served and known of human life in rural districts, is shown 
by her having' made it the baais of a style of fiction perfectly 
new. She has written idyls true to life, masterly in art, and 
jet interesting. She began the series with Jeanrie. a fanciful 
tale, uf which the struti<{c superstitions of the peasantry of the 
otiitre of Pranc« form the groundwork. The heroine is, how- 
ler, an exceptional peasant, a Joan of Arc undeveloped; not 
to W tempted into marriage, and abiding with a simplicity, half 
nUime and half idiotic, by the terms of a stranjic vow, which, de- 
OMved by the trick of some idle Imvcllcrs into thinking she has 
W an intimation from Heaven, she has made, to be chaale, poor, 
■ndhombte. "Jeanne was," says the authoress, ''one of those 
pOTD i}-pcs such as are still found in the country, which are so 
'dnirable and so niysterious that they seem made for a gulden 
^ ijuch iy]>cs arc not sufficiently known, In [Kkiniiiig ihey 
"^W been represented; but poets httvcalwiijs disfigured ihem by 
*™iing lo idealise or change them, forgetting that their essence 
^d tli^ir oriRinitlity consist in its being impossible to do mure 
^n Kvess what they arc." In Jeanne such a character is very 
wilfiilly worked out; but it would be difficult lo believe that the 
■■troiDe is not idealised, and, at a.ny rate, she is avowedly ex- 
•Vwiai In the later novels uf the series. La Mare an JhcUtlt, 
j^pttite Foiiett^, and /'ranfoiA le Champi, her aim has lieen to 
k»»e the exceptional for the ordinary, lo seek fi)r idyllic boau- 
^ in the extreme of pastoral simplicity, and to make her bu- 



68 



George Sand. 



ic hnpmne)>8 keep within the limits of what wonld be possibla^ 
every nainlct. She depentlit fur hvT eErc<!t upon analTsing and^| 
libitinz the play of the more innocent emotiona The Iove<^^ 



colic 
in every 

exhibiting thenlay 

a girl fop a neighbour's Utile child in La Mare an Diabte. the 
mutiml love of twins in La petite FadeUe, au<l m^temul iiffec- 
•tion \n Fran^vitle Champi, supply mnterinlsKutiicivurly pt({uant 
for thi; i^uiot ]>iitli<)!i of an idyl. George Sund aeema to get 
strength by touching the Koil. Her tales of country life, and 
especially La Mare an Diabie, are the most perfect, though not 
pcrhapB the most interesting, that she has written. They are 
wee from all that provokes censure in Iicr othvr wrilingii — from 
theories, fnim dcclainntion, frum indeliaicy. They move as with 
a quiet flow that is irreaisiiVily fascinating, and an? full of bean- 
tics of 1an;:!uai;o to which it is impussihtc to do justice. 

If wo place side by sido Letia and La Mart an Viable, th 
novels most typical of her earlier and her later stages, and com- 
pare the audacity, the ])runcncy, the strong ]>ersonal feeling 
manifeiited in the former with the sweet purity and artistic tmn* 
quillity of tlio latter, we may .see that tfuring the period which 
elapsed between the two the authoress must herself have greatly 
chanj,".-d. Tlie spring of impetuous passion pnteteti away, and the 
autumn of matured power and chastened wishes arrives. But 
although the change may be great and indisputable, yet it wotdd 
be quite untrue to speak of Oeorge.Sand as appearing under two 
phases wholly distinct. There was always a niixtwnj of purity I 
with impurity, of sense with nonsense, of honesi desire to be 
right with the most distorted conceptions of right and wronir, 
which was trac<;alile throuirbout her earlier works; and the old 
fire of a mind strugtli'ig. suH'cring, douhtiiit:, hoping, loving, and 
hating, burns and shines through the quietude of her later tnlea 
View her from whatever side we may, and judge of her by what^^ 
ever of her novels we may chance to light on, we shall alway^f 
leave her with mingled feelings of admiration and regret, Bu^^ 
if we look at her works as a whole, and read several of them in 
BHCcessiiiu, her character, we think, will rise in our estimation, 
although the works themselves lose interest by Uu-ir prolixity, 
their want of plot, and their surfeiting fullness of vague iheoria- 
inc being thus foreed on our notice. We catch through them 
glimpses of a woman with many faults, — haste, rashness, morbid 
sentimental tsm, and a pronencss to indulge in a secondhand 
philosophy often caught up from men inferior to herself, — but 
still in the main truthful ; loving in n blind and capricious way 
what is good; touched to the heart by the misfortunes of others; 
indignant at the sophistries and the success of polished vice and 
conventional virtue. If in the midst of the display of hergrcat 
intellectual gifts she sometimes startles us by mora! errois, she 



Colonel ifure and the Attic Hhtoruina. 



69 



_eTer shocks its bv moral depraTity. The more irc tiy her by 
a foreign siaodara. an<! the oettev we appreditto the cireuin- 
etanccs under which sho wrute, and the intiuences lo which sha 
exposed, the mure gently and sparingly we shall cenaura 



r 



Aht. Iir.-COLONEL MURE ASD THE ATTIC HTSTORIANS. 

I J t. Critical H'tKtorif of the Lantfnage and JAtfTufHrf of Aneifnt Gr^et*. 
K Uy William Mure of OuldweU. Vol. V. LuAdoti, m?. 

^BoLOKKL Mi'ait'N History of the Language aiidLiu-mtiire of An- 

^^ent Greece may well he aeeepted as a n>Ri[iiiiii<iii piet'i: to Mr. 

Grotc's history of its political and miUtai-y pro^ejia. There is a 

wide diiicrcnw, amouiitiiig, indeed, to contrast, in the mode of 

trctttmcDt pursued by the two writcra. The starting-point of each 

^^ widely dilfereut; what in primary with tlic oue is He^'oiidary with 

^Hie other; aiid the wide dilfen^ncc of opinioiiK, tiu'te-s and general 

^Runi of mind )*etweeu the two authom leadx to au iiithiili^ number 

Hof collinioitson individual poinbt. Yet, by the atuilcut of Mflleaic 

utiquity, the two vorka roust be considered as making up one 

whole. Each 61U up a void lef^ by the other in the getteral pio- 

lOTc of the most wonderful nation which has ever af pcared on 

orth. While each author continuully treads upon tlie ground 

oftlie oilier, eacJi has a ground whicb i» indixputubty his own. 

Vidtiii the limitH of hi.f own tcirilory oadi \» prt't miiienlly mas* 

W; each liiia litM own proper department iik nhich lii^ strength 

li»i whenever cither disjJays wtakncss, it is commonly in the 

Kt«f trespassing upon the dominions of the other, Mr.Grotc and 

Colobcl ^lu^v arc alike conspicuouti for indcpcndcuee of thought 

■Bd decision of expression ; ([ualiticK which in both casc« arc 

fO»W to the verge uf a love of controversy and jiaradox. B«t 

^flDe ia a jiolitical historian, the other if. a literary critic. 11ie 

8KU qualities oftheonearc depth and vigour; those of the other, 

^^pMe and acuteocas. It is no wonder, then, that two such 

*ptcn, each admirable in his own way, commonly meet ouly to 

^Ber wlicn tbc)' get on the deliatablc ground which lira tietwevu 

"•'ii. Nor is ii wonderful that either of them xhontd oeoaNtonally 

tuinUe when he wanders too far into the territori<-s of bin neigh- 

■"•ir. And a» we may fairly regard Mr. (irotc's scheme and pur- 

P"*e M, on the whole, a higher one than Colonel Murc'a, it is not 

^frning if, on this debatable ground, Mr. Grotehas, lo our mind 

K fewt, commonly the advuntuge. In rcM-areh, in coiiswientious- 

■WN, in love of their sul^ect, the two writers arc (airlj on a par j 



ro 



Colonel Mure and the AUie UUtorutns. 



c«ch has fats own distiii|?mshing eiicdl«n€cii, approprinte to his own 
special Bubjcct. But if wc are, like Zeus, to weigh in the balance 
two wriU-re, to (!ach of whom Hellenic k-aniing is so deeply in-^ 
dehU'il, we cnn fwl iu> Mirjiri!>e at finding tlic more nitt**ivc ituo^ 
capacious intcllwt of Mr. (irole oonijivinji tli« wi-ightier ^^lde. 

Coloufl Murc'fl great streiiglh Ups in the poets. Tlie old 
Homeric controversy, over and over aj^n as it has been dcbntcd, 
acquires a new hfc niid interest in his hands. This part of hu^ 
work a a triumph, not only of British Icaruinf, hut of BritidH 
common .tt^iise, over the Y«garips whieh are too commonly in vf^ie^ 
amon^enntiiientalMiholarit. It ia not too much tONUy, that hoth 
in Colonel Mure amt in Mr. Or«tc birth and rr-»ideiice in a free 
countrj', familiarity with the public hfc of a free state, the pos- 
session of a seat iu the British Parlinment, have done much to 
foster the mnuly and practical turn of luind winch, under diflcrcat 
shapes, distinguishes them Inith. Colonel Mure is wcD versed 
in the literutnnr of Germany, and, we believe, parsed his own nc»- 
demic yean* in a (lermau University. But it would he difTicult to 
find any thiuK more thoroughly English, in the liest scnuc, than his 
whole commentary on the Homeric poems. Mr. Grotc did uiiidi 
to overthrow the extreme form of the Woltian theory; Colouel 
Mnre has, we think, pretty etfeetiiidly destroyed it in all its paits. 
Points of controventy, fairly open to dispute, still romaiu bctweeo 
them. Do the Ilia!d and the. Odyesey proceed from the same 
hand? I» the Iliail, a* we have it, an eipansiun, whether by the 
oripnal author or by some one c!*e, of an earlier .Aohilletd ? H' 
carJy were the poems eommiltcd to writing? 'Iljcse, and vxno' 
others, are important quei^tions, on which Mr. Grotc and ('olom 
Mure decide difTcrent wiiys. But they rcaJiy become mere poiu 
of detail when euutrastcd with a theory wluch can sec nocpicuni 
of design In either of tho»e immortal poemti. The points oo wbtcl 
they differ may well be discussed for some time to come ; hut we 
really trust that their combined judgment has for ever itcattvrod 
to the wtnils the notion that tbc Iliad and Odyssey arc mere baa- 
kets of frafrnients gathered up in comparatively recent timea by 
the hands of Solon or PcJ-tistnilo^ 

It is, we think, in hia treatment of the Homeric poems that 
Colonel Mure displays his greatest strength. But for freshness 
and originality, the portion of bis work which stands out most 
conspicuous is that in whieh be deals with the poets, most nf ihem 
unfortunately only fritfntientarj-. who fill up tbc space lietweeu 
Homer and Pindar. Here be hiM the ground almost wholly to 
himself. No other scholar, certaiiiiy no other English scholar, 
has ever urodiiced so full and vivid a nieture of AreJiilochoa, Al- 
kaioji, and Sappho. Colonel Mure's dealings witli their precious 
fragments rcmmd oitc of those of Professor Owen or VrofeaUft 



t 



Coionel Mure and the . 



WilliB. As the one cnn rcconstnict wi extinct iminiu] from a 
single bone, and the other it ilejitruyed hiiilditig from a fri^^ent 
of architectural detail, ho (Lionel Mure can set before us the fall 
{iToportiouB, iiiEcUcctual and moral, of an extinct pod, out of a 
few lines wliich have hitherto atlordcd matter only for gram- 
mntieoU or philological inquiry. And in all three, alike in the 
BOologiMt, the nntiquvy, and the eritie, we ean admire the ope- 
ration of combined tact, experience, and good sense. In all three 
ca«C9 tlie results are of a nature which few but their authors 
wonld hare previously looked for, and which yet, when once 
stated, command immediate assent, and arc never rejected as 
Cueiful or utilm^tnorthy. To these poets Colonel Mure has 
rendered cverj- iten-iec but one. It is wonderfvd thai, with his 
knowledge of the language, hi« fine taste and neutenewt, Iiih ap- 

r Nation of the minutest characteristics of the several authors, 
BtJll remains aIto;|;cther incapable or unwilling to translate a 
piece of Gn^-k verse or prose into appropriate, or even into ae- 
corate English.* 

• W> (ball li*r«kAi*r imjiihj acnuii tniow ■'xninplm <pf iliiii ilrKiiKrilcflFipficy ■■ 
n^ud* tlitf aiilh'jrv wilti wKgin wt^ nrv h( prr^vtif^ mom iinmiHliaivJ^ ccinccmcd. 
Bail Uu oar vvrdi ttiiiuld wvtn bw ilnini;. »<< utiiiifit lurWir i|iinliii|; an iniumw 
bMI an «Ml>rT pari urCuloiirl M ure'i wurk. In vol. ui. p. S3I, hf ijiiolva k lovely 
fn^Mfit of tNIewhoroi. ui the bvkuij of whioh be yiiUili ail Um aduiirstiuu il 



i 



iflttif ttfii mi SfW'i ruKT&i iptiirif' 
vuliift 411'Xiivi* i V itiXati IBm 

»n> C«)dMl Uiir* randan : 
UjrMriun now hi) luAy oar a*ot-nda, 
^^ Am o'w tba tracklvsi war* «f Oiwan bandi 

^K Hii radiant coune. to where nighl't Mcrod ahaJM 

^P Uraren'i iighc abinrb; ihcn-. in hii 1aur*l ):ladHk, 

llia Qodirr, bin fond ipoiiic. and childti-n (trar, 
IIU dail/ luU with thcir urort cuuvtrw oliwr. 
""". irU of all. in ihln vcraion the bi-auliru] uniilii'ily (if lb* original I* alto- 
f^U W. S««ichoro* laj'iaolhing about "ibatraoklcai warn of Uoran." about 
_ jMiaat cocrat." or nboul "hi'svcn't light" bring " ab«irlHsi'" hjf ■■|ii|;bi'»aBrt«d 
*~ki* Monxwnr. Uto lail linv in^niirilv Colon<'1 Murr'ic>wuo«in[ii;«iliou. But 
**• *n oomparalituly bj<hl mmterm, tiral, 'Ait.un 'T—fiiaritti ii no inure t» 
^■^Mlatad " Hypatlun," [han n-nX-i'iaSm 'Ax^Annt ia U> be iranalatol -Fi-lpua." 
"*■> Mvoi do** niil nu-an a "0«r." ami 'loaTa^aing do« Dot mean Ut ' aw«ndr' 
*'*lilk«aaU«r owndrd by pullinj; in a now that "thr auihor, for the aak* of 
y o »M TiTM, haa taken ih* lilwrly '•( mWiiiiiinit air fur cb/i." In latl. Stwi- 
•■■W * fmttnUtT alltgor; relative fi Uip (Oii'a riantni; oniinv in the heaven." cn- 
*[H)''lla>pf«>m in Colonel Mure'i nraion. Tbwn aiCHiii. (lie lail cIbuh'. which 
ywiuwa a aMOnJ oharacler on iJie wene, iraiiiilira iinilrr th« trainlaiur'a hand*. 
jjfca alMw aiakea -llypenon" ko to the laurel gladit ia a "cw.' In Sltal- 
'■Maihapmaa who gm-t ttu-m guta neither iu a cup noriu ai-ar, bat on Fnni 
(•Md). lloraorvr, the paraon who gori In cither hahioo ia noiilwi LIrpivlon 



72 Coimiei Mur* and the AtHc tSaloruuu, 

In tlie prpwnt rolnnw, wliicfa is devoted to tlic Attic butoriam,' 
that >B, mainly 'I'hiicvdidca and Xenoplioii, Colonel Mure i>c«x»> , 
»anlv invndca Mr. Urotc'tt doiuniii nioiv frequently njid tiiiirr' rx-\ 
tensuclj- than in tlic f«rli(;r parts of his work, lii- i" here ci>u-1 
ttidcnbly luw in bin c.lcinvnt tlian uIk-ii dealing wiUi Honiprurj 
Archilochw. His own fort4% ajt we luive implit-d, lU-tt in striiHlyl 
literaiy criticism; lieiioe, iu dealini; nitJi the poctii, wlierc niuuncr 1 
is At least an important as matlar, be is tlioroiiRhly at Imiirc. Uut] 
a rntioinm purely litirnry would bv b vury inadeqaati': way of drat-f 
in^ with a pjcat Imtoriau, »hmi! all nilli TLucydidi-s, tiMK gR*'' 
fathiT of hiHtorii»l and political Kicncc Coloitcl Miirr >» neoca* 
Narily drivni t<> deal at nome Icjigth with |Kditicnl und hiMorical 
uintlen, nnd tliough even on tliew point* lie ^t'ot u« mnclt that h , 
valtuible, wc can diMern a laurked iurcharily alike to Mr. Urote't] 
tmatmeut of tb« same themes, and tn \u» own trcatrornt of more ' 
CODflOBisI subjcrtB, Itiain his thorough ^rasp of all politit-al mat- 
ters that Mr, Urate's gre&tiK^s is prtviaiactit. In ColotH-l M ure 
ihi-rc IK a Hurt ofluoncncasandcan-lnssncssof ihougbt andnprca- 
oiiin ti|K)n Hlicb Kulijcfrt'v whii'h sIhiwk itn^lf in morr wiiy.i than one.*! 
noth Mr. Orotv and Colont'l Mute nrv muttt honourably diBtia-i 
ffitiiUwd for tlw <Himbination of profound learning witli the chi^J 
rartcr of practiral rocn of the world. But the immediate world] 
of CH<'h of thf two men is by no mnanii tbt^ fuin)P. M r. (irotc'* I 
true sphere, thowiirceof illuHtration to which his thoU};liif> lialiitu- 
nlly turn, u )>(>litind lifv in it:* various funms. Colonii Mon.- baa 
.ttndi'^l life with no Ivua acutotuaw, but not so itincb in it* joli-j 
tical as iu its Hocial aspect. From lliia latter wiircr br liaa drfti 



nor a MO of Ilywrion, bat a um of SCrat («& AJt), n» othfr, (n ibart, iliw n»- 

nhlM blM««ir. C'olon*! UarahMaltonditrvtimlaaMdMtCiBlj'Ikaaclkaarib* 

Mm oup ia vhlcb th» min-tpNl BcaW4 bwk fton wail la «mi alW Uf 4l*s'* ui\. 



Emm oup ta vnicn tn* mtn-tpn aemiK Bwa mm wasi lo «mi aiur au «ijy iwi. 
IBlKViballMtthM)I*raiWBWMlaira4ua«4iattii|iMMa>aU. So»K«lgbtWr^ 
MjUMiif, p. S4, mho fHiN • vmlao. Utt ilUfMI ifcabll«W. but «DnMd(n£ljr 
noTV anniraUi tbaaibMof Calmti Unni 

- HhIIo* Rrp«riMiid** 

Iritii iha K"'^ 'Op "**>t downi 

That, liariuii ihriwcb ll»> Ommi |immiI, 

lis lo iho iWf4bt of i»cim1 itkianit atftLl wiflu i 

I.'bIu hit loiMlur w>4 lib aitddod'vilV, 

AiiJ hit ilaar ohUdr«at bal tht gum mUk laonl tliaiM 

Thi> inn iif i!«M OMU bbi." 

Thl> (• fvHMljr Ulnral. «xoM>t - i^'-igbllv; alw txtan ■< 

•uMwf/4iu*giili4"onfiiot." U> li> liuoiiii|>;iUii, (■! 

hlilalCo. 

* A ibDnwIitr WMinit* iMnkw o* tliwh pDlUka vmU barrflr. m * 
Man oMUIaMtji <b>«>, aniily ia> ootili - vaaMaraUaii." "tMlanl,' Jlr. wi (W* 
MaMi ■flhlHiN v^ilillug; Iwlox'H llw wttvnl Itrwlut sfllwi ba HirnU niM M- 

fMtMll* nii*^ >.r Ltii -' 11, ,[■ at AtiMnt. vhaa h> Mmn*. MM tha woua, b«i 

tktfuMI'' ' ■hmU nut fcnMaU libaiirfabwr^t* lij niwb 

ln| uf Uw i 



Iff/ Jlftrr* and the Attic HiOwims. 

to illustrate the nttrilnitce of our common human tuiiurc 
ii*|)layeil among Greek [>)iilo«ophcrK nnd puuU.* Colonel 
Ihfure, ill Nlioi-t, bttH Htiitlicfl tlio Or<x-k writ«rH in the chiinu:U--r of 
an accoinptisltMl genclem&n, Mr. (jrole in that of a jirofexscd po- 
liti(.-ian. few members of either class make bo full and prartical 
a tMC of their sUidics; but the diversity of the quarter from which 
each has commniccd thvm \» munitcst tlironghout their n-niing«. 
Our ruulcra will thcreftunc not be 8uq>ri«vd to Ivarn that 
Colonel Mune'ii acoo\uit of Thueydidett is by aa meiuiK one of 
the most sucoeasful |K>rlion« of hi^ work. Uerodotw, of whom 
Lp treated in hia preredins volume, i* far more in his line; for 
Hcrodutti«, thoui;h he wrote in prose, was u ^reat poet. Of the 
two (thief Attic historiau?, Colonel Mure i» far more snecess- 
ful with Xcuophun thiui with Tbucy<)idt-«. In t'lurt, it is tio dis- 
feq>ect to Niiy thitt Thucydide* in too much fur him. Much 
may be learned troni varioiu portiona of Colouel ^lure's cntt- 
ctsms ; wlierover tact and acutcncaa are cnouf b, he is stil) the 
Cdonel Mure of the Homeric contfOTcrsT. But the real i^n^at- 
neu of the Krtifia <« ml, one of the most ostoiUNhing of nil the 
prodHCtioiiK of the human intellect, can liardiy \v: fully grtts{)cd 
ej one who is oUiged to regard it priroarily from a [luiviy lilenry 
point of view. 

fe\i is, indeed, a marvelloua thought, that l^Ierodotua and 
racydides wraxt oontcmporaTy writers, perhaps not »o afidcly 
BiOTctl io age lu is communly the case between father and 
a. As Colonel Mure himself observes, an iutcrral of ceutu- 
net wou]<1 scvm to h.-tve elupied between them. The question 
of iheir comparative merit win hardly arise; the two arc tot^ly 
diftr^fut in kind. It would be almnt a-i eiLiy to compare au old 
' ~ nek, a writer of the middle ajj^es, and a writer of our own 
lO. Herodotus is a Greek of tlic 61Vh century i>.c. His 
tastes, indeed, make him rather a Greek of & century 




iarO»laaM)H«n*ir«tiiLrkidrkirii from this lourcw Btv linKcUrlT •nil* 
1 iffroffiaio. Tike, far iatuncv, hia coniDu.-iiii on the p^cl?»lvc. appnrrnily 
**"»Ht phlrWaical. dcnunpiniloni of contBiDponir; lioo by tho hliiTori^n 11i«o- 
I* *>■(■» (rot. T. ]>!>. SI4. nlS). " Hi) TtlupvraliTo auacli* wnra ohintlj ■liriH'Wd 
*^wiMI 111* luxurj', Ma*iullly. mi Koclal profllney nf iha lioiii*, •nil uf hiit iiiuni 
"^■iirttbU ooatftafanrtm, iifaaM> anxatm* ha dannuDCHd with ■ iwhaaioiiot^ ami 
^*«Mhnl with a nitBiitHnvu cf ilatall, to which. aTon u axvmplilieil iu ^n n. 
^^■S ■! would bv difficult (o fiiui S [mntllrl ia nny nulioj; *nrk of Gr«ak 
***Wm. Thii t«ry cxona of virWaut irritAlion, aiid ^uiLoew ft>r iu <li>{il^, 
^^J ptrhsp ■UttMl S doubt how rar it i« i" tii- tnki-n u a manifeilatioa of 
*'siiiMd h/omtmi th* eondnol iti^matiMd. In dculmg •ritli one who deali to 
^ JJ^nlf With odMfi^ it iDa7 not b* iwehMttsU* to aurmKB, thii hii iral mM,y 
' "BMi apiin pan at IcaM, of aoariafn qiirit of naKBtiTo mofallt;, or ma of 
MWtid t^^lky with th* condud dMcrlbell ; th* aamo which in unrnnitriLincd 
MwJ IMirt«iiunv. ofixn htadii nitn to caattrne fri.«lj. nnd in a ipml of Ictiij. on 
WWN at wkich ihvy ■'oalil fwl ajkamed nf brinit firracnt, and pnwiicc* in a hich 
1% an IkMualrva i*cafiabU uf pwlicipa^lag." 



74 



CiAontl Mure end the Attic Hi»lorutn», 



earlu^r. \m(i|)lioti w n Greek nf tUe wn^w-Mlini; n^-; n fer! 
fsvonmblo ttiimmen, w tmil lianlly ndd, llian llpnHioIii&. Bl 
Tliiipydidcs tjcloiipa to no age fir poiintry; tit- is iJit lii-iEurinii 
our L-ommou hiimatiity, tho t«aL-licr of »lMtr:u.'t gwlilital u ihiIoii: 
HoTodotux is hanllr n politicml Mritvr at all ; hw politicitl c-on 
meuU axK intlfcd, wlirit tlicy occur, invnriably tnio nnd gcii«-ruti 
bat tli«y are put forth n-itb lui nmiu)>le Mtnplicily which np 
proachcs to tho nature of » truinni. W'heit lie infers froui ll 
growth of AtheuH after the cx|mlsifln of her tyrants, that " fr 
(torn is a noblr thin^,"* the comment renilH likr ihiit i>f nn iutclliJ 
^'nt diild, or like the rdlcction of an Orii-iilnl ui«iikt-iiiu|{ to tbi 
renliticM of Kuropcau lift;. Xenoplion wriK* from the wornt in- 
spiration of Wal an<t temiMmiry juuly-^plriu He write* liUtorVa 
not to reeord facts or to (lediicc leftsonii, but, at whatever iym>i 
truth aud fninieaa, to exalt Agtnutuoa and to vilify the Tlielmu 
But Thu^vdidca, living in au age when tbo political life 
man Iim] (Mrt-ly orcnpii-d two centuries, sctmis to have dent 
from that brief (H^nixl the Wsoiik of vrliulc millennium*. Proa' 
tlie narrow field which Iny lK;for«> hin eyii« he could deduce k 
political teaching upj>lieable to every offe, rave, unil countri^ 
^liere ta scarcely a problem of the RRienc« of govcmnicnt wbic 
the atateaman may not tind, if not solved, at any rate i 
in ihc pages of this uniwrtal master. The political (Sti;_. 
of Thneydidcis eoitld have exhibited to him only two sets of pi 
Donicua — the xmall dty-commouirralih and tiie vast hnrlwrtd 
monarchy. But wc feitl that lie wonhl have U-en etpially at hnr 
under any other atate of thiu}{!>. If we could cuiiecite Hri 
dotua or Xenophon suddenly set down in the feudal Fnuioc 
Gennany of a jiaat age, in the oonstitutioual Knpland or thi 
teieni America of our own time, cvcri- thing would doiibtlc^^ 
Ntar in their eye* the nir of iin in«i!iil)Ie problrm. Dm we run 
imaffiiic Thueydidi-^ at onn* di'tectinj^ niU unalof^y tlirrmgh np> 
parent divemily, and reeogntsiitg ]>henou»ena to difrereiit fmui 
any thin([ witliin his own ekfiericncc as merely fresh rKetnplili- 
catiotts of tliu eencral principles which be had dediitx-d fmm 
another atutc ol tliingK. Xu Unib K'cms.more dillicull of 
eeptMMT than the doctrilir that hialnry in really imi- wU 
thai "niii'imt," "modem," " '." mnri 

hallinif'pliiivH, and iiothint; nior< ii<an'i> ]V'I< 

it ciMTntially the name under t-iery varKly of Quimani e\t 
•laiii!c*. But no (entiinimy more overwl"'"ii'i-'' ■■'■iri 
truth tluui iJic tjtvt that lli« jx>UtictU «i 
ll.n ' '' ' liy the Hlixm (if a iimall p'jiitour iiwii^ !wei 

tl> 'UO 

^uliiu Hnv ■' 'r-i n ■! I'lii. . ,1ide» wcr- ■ rliriruimi 

• ■.'.■;, I ..I - h IP ..." i-rwilfc** ^- 



Ojfiwtrf M«re and the Atlie ttisteriana. 



n*hc mind of Hemdotii-t i-vitlcntly Uvi-il in pnst times. Tlie •tern 
rtrulli of clironuioyy (fits im (lisit he was coiiU-miiornrj- with Pe- 
rikies, prrhapa «i[h Alkibiacie*. But no one rcjdittt^ the fact 
white r««linK his enchanting chronide, Wliile so engaged, we 
folly believe him to have been an eye-witness of Marathon and 
Salami*. We arc indeed hardly elear whether he may not have 
kwkH on at the n-ttirn of Peisistratos, or even have been in- 
visibly jiresent in the sleejiing-ohamlxT of KamUuleM. Nothing 
conneeta him with his own age, except a few l>rief, sparing, 
eomctimes doubtful, references to events later tJiau hia main 
mbject. Tlie genial trarellcr of llalikarnaswM loved to gxthvr 
togcthiT, to i<ct in dramatic order, to garnish with an occasional 
religioiu or moral sentiment, the mitiijuitie* and legends of every 
age and eounlry eneept Jhe (m-r-e«^ of the Pelopounisiaii war. His 
own age, we may )>elieve, he la1>otire<i to foi^t; a nmre dignified 
form of affection for the paat tliau that which diaplayn itactf in 
querulous longings after what is j-one, and petulant sarcasms 
upon what is present. lie is the liberal, well-informct) aiiti- 
quary and scholar, who lives out of hi? own age ; not the disap- 
pointed IMilitteian, who live* in it ouly to carp at every tiling 
arouiul or iieyond hira. 

In Xenophon, on the other hand, notwith.ttanding much 
that is perwmally attractive and estimable, wc see, as a political 
vriter, only the man of n particular time and place in the smallest 
Bad most malignant form of tliat character. Herodotus lived in 
ifce past, Thuoydtdes lived for the futiure ; Xenophon WTflccts 
enlr the petty ))NHMion.4 of the moment. He writ<-s not like a 
faiftoriai), whether antiquarian or political, hot like a [letulant 
journalbt who has to decry the troublesome greatness of an oppo- 
site party. Yet even his writings may iudircetly guide to the same 
leswia as those of Thucydidcs. One teaches us that much of our 
miitrm wisdom might be rtJached by a powcrftd intellect white 
bomna thought wilh yet in itn infmiej'. The other shows that if 
oI'Kln^eee could forestall modern |>oHticJtl seienee, it could also 
forwuU the pettiest forms of modern polttieal animosity. Thn- 
l^yduka, willwut Xenophon, might make us place the ideal Greek 
■"iw orian at n superhuman height above us, Xenophon, without 
r'Tha^didcs, might IcJid us to degmdc him to the level of a vciy 
' tofcrior modern pamphleteer. But the two comhiucd unite to 
tctch the same Icmsou, that man is e^wiitially tho name every 
K •WfC; that an old Greek was a hcin;; of like passions with tt 
I ^eru Englishman, eikch Iieing alike capable of exhibiting, un- 
B IIV the necessary modifications, the highest and the lowest pha.ica 
■ of DOT common nature. 

r In fact, no otic enii thomughly appreciate Thueydides who 
L ^M not make u»c of Xenoplion aa a foil. Without comparing 



76 



Colonel Hurt and the AUic. Uutonata. 



the tiro, we mijcht t>e led to suppose that Thurrdidcan dignity 
and iropartiattiy «aa an easy cominonplaoc quuHiy. not (.-tiiitling 
its possrasor to any particular cx^mmotdalion. Wlit^u we turn to 
th(! Ilcllciiio, wc nt once mc how gn-At were, the i«iiiptatioiiB to a 
oontruQ- cuiirw; wliich sturouudrd » (ircck wnliiig coutempoTOT 
llisbny. Hour many 0|>j>orCuiuttes inusl have occuiTcd, and bsvo 
been rejected, of colouring, omitting, eia^iiETatiiij^, How c«ty 
to have passed by the ^ood or the had deed* of ouo or the other 
party. How hard a task to kocp the bitter n-veiipi;l'id spirit of 
the exile from appearing in ciery piigc. Tliuodides, after all, 
WM ft man. He could not (U-»l with perfect fjurness between hira- 
adf and a bitter petwonal and ))olitieul enemy ; but what docs the 
utino»t that ean be made oat against him amooot to? That lie 
once pronounces a judj^ent which his own narrative doeit not bear 
out 1 in short that, though be never eea»-d to be a tnilliful wil- 
DcsB, he had nut attained that superhuman height of virtue which 
enublct a man to be a perfectly fair judge in his own caute. 
Think of tlii:i one fbtnr, and compare it with the nwral stale (^ 
the man who could describe the llieban revolution without nica- 
tiouing the name of Pclopidas; who, when leeording at larp 
the histor}- of his own times, could dilate at impertinent length 
on the pettieil (iroecrdings of luf! Spartan Ihto, and delibi'jaielr 
omit all mention of the deliveriince of Mi'Mi-nia, and the founds- 
tion of Megaloiioliji. Thiii-y<li(U-« himself wait not al>Hotuti-ly per- 
fect ; but perhaps no other actor in im]mrtant eventa ever related 
tiiem with so creat an amount of impartiality. In XcnophA 
we bare to condemn not tncrcly weakness and passion to an wa- 
pardonnhic degree, but sheer want of common hontvty, di^ib^ 
rate viohition of tlie first moral hiws of the bi*toriim'K cidliitg. 

))iit the grcatnexs of Thueydide* is, al^T all, of a soniewbaA 
eold ami unattractive character. He does not, tike many otbtt* 
writers, draw us iK-ar to himself personally. What reader o* 
Herodotus does not loi^; ibr a personal conversation with tl>^ 
genial and delightful old tinrcller, who had been v%-ery wher^ 
and seen e\'crj' tiling ; who coidd t«Jl you the fourKler of e«*7 
eity, and the architect of ei-ery temple; who could recite oraclC 
and legends from the beginning uf things to his own day ; aia^ 
who would season all with a simple moral and political eommeXX' 
tary, not the len acceptable for being a httle commouplnce ^ 
Wluit N'Otdd one not give for an o|>portuuity of asking why it waA 
after all, that the Seythiana blinded their 9tlav<s, or of finding outt 
in some nngiianled moment, in honour of what deity the I'lgyp 
tianf subuiitied IhcmiK'lt es to the discipline ? Xeuophon, again, 
would cWdenlly not have been the less agree^djlc a (nmpanioa 
on account of liiv unpatriotic horiines and hix liistoiieal tui&ir- 
If lie was a bitter enemy and an uujicrupulous particaa, 



Oo&MHf .Vitre and tite Attic Hlntarians. 



77 



I very fitulu Rro«c from carryiDg into fscc»s the amiftlilc' clia- 
er uf II seslott* fi-iond. The pupil of SocTal<-» va*. of nt-ccui^ 
nir u> the govern me lit hj which he wili i»ii(lctiiiK-<I ; llie fol- 
lower of Agc^iWia could not mete out eomnion junlice to thoae 
pestilent Thebans by whom all his policT was brouj;ln to nought. 
But Thucydidc^ excites no tcclings of the kind. W'c ini^ht hare 
h>shiy c»tcn;inc<l the privilege of sittiug nt hi« feet as a lecturer j 
but we kUouIiI hardly have been very dcwirous of his eouipuny i» 
our lighter momentit. Gentid Hiinplietty, hearty anil niii'DiiNeiouit 
iinour arc, aAer all, more alti-activc than the stern Jlerf^■ctiou 
I wisdom; a little superstition, and a little pai-ty-spint, if thojr 
Jer a man less adinirahlc, do not aJwajT* make him less agrco- 
Impartiality is a rare and divine quality ; but a little hu- 
wenkneiM soinetimcat conmicuds itwlf more to fniil mortals. 
There tti something h)fty in the poKitinn of a niun nho records 
the worst dee<ls of Athenian and Laeediemonian iilike, a« a sim- 
matter of business, without a word of concealment, pallia- 
u, or reprobation for cither. But we feel quite sure tliat llc- 
otos would hiirv told lis that the mussnere of PiuUne and 
nuwaocre of Melo* were each of them ii irpity/ia oi/y S^ior. 
! lunpcict that Xeiiophon would have hceii co iUHhumeo of the 
deed of the siilo on which hia ouii feelings mi^ht he enlisted, 
: he woidd not have rccontcd Irath crimes m his historv. But 
: get a little puzzled as to the moral condition of the man who 
dhb0T»lely dissects the characters of Tlicmistnkles and Perildes 
u iitellectnal and political subjects, without a word of moral 
ffai«c or dispraiifc of either. Ovir perplexity is iiicreascfl when 
vc find the hbtoriau honestly recording the as.-<ii.'«iiiaiiou.'t iu 
vhxh .-Vntiphon was at least an accoinpHi^, and yet pronouncing 
t^ same Antiphou to have been interior to none of his eon- 
kuporaiics, — Konou and Kallilcratidiis inelucU-d, — not only in 
jMity hut in virtue.* Ilerockitiis would have lifteil tip his hands 
u fioiu horror; Xenophon would either luivc shirked so dis- 
*S'*uhli! a subject, or have at least discovered some ingenious 
ttphiam in palliation of the oflence. Then, again, human nature 
•octave for something like religion, and docs not always kick 
■* » little supcrslition. We dccidcdJy do not think the worse 
"f tlirrodotus, Xetioplioii, P«usaiiia.<, auil Arriau for l»elicving in 
^Vica, viaioRs, ai>d the whole art and in^^ti-ry of divinutioii. It 
" ptiiaps very admirahlc, hut it is not iiltogt^ther amiable, in 
■Wydidm to have got so br in advance of his age as to make it 
Wowly certain tliat he believed in nothing ofthc kind, and to 
we it by no means clear whether he iK'Iicved iu any god* at 
^*ll- i'inaily, wc cannot forget, possibly even n cMntemporary 



*^irf (itt>ti ^mpM, Hiac. lill. 0. OS. SMDr.AraoU'tnoteoDilM pMMg*. 



78 



Colonel Hure and tke Attic HUtoriant. 



Greek cotild not foi^t, liaw c&bj*, bow plcosnnt, it is to 
Herodotus au<) \ei)0)il)on, how very diHiirult it oftvii \>> to 
Thucytlides. ^Vc admin;, but ire cuinot bniig oiiruJtc* to Iut 
thu iDUU who lius olotbod tliv irord» or wiMUtiit with a n-il mi di| 
(iciUl to ti|ilin. Wv art- toraetioie* tcnipu-d to prefer « 
leaft iMxtfouiiil in vubHtanoe. but more oonfonuiiblc to t)i« ordlDi 
laira of hintiHii or lli'lkiiic gruDiiiiar. Tlicrc is uo (tniyiii^ ihi 
ft speech of Tliitcj'didcji ia far more profitable Ibiin uuc of \r 
piton, or CTPU than oiu; of IIciY>dutn». Itut thirv tire- tnunittnl 
of wrakocgs in irtiioh one prvfcnt [ih>4uHirc to jirolit, — the ^Svl 
the Tfp^ifov, — »iid in which even tbc rcjxati'd exhortations 
Pcrikh-M to |in-ft-r deedn to wurda make us for a tiioinint pr 
the ayoirKffia it to TrapavpT/iin even to tlic K7>ifta t't att. 

In fact, this iioiidorl'ul iiitcllcetuo] Mipcriority of Tbiierdiilcs 
to bis onn a^c, and iiidei-d to llu- mass of men in any nge, wbl 
it makes bis history tbc eternal tn-4i>iire-liuiis<e of jiuliticid wiidai 
makes him, in some ineidontal jioints. 1cm Justrueiive tliau a ve 
inferior writer might \ui\v. been, aa the immediate chronicler 
Im own juirtii^ular ajie- Colmicl Mure truly remarks, that 
Greek hi.4luriaiis did not oommonJy look on the inteniul jmlitiai 
the M^vrrjl states as eoming within their 11 rovi nee. A kiiowledi 
of tbcm is taken for {^rallied in u well-informed Gni'k readi 
The historiiui, for the m<»l jxirt, itcaU oidy with tbc citic» 
Uieir international, or iihat might more properly, ua Mr. Gt 
MiggeatH, be called their interpifliticat as|i«7t. It is only nhen 
internal revolutioiu )>car on foraii^n affairs that tbey are rt-Tonkd 
at any Ien};ih, Thus Thucydidcs rceounis the Athenian 
Intions of tiie year 411 in full detail, lK-o»niie the |iiin tali 
them by ihe Heet at Samon bhn]r» them uilhin the imuK 
sphere of his military narrative. But in bis Summnry Uv di 
not devote a line to llic eoni>titiitional ebaimn intruiluced 
Aristn<le«i, Kphialtcs, and Periklcs, though ho records military 
anddiplonialieetents certainly not of>;reatPT im|iortaiiee. Kit 
Nikia*, Alkibiiule.*, are only intnxlixM-d when they Ix-iriti to 
an intlnenn' on lureign atlitir*. Of the asmiilts ' 1 
Kloon, of the demiignifocs nho appeared fur d '1 < 
Ihe interval between the death of the one and tbc continnrd ij 
Hut-ncu of the other, Thncyilitic* tell* ns not a won). St 
iM Colonel Alun- ub«crvcs, does be vniielisole any direr 
tioii a* to tbt- liCemry, artistie, and (iliihiMtphie bcinu <•: ■\\ 
itl her (fTTulejit H|ili'iulniir. We HhiMilil iitn-r hiiip li-iiniMlj 
Ilim that 1 
i*le.i. Kt 
that 1 1 < e* u ail 




was at I 






11:1 as 



lliei::. 



EU-ctra. UadXbuuydidca litcdtorccouutUio luU-of A: 



Cotonet Atvre and the Attic HiiUoriana. 



70 



'Tatty wull doubt wbetlicr tlic luiiiie of Sokrate^ would have 
I'tirri'd in bi» n?|K>rt of the great dcbato on the aiDcudmcin of 
UrypUilMitiM. Olio niij;ht Xuivc cxjMx-tvd that the advcrMiry of 
iKInon would hiive lookud «ilh ROiiitr ttjitipatliy on the iiiilliur uf 
hhp Kiit;;btii; hwt llie name of AriHtOiiluinu iionlurn; oreups ill 
Itlii- hiHlury of tiKi Felo)>ou»i»iaii war. Efnii in lU-jdiTig willi 
[Pcfiklfi, his ^n-at artistic worka apjicar ooly in the melancholy 
|]X>*iti<)n of ibiits in a biidgrt. Poasibly, to be surr. Sir Conie> 
wall Lt'wiit may look nith no other eye on the itcw hoiisca of 
I lit mill ttie dtwigitx for tliv public officM. Even tbs 
nf tliL' bcroEft of im ntirratirv aiv in n nuinmn- imperfect, 
jUv.itii^L' ilifv up|M-ar Holi^ly aa |iotitical and military tiititic-^. We 
ln-i; in all his ;;i¥atucss the Pciiklea who guidctl ihe democracy 
IbniMi^b the horrors of war MxA pcstUeucc. Um we bear noibiog 
luf the liiver of A)>]UHia, of the founder of the Partbcaon, nothing 
VDR of the refortiicr who iDvellut tlic liut rcUcs of oligarchy, 
[and (>ubiitittited the popular tribunal for the veni^able »enate 
}(iit the Hill of Ares. 

On all ihvMi. points nc should doubtlo>s have learned much 

Innnt from eicbrr the I'srlier or the later hiatoriau. Had Hero- 

[iliiluo ik-i^nt'd to record the events of bis own ajjc, his very lore 

Tori^-niitl pMMup would hare led him to describe a great deal on 

whiob Tluii-ydtilm presorve^ a ilead ailcncc, and nhieh wc have 

lt>)pii^k lip Minondbaiid from Vliitiircb and olliif inferior writei*. 

||iT->'l'ittia may, na Mr. (irolt; Iiiih aliowii, not have undemtood 

' i!eplh and meaning of ihe democratic changes of Kleia- 

Uui he ha* at least rceordcd tbcdr outward forms, wlule 

I I'hiitTyilidcn hiw not done oven thus much by the fitrthcr changes 

[whieb bnni^ht the work of KleistbciiiM to eoiupletiou. We eou 

irdly fauey iJuit th« anlii|uary nho wa» so eunoiu about the 

rabrincM of the Sumian Hera and the Efryptian Amnion could 

* avo been allofiri'chcr blind to tho structure reared under bis own 

|tn the Atlii'iia of the Akropolia. He who has rceordc^I the 

«Ui)nH niiule by Kleintbciies uf Sikvon in the churio ritual 

brhi» own city, con 111 hardly have listened unconcenied to the 

llrainN whieb told the glories of Kolonux, or thooe which hurled 

the iirerwhcliniiiK burnt of satire upon the head of the devoted 

1. Still IcM* can we fancy the prose narrator of the 

iiTD ttsleniin;, without at lea^t a •{cncn>us rivalry, to 

.-.<• told ill t lie palace of Suss, or to the pictuioof 

■ la under the nuny of the, in Iiia own tide, les* 

111 invinnbhi l)ariu!>. Thucydidt^ either caml tiH- none 

^Uiin^, or unluekUy Ihon^lit itiem " benealh the dignity 

liL«tiiry." If the oil) llalikarnassian could but have buva 

' ' I'ul with thing's of his onu time, we feel »ure that 

, i d Hljiuilard would have udinitleit an cneliautin^ pic- 



80 



Colonel Mure and the Attic Huloriant. 



turc of the swial and artiwtic &» well ue the puti^cd aspect of 
AttieiiA ill 1I14; (IiiVH of her ^lory. 

And iiit nitli Herodotus, so, in anather vaj, vith Xenopboo. 
The snudler hiatoriau has appropriately allotted to him the 
smaller Heto. Kut Xcnophon girc* us a for more vmd pictnie 
of Agesilaos than Thucydidt's givc« us of Pcrtklcs. In the oue 
wc simply admire tliv KliilCKiriim, 111 the othi-r wv are brought 
into daily interonr«c with the tnaii. Aiid i^ain tliv tttiidcucr 
to perwiiial gcnsip iuddentally heljii ii» lo valuable [Ktltlica] iu- 
fiirmation. We doubt vbcthcr Thucydides would have eoilighu 
cncd us as to the singular and disemlitabk means bv which 
Sphodrias escapc^I the puuiohmeiit of liis unprovoked ana treacb- 
cnjtis inroad into Attiut. \enophoii, in blind zeal for bis bcro, 
lets us iH-biiid the curlain, and ihi-Teby J^\\aw% m what rtrai^ 
causes might affect the cotirae 01 justice amid the tecret in A- , 
n^ of an olij;arc)iy, and bon- much personal influence lay witb^H 
the reach of a king who retained hardly a shadow of eonati^H 
tional power. Again, while wc rcrcrctiec the set i^)e<cches of 
Thuiynidcs for tlic deep teaebiuj; which they contain, wc canitol 
but feel that the ithorter and livelier addresses and rejuindeis pee- 
senred or invented by Xeuophon give us a truer )>irtnn.! of (he 
Teal tone of a debate in a (Jreek assembly. And tliou^h a cri- 
tical judgment may cundenin, with Colonel Mure, hia probm 
of small dialogue and petty personal anecdote, we cannot at thii 
distance of time re^^ret any thing which helps to give us a men 
perfect picture of the nianuer anil toue of fculii^ of an age bun 
tlic band of a cnntem[)orury and an actor. 

In the above rapid ftketcb of tlie moxt striking eharactefiBtia 
of the tlirec leading (Ireck hiatorian,!), iie fhoiild lind it difiuall 
to say how mueh has and how much Iiaa not been suggested to 
our minds by the critieisms of Colonel Mure. On the wlu^c,a> 
ve have implied, he Ktrikat us a« not doing full justice to Tba* 
cydides. Yet we do not feci obliged to foUow the example of* 
certain Mr. Shilleto of Cambridge, an old enemy of Mr. Gn)l«^*i 
and NUgpest, with analogous impertiueiiee, an altemativt.- betwWi 
Thucydiikt and Mtire. Colonel Mure, (hough not a (^ambridg" 
man, wowkl, wc imagine, be ntcogniscd, even by Mr. Shilleto,** 
a res|Ks'(ablc Greek scholar, and wc believe that he votes co th* 
Conservative side of the House. He is therefore not linfalu *• 
the same d^rce of contempt aa one who, whatever his leuDiiS 
and depth of (hoTight, must still plejid guilty to the unpaid"?** 
able oSeuccs of being at once a Radical poliucian and not ia^ 
linbly sound in bis Greek particles. To those who base bW> 
offendMl with the ignorance mid self-Kuflicieney of Mr. ShilkW'' 
attack on Mr. Grule, there is a eeitaiu lutisfuction in &uSco$ 
Colonel Miu« arraigning Thucydidea on far wider grouods tl»B 



Ceiouel Sfure and tht jUtie IRtt^rian*. 81 

Mr. Orotc has doav. He complettl}* cndorMs Mr, Grotc's ar- 
gunu'litii uu tlic only poiiitti in which tht* Caiiibrid;;c verbalist 
couUl <lni'<:t uii ii|){itin^iit (lifTcrc'iio; Immwoch the nncictit mid 
Uw lumli'rn hintiirlan. Any one who ihi» in Tlmcydidi-* ii 
mai liistoriaii, aixl not « mere auhject for & verbal It^ctiirc in 
Attic Greek, wUl |>ercdvo at once that the veracity oflliucy- 
dJdcv is nowhi-rc colk-d in question hv Mr. Orotc. All that Mr. 
Orotr OMntmit ic, Ihitt hv Inu ulloweu poreonal fivlin^s to colour 
hifl inferr.im'A from fucbt, while it i» nut wcw sug};c«ti-<l tlmt he has 
reported ihc facts iniiccnratcly. Becaiue wc owe »o nuich to Tlm- 
cydidf-ti, people commonly leap to the condiudon tliat hi» bim- 
inlimcnt by the Athenian people muit have been unjust. Mr, 
Onjto wnturul for the first time to think (hat hia own narra< 
tivo of (lis oomnuuul at Amphipolis and Eion affords no ground 
for arrmiguinjc the jiutpneiit c>rh» eountriiniii. KIcon, u^ain, 
wam a (MirMin&t nnd jxilitieid enemy of Thiicvdidi^. lie U well 
nieli tlic only ixr^nii in hpejikingof whom the hislorinn iIi-mrtH hi» 
luuul ntiijii]Nk>t>io]ittt dignity, so as Midom to niculion him with- 
out some ditpAn^png cxprcsnion. Mr. tirotc was bold enough 
ta hint tlmt tlic hii^toriau's prejudice had coloured, not indocU 
bi> luuTutivc, but liis eommcutaiy ; aud that his own stntemc-nt 
of til*' ciutu did not fully bear out hi» unruraurablc jud^nuent. 
When iti' nin>itd«r hou- .Mr. Crot*- liiui Wen av»3ile«l for ihcM- 
t« ■ • inuw* iif indi'pen<!ent llioiiKbt, it i* crrlaiuly not 

a < <iry to linil ('otoin!l Mure corrohnnitiu^ bin vtcwii 

on the lir»t point most completely, and on tite second to a 
coitsiili'rablv extent. Wc should of course never think for a 
uuiraeut of pliieiug Coh)nel Miuv on the level of Mr. ShiUeto; 
bat bf a-rtainly ivvxan u> take n pleiuure in dilTmnp fnmi Mr. 
(jroci- whemver he ean. Mis te»tiinony in biti fiiionr is therefore 
ol ' "T value. Colonel Htiiv tL-lU us that he examined the 

q>i niiievdidcs' command in 'I'hracc entirely for hiusclf, 

ititd iliil not refer to the commentaries either of Uishop ThirU 
wnll or .Mr. Grotr till he bod eoniph-lod his own. He thus ap- 
pttan UN a tuudly inde{>ciu]i>nt witni^»s, coulinntng l^lr. Grol«'« 
ncK on c\ try f*«cntiid |H>iut. Tl»e case, in faet, in perfectly |Jain. 
When Ani]itii|i<iliit wau threatened, the .\theuiau ctnumander 
ou|cbt to luivc \n'vn Dowh^-rc but at Amphip»Iis ; least of all at 
TbttMm, Mhich tlie Lmd-furee of UriMiUia did not and coutd not 
thn-iiteu. He in ut tlie very lensl chilled on to »huw eaun; why 
W WM nuy whftro <'Ue, and uieb eaii.-w he nowhent altcntpt? lo 
ibtiv. Colourl Mure gtKW a ateji farther than ^Ir. (imle, and 
lii' ' ' 'iroMlly what the real eimse was. I'humlidcs, as he 
li> "< ns, was a mining proprietor in that part of the 

*oil*l, ;_<ilonil Mure venliuvs to -iiy : 

" May uut this very fact, Iud esU'tmive iaterest bb a proprietor in 





82 



Colonel 3ture and the Atlic Hhlorians. 



that extrnnttf of hit province, fumUh an exiilnaatloD of hit pnferam'' 
of TbMus to Ampbipolis or ^o w Ui« bcM-<tiurtcr t Tli« cratn of 
tlie Thrtician mining district, frbcre hi* own poMBcnionK wore situatedi 
WW SraptesyW, on the cmwt imiticdiiitrly ruppcitnli; Huwus ; andlkc 
principal town and port of that islnnJ wan also tiir chi<:f ciDporitim of 
tfa* nuaenl trade of Ttirac«. In tbc abaenee. ttwrflforc, of all otbcr 
•ppanot motive for Iiis Win;; stAtionaij in tho uctrBinc* north of hit 
piuvinoe, while BraxidaB wad con^jut'riog tb« priocipa] citit* of itl 
Booth and centre, it ii itot very uuch^iri table to nppote that tbo bnlt 
l^ to his charge, aud not w!th<jut r«aaon, wsa hia haring been DiOTf 
occupied with I)i« own al&ira than witli hia official dntt«8, at a tioM 
when tlie latter Iim) an iniiicralire dahn oo Ina nDdivided attention" 
<p. 40.) 



Now M to Kleon. Every •cliolar win remember htnr stw-" 
nuotia!y Mr, (!rot« h«a laboured to effect sonicthinK like a rin- 
dication of that mnch-rcriled perftonapc. Afto" all. >Ir. Orate 
Icavce much in his character opcu to blamv; but it may be 
ooJlcd n vindicntaon of the demagogue a» oompuvd with the 
CKtiruntion iii which he hn* been held by every ptCT-ioiia writer. 
Colonel Mure'a dealings with this |ioint are aomewbat curioo*. 
In p. 4-t lie claaaesi Mr. Grote among "admirers or apol(^sta of 
the Athenian demoeracr," who "have endeavoured to vindicate 
QeoD nt the expense o{ Thnrydidcs." The qucftion. he tell* tWj 
" resolves itself pretty much into a comparative CEtimate of the 
cluu«ct(rr of Clean for political discretion ant) military genius, and 
that of Thucydidcs for historical truthfuln«»." " The theoiy of 
Cleon'ti vindicators" im])lics that Thucydidca was " guilty of de- 
liberate miareprestentfttion ;" it gtve» " him credit not only tor 
disboneaty, but for a disregard of his own fair fame, searcely oon- 
reivnhle even in a dishonest man moderately gifted with common 
■fcnsc." Now this is really too mneh in the Shillctonian roD to 
he wortliy of ft writer like Colonel Mure, Mr, Grote does no- 
thing whatever of what is here nttrihutcd to him. He nowhere 
Ekccusea Thucydidca of misrejirutenlAtion or dishonesty. He ftiOy 
accepts hia narrative, both as to the scene in the AsscmUy, and 

• We miut eonfo« that nm do nni nndmlaiKl CoIoopI Slcnr'* gnt^raabj. 
How \t Thuoi the ■■rulremi! nonh nf liii nriiTincc" moro ih»n AraphrpMiif 
DoM Colanal Miin aiipnuic thai Aiujihlpntia llm " aouth" «r Tbaxn ? IId My* 
ao dlMedf la (ha prcci:Jint> pagr. " It (I'haiiia) la^ m far from Amphlpolla m 
At mirii, ai ilia MWDn of thu Siinriitn wiirriiir> <<>[lio*t raocoMu from ika ••«• 
city lo lh« b>alli." Now Akanlhiui, tin- citj pn'rina»\]r friin by UrsiiiiU*, otc- 
Uintj liiMi u nvarly nk piiMiiMi- dii" huhiIi nf Amjiliipollx. Tli» nluiil iirTTiuoa 
lira, uot iinrlh, tiul *'><iih<<-ut. Hiv inlanij, u ■ wholp, is ilwiiJeiUf BOQlh of 
Amphipolit; llif pily of Tliuns. in lb*- rxcrvmennrUi nf th<> isluxL m tfit DMwIy 
•in tae ramp p*nllvl us Ampiiipoli!!. bill nlill a Httlt- kuiIi uf it. Wp arc bfrtid 
Colonel Muro is ralhir rnri'lcBii of ihcnL- points. In p. 133 be ipmWi nf " tlip 
T'hniciaH putrntati' ArrhiiiiFiji. ' He H-ni n Mnctiloniiui of Ljokpitu l^TAue. n^ 
IM),oalae lidu of Macnlonla farilicit fi'oin Tbroec. 



4 



Colonel Mure and tke Attic JTutorians. 



83 



to the campiugn'At Fjloti. He simply ttiinks thai, for oniie, 
penoual enmity h&s hetrayed Thucyclides into a coiiimcnt whidi 
his owD statement doca not "bear out. Thu<:yill(l&i says that & 
Oertein scheme was " inBano," which his own oarrativc shovs to 
have btyrii quite feasible. Mr. Grote rcfosw to believe cither the 
satires of Ari^luphmics or the invectives of Thuevdidcs, becttuM 
Bbe tioldt that the facts, us reported by Tlmcydiiles himself, do 
^ot jiutify them. jVrUtophaiics repri;»ciit» Kleon as tdetding 
away tlte wclUcamed pnze from Dociiui^theiies. Certainly no 
one would find this out from the fourth book of Thucycfides, 
Aristophniies represents Klcon as winning his inflaence over the 
people by the )»srat and most crinsiDK flattery. Thueydides puts 
ioto his mouth a xpccch, on the affair of Mitylene, which advo- 
cUtm indeed a dettwtablc line of policy, but which, of all npuwhcs 
in the world, is the least like that of a flatUrrer of the jieople. 
In fact, it is a bitter invective against the jieople. Nothing that 
DemosUteoes did eay, notliing tliat I'erikles can have said, could 
surpass the boldness of the censures passed on his own auditors. 
Tlte exact amount of historic reality attaching to the Thucydidean 
oralioiui w very doubtful, and probably differs uiudi in iudividuol 
cases. But we may I>c quite sure that Thueydidcs would not pat 
into the mouth of Kleon a Rpeech more austere and dignified tnsn 
became hia character. Colonel Mure appeals to the unanimous 
testimonv of nutiijuity a^ainnt Kleon. But (hat unanimous teali- 
mony reduces iucif into t!ie history ofTiiucydides and the comedy 
of the Kuightx. All that later wTitcrs can do, is to rtpeat the 
Jodgmeiit of Eicon's contemporary adversaries. Now it is uot^ as 
Colooel Mure iwys, by a " purely spcodativc argunicnt" that Mr. 
Gfote endeaivurs to reverse that judgment. It i.-* by an appeal 
lo the fiu:ts of the ease as one of his advcrtnriR< lias recorded them. 
After all this, we are indeed surprised to find the following 
remarks in a later stage of Colonel Mure's work : 

" The remarks sajij^fetted by the hirtomn's character of CleoB have 
been partly auttci|uiteil in a prcviooH page. It is the only oiie in lus 
tnatinent of wliicli Iki Ita* sliown a dispiisition to enluTKu »" ilufvcls. 
ht other csMS Iw dwells rather on the bright than tlic diirk lodc of tlia 
pietnr*. Ris best nndication from the dinrgo of liaving in Uili single 
mUncc been tkduated by malicious motives to swerve from tli« 
Js tlic fact already noticed, that the defects stigmatised arc ttio 
in kin<l and degree, wliich with singular unanimity bnvo 
'sacribtd to CleoD by all other authorities. Another evidence of 
^partiality is tho drcunuttiuicv, that while those uutliurlties represent 
p whole career of the demaguKue as one unmilij(uied euurse of folly 
miscfaSe:^ Thucvdidus gires him cr«dil for a cunducl iu some of hia 
liings net vtrry r-nsy to rvooDcUc with the iiicii|)uuity displayed 
in otfaeia. TV apparent inconnatsacT implies at leiwt a disposition 



u 



CoioHtl Mure and the Attic HUtorians. 



to ttiTkrd Iiiin Kucb mrrit m hr raillr pomcmmI. In bU nitiupaigB 
Amplii])oIii!, CIcoii ccrtninly fijipirc* in n i!oiit<rmptiblc %ht, both u a 
soldier and a gcuoral, Uut bis otbcr militiu^- oporaUoiis are not r»- 
prcMnted aa open to censuro. Thu^'dides, indeod, withbolda fruu him 
the merit oi havini; made good bi* 'iuaaoe promifle' to oupUire iKe 
ijpurtau ^atriauu of Sphacteria. He deecribes DemoBtbenes m» lianiig 
alr«aily miitured bin iueitaurt« for the auocesa uf iJiat eulrr|>rijie, uml m 
the director -iu-chinf <if tlM-ir «X(.-culioD. But tlien li u» hint of deoa, 
UB tbu lidDornry comTuiuidcr-ui-L^iiuf oD tUu ouuutuii. linvtRji; xhoirii taxf 
wniit of cnpni^ity or courngc. In tli«: eurlv piirt of liix eniiaing Tbraciau 
caiupnigTi, his oiiiTntiiiig tav rt^^irMfnt^d not av\y im ■ui.-CL>iuifu|, bat al 
well plniiiii'<i niid vii;riromlj- cxciriitcd. Hccvcii. on oni' important oo- 
casioD, ontinftnoiuvrcd the fonuidnbtr Tlriwidiu, bj- whom lie was aft«t- 
wards defeat«d ; and, by a curious coincidetiiv, miicb in the mode in 
irbicb Thucydidea hiiUHolf had boon diMomfited not loDg before by th 
same able «dvew«iry" (jij). 146, 7). 



After reading the ftbove, one niiffbt almoat tliink thst Colonel 
Mure hiul suddenl/ Iwcttme a convert to tlie theory of Mr. Gro*t 
Kleuii hiw ceased to be utterly contemptible; indeed, Colond 
Mure ^ives him credit for a much greater amount of mililair 
conduct than Mr. Grotc vcuturce to elulm for hitn. lie has be- 
come ulivc to the curious fact that KIl-dii i» the one {K-rmn whom 
Tbui^'dides pifliN out fur cx;iwurc. But he will not IjcIictc th«l 
the w^ni'tir^^^ ia ill-founded, bveuuse " ull orher authorities" con- 
firm it with "iiiiigiilar unanimity." We do not know who the 
"other authoritieei" are, except AriAtophanos. Itut in hia tcry 
next sentence Colonel Mure practically netn aaidc their ju<lgmGtil 
aa not borne out by thc&cts. What more could Mr. Grotc dcaiK 
AAcr all, what is the accu!iutioa a^ainet Thiindidc^y Simply, 
OS vc have already said, thnt. though he Inu nowhea- misstiiicd 
facts, he has in one instniKW ulloweti politieiil or porvonal pique 
to warp hix jndj^ment. All honour to Uie contemporary hi.ttoriui 
a^inst whom thii* is the heaviest charge ! Think of llie teiii|t- 
talions, not merely to a sinj^le false judjiment, but to connlaul 
misrepresent atioa of fact, which beset eicry politicnl cbroniclcTi^ 
above ull, those which lK!*et v, (frtx-k of the Pclopimnesian Wbt? 
Think, in u word, what \ciK>|ihun wii.'' — what Tbueyilidcs mi^ht- 
have hccii, utid w^h not. We niav well lulniil that Thiieydiw 
wa.4 prejudiced against KJcod, and that he himwlf failed of hi 
duty at Amphipolis, without dcroKating one jot from the vd 
and impartiality of Ids immortal history. 

We have now to mako some fartlier commenta on Colone_ 
Mure's trealmeut of Thucydidcs, and especially to point oufel 
some respects iu which he seems to us to have unduly derogat 
llrom his merits. 



4 



le 

n 



Colotul Mure ami the Attic Hhloriant. 



85 



■i—^ 

^ 



L We (Link thiit Colonel Mure ha«, in tlie first rhaplcr of hi* 
Hl|lil|g|ritaino, iiiiide out a ^-oocl cifle in favour of liis |K)Mlioii, 
^mc9wI^mi(te» na-i not only well acquainted vritb the liihtoiy oi 
HcHMlotus, but that ho also took for ^nted a similar acquaint* 
aucc with it OD the part of his renders. lie not only, iu some 
plaooi, seems directly to aim at real or supposed iDacciirii(-ii.-s ou 
the part of the enrlter vn-iter, but he seenw in others silently to 
make his own work » comnlement to that of hix j)r(::iU-ct'K«or. 
Where the twrotiarratiies eomcide. Colonel Mure has shown that 
Thucydidcs ]>asses by those parts of the talc which had been fully 
namt«) hy Herodotus, aua confines his own functioDs to oon- 
ttnuing or to fiUin;:; up deticicucics. This sc-cmi; to us to militate 
very strongly n{:uin»t the late date wliich Colonel Mur-, in oppo- 
■ition to >tr. Gn>ttr, i* disiwited to aiwign tt> the eoni|Rwilioii of 
tbe history of Herodotus. It really Hi^ma to ua to tell far more 
rtronfrly one nay titan any diftieiilties about the Egyptian king 
Amyrtaios tell the other. According to Colonel Mure, Herodotus 
wrote his history so late as to allude therein to events which took 
plHOC so near the elosc of the Pclopomi(-«nu War as 408 u.c. 
Had ao xlKirt ftn intenal elapsed b(^tweeii the conipoitition of the 
two hUlorie*, that of ilerodoliis could hardly have become «> 
generally known to Uie (ireek public at large, that Thucydidea 
ooald safely assume a familiarity with it on the part of bin readers. 
In those days of uncial manuscripts, without publishers, circulat- 
tn|;-librarics, ch' reviews, s book could not make its way in the 
world quite so fast as the writiiigs of Lord Af acaiday or Dr. Li- 
TingBtoiic. Colonel Mure himself ha* ar^ed that the work of 
lenidotiiK wiw ewpeciitlly slow in obtaining popul;irity. This 
itight indeed iijcn-c with Colonel Muni's view as to what he Inoka 
apon as oitc or two ill-natiu^d sliusionH on the part of Thuey- 
dides ; but it seems quite incousistcnt with the idea that he silently 
adapted bis work to act as a continuation to that of Herodotus. 
Colonel Mure has, in his former volume, very powerfully attacked, 
pcrhnpihehusaltopetherupset, the common legend of Ilerodotus' 
itrotiition of his history at tbe Olympic (JniiieH ; but wr do not 
think that be has upset, hut nilher ibtiL be has {H)werfully eoii- 
firmed, the opinion that Herodotus published hia hifitory by some 
process or other, at any rate during an early stage of the Pclo- 
ponDeatan War. 

Colonel Mure attacks Thucydides, we think with some in- 
justice, on the ground of his episode abtint the PriMstratidai in 
the nxtli hook. We can easily agriT with him that the Thu- 
crdidrAn episiMles are not very happily brought in. The fact is, 
tLat in a discursive composition like that of Herodotus, all sorts 
of episodes, and any number of them, arc perfectly appropriate. 
But in the more formal production of Thucrdide*, the few whk]) 



86 



Colomci JfWrv mmd lie Attie mtUriau. 



occur are certainly i^ to be aaao^aa. We m^ sbo ■How 
AaA Thoqrdides had nne VBciil wtifcaf, wbetluT penoiuJ, 
political, or liteniy, far dMi« *itb tU> cfKctal vubjcct auil 
vith tbe popular tmn niating to iu Bu Cokmel Mure'i 
particular olgectaotia to tbe matter and atnanent of this par- 
ticular naaode aeem to as qnite -wmatiag in Cbfce. His rcmariis 
are a* fcbon: 



■■ Id iMtIdn{ tbe cfcaifa wfftati AMliafa^ «( bong oonorroed is' 
&a mntihtioa of ibe HmoK, Tim^iBim aa w ata in the following 
tcma for tbe intoMe txtiUmm mtiA paenOed in Alben* on that 
oecaMOo: ' For tltc AtbcBiaai^ k— ta g bf ttaAdaa iba haidtnon 
wUA bad varkad tb« tpaaaT at lUMntaa aaJ Ua Muat lAwank iti 
aloM, and alaatbat ito abofaga vaa Mt tb» art of tbe pwptc or of 
TTwiaiMtiiii. tan of tba LMainsMM^ bad bMB «nr nacc, on ooea- 
•■■• of this kiad, p ccwi liirij open to wmftaa^ aid alartn-' Iben iai- 
lun, m dsoM- BiaalralieM of lbs oaaa cf ibis fct£a^ tbe ^iaode in 
iWBitiaB, aartatiitic tbe traaaactioMa peeedtag Iba cxtUMtioii of tbe Pi- 
pttratiao djiuulv-. uiil In rmtJialai. bffw Uo maHer of Hinaarrfiaa 
br the hand of Hannuiiiu* bad ben ooaunitted '*»"{«'g ibc Ptnafhr 
naic featinl, th« ecrcmania of which had heat taised to aceoaut bj 
the coiupirmtor* m diaamtng aocaicion aad cffectiag their nnipoae. 
After following oat the reanlla of ntir act of tyrasnieidc to the d«po- 
titioD of Uippias, the lustoriaa noasMa Ua fanner namtiTc, bjr the 
nbjotned ap|>limion of the ease of Hantodiai and tbe l*aiiatbeoaIea to 
that of AldbLadM and the Henua; : ' Tbe leawiabraatt of which thing) 
bariiw been d«:[ily imprinted at the tiaie^ and eonslautly renewed 6j 
tnwlition in the ntinda of tbe AthMiani^ road er ed then kccnir alhre to 
aar tunprriag vith their Mcred cerwaoaitl, and rigorans in odting to 
account tboae sni)«ted of sudt practtea^ vluiA w«« iasep*raUja»e- 
Gtited in tbdr tboogbu wiib pkM to tahBA oiligai«U or ^lan aital 
gOTenuneiiU'"(p. 131). 



as it V 



As usual — we arc aony to sav it, hut truth will out — Coli 

Mure cannot, en* will no^ trans^te hia Ureck. He here, as it 
seem* to um, first mLscouccircs the general bearing of the whole paa- 
at^ and then muaranalates panicutar clauses into agrccmput with 
the general miacioiiception. CoIoufI Mure suppoccs Thucrdidcs 
to be talking of the special fear of the Atheniaui of *aj taiapcTw 
ing with their religioua ceremoniiil. Wliat be is really ^lenking 
of is the ^eucral dread of tyrnuiiy which they felt or were said 
to feci, and which is keenly satirised by AmtOf^anca. With 
this feeling a strong scnsitircncM about their rcbgious oere- 
mooial was uuitetl by a connection of ideas strange to as, but 
which Mr. Grotv bu fully explained. In the Attic mind any 
thing itavouriiig of fnUe doctrine, heresy, and sdusm, was hda 
to be quite itiifficieitt evidence uf sedition, privy ooDspiimcy, and 
tdxilion. Tbe blaaphemer or profuue person would aUeiute 



Cotoiul iittr* and the Attic Huloriata, 



87 



Fthe iavonr of the goA*, and so jeopard tlic prosperity of tlio 
state. Heiioc (he inference Ihxt men ulio overthrew Hermai 
■ml polluted mrstcnes were ^iitg about to ealablkh oligarchy 
or despotiao). out Thucydidca is not commenting ou this pe- 
culiar vein of combined rcligiouH and paliti<»] sentiment; be 
uwime» it, while enlarging uii the general dread of tyniuny. 
Hence Colonel Muiv'* qucHtion, " what txniilot^ is theie bc- 
treeo the case of the tyraunicriiies :ind thitt of Alkibiades?" 
&Us to the ground, lliueydidos, or the Deinoa of nhom he 
sfieaks, waa not trying to set up any aualozv between Alki- 
blades (if it was Alkibiadcs) and the tyraunieidcB, but between 
Alkifaiadcs and the tyrants. And the i-cfvrenee to the fact that 
the tjiatits were rvally expellt;!! by thi^ Lacodiemmiiitus i» very 
tut man having, aa Colonel Mure implies, nothing to do with 
the matter. The general line of aigiinient in the popular mind 
ia this: "These men commit sacrilege; therefore (by the prooeea 
of reasoning explained ahorc) they want to set up a tyranny. 
But wc will have no tyranny. Tyntnti are vury terrible pt-rsons, 
and v(-ry hard to get rid of. The Pciaistrutimii were very op- 
prcasive, and we coidd not get rid of them without Liiceda;- 
moniau help. What will haiipeii, if we hjive a lyriiniiy now, 
when the Laeedismonians are against us?" This ia the general 
argument; only 'nmcydides confuses it by going out of hia way 
to correct certain errors of detail in the popular conception of 
the event. A modem writer would have thrown such a digres- 
sion into a note or an appendix. Thucydidcs was obliged cither 
to leave it alone or to intrude it upon his text. In the text it ia 
certainly very much out of its place; hut it pnHliirf.t no rucIi 
" palpable inconusteucy" as Colonel Mure supposcii. There i» 
not even that previous inconsistency whicli ho is half disposed 
to "allow to pass," "The popular Athenian public" supposed 
that HipparelioH was actually in puBsesaiou of the tyranny, and 
that ilarmg<lius and Anstogeitoii were actuated liy patriotic 
motivcx. "More critical iiiipiirem" believed that Hippiireho« 
was only brother to the reigning tyrant, and that bix death waa 
owing to private enmity. Itut Thucyilidcs does not represent 
the " popular Atheuian public" as ignorant of the fact that the 
tyranny was ultimately suppressed by Laccdtemonian agency. 
His argument Is perfectly sound and couKistent, only he has 
nnluckily confused it by an irrelevant digression. If he is in 
any wny blameworthy, it is for the palpably inconclusive nrgu- 
mcrnt by which he attempt^ to establish the st-iiiority of Hijipias 
ovtr II ipparchott,* llie probability is, that Thucydides, from 
fiunUy connection or some other cause, had preserved a more 

;_«ocurate tradition of these events than that gcncndly current at 

• ri-ts. 



88 



Chanel Mure and the Allie Hislorians. 



Athcm. He thought, hoircvcr, that liis mere i/we dixit might not 
cany siifficicnt weight ogniiist papular belief. He ihcrcfore felt 
bouiii) to strengthen his ease hy some sort of argument or other ; 
but he could unluckily find nunc better than thow orhieh he 
hn» in«crtvd, and wkidi are oiooug tliv lev weuk.tluitgs in liia 
history. 

And now for a word on Colood Mnre'a translation. That 
oertaijily favours hi§ own view, that the point of eonDcction ts 
the "tampering of rcUgioas ecn-moninl'* alike by the trraiuii- 
cides and by the UvnnokopiiU. But not so thv text of Tliu- 
cydidcs. Colouc] Mure suvm that tlic Atheniaox " bad enr 
been, on occattatu of this kind, peculiarly o[ien to su»|»idoa and 
alarm." " Occasions of this kind" doubtlcM meaiia ** occasions 
of tampering with religious ceremonial-" But Thucydides, like 
Ari)itophaue«, goes much farther, and accuses Ihcm, truly or 
falsciv, of being open to »i)spii.'ion and nlartn, not only on 
oceasiouM of this kind, but on all occa.iion:'; (ifiofffiTo ati xtu 
iruvra wTToirrwe i\aii.^avt.* Similurly the t«caiHl p&sngB 
^Iven in inverted commaiit by Colaucl Mure in no way le- 
presenta the corresponding passage of Thucydides. It (itaodi 
thus: J 

wi' IrOaiioiifuvOQ o ilifia^ A rue ' .\Biita!<iii\ ml fitjiwijimijiirvQ 8m^ 
itvop xi(ji fitrai*- qrr/oTarth j(uA(iroc t/y toti tn'i iffciirriji t'c tov^ iripi r«« 
fivvriiL-uiy r^v iiin'ciK Xapi'irriit- kuI xavm avrws Hoiut *ri fviwftwf, 



n 



How Colonel M«rc can get \m English out of the above pi«« of 
Greek, we are <)uitc at a lussi to conjecture. 

Nor are tlieae by any means the only, though they are per* 
hapa the most important, instances in which (Colonel Man 
altogether fails to reproduce cither the sutistance or the manner 
of Thucydidts in the jiiuwiges which he selects for translation. 
Tha*, with regard to I'ciHiHirutn.t uudlnsson.iin this very episode, 
Thiieydidea nays that the latter t^v iriiXiv avrcair KaXmv cicxoff- 
/it]aaf,l as Herodotus, in the parallel pa:tMi;;e,^ had fpoken of 
their father as one who iirl roU xartartbiai ti-efit rijv iroXir, 
Koafiiaiv KaXaiv t« xal (v. Colonel Mure,i| in both places, trans- 
lates BtfKOfffifiaav and Kocffiemv by " adorned the city btavlifuUy." 
SunJy the verb hiu nothing to do with the unfinished tempk 
of Olympian iCeu-t, but with the general character of the PciaiS' 
tratid government. Surely it meahK, as Liddcll and Scott sup- 
port UN in holding that it means, not that they adiimed tkt 
dig beaulifnlly, but that they ruled the city wtll. And wliea 
ho ia not thus positively inneeuratc, his translations never re* 



t!, S3. 



t ri. GO. 



tvkU. 



5 1.59. 



I '. SI. 



Cototut Mure and iKe Attic Hutoriani. 



89 



Inn* iu the le»st clcf^rec titc style and Bjiirit of the KnUior. 
it IB more especially importAut lliat thc\- should do io in a 
' ''■'-: the pn--K.'nt, ill which they are ritwl directly us literary 
.r>, aiiil nol merely for tht- »ike of tlie itironncilion vhich 
in. Colonel Miin* i.-i {kartindiLrty nin'li'^'< idmiil those 
diliw of tlio «ji;e, wrliii'h it \r- evrry nlw-te desirable lo 
ja. AVlipii n iiwKleni writer, dcaliuR with a mediaeval ehro- 
.tnuulateji " iie-i. yranairuui" by " Kilig of France;" whca 
of aa CRipi-n>r of Germany, or converta the 'Pa/utloi 
II- akitltor into (irtcks : lie is dialroyinf; ho many 
I exurcM the ilij>l(imiu;y of the itge. Colonel Mure » 
jLuirly tite wimc fnult wlit-ii he traii!<Iate»>* the MT}Zi<Tfto% 
_ liilft* by " Irailui-vua inlercottriie wUh the Persian king," 
itui and Xenophon, both of them oriental aniiqnariejf, 
Jy call the dominant .\Biatic tribe Persians .- Thneydidca 
uuM tbu common phrase of the general Grvck public, lUid 
iks of the Males. A htllc lowerf Tliiicydides Hpenkd of fluSray 
' AXf^tiytpov ; — Coloiu'l Mure obliterates thia eharaetcrtstio 
Kition. by truiwlatiiig "the Macedonian \kit\ of I'vdna." 
ibly the Athetiiaiia of the age of Tbcmi»Uikle» talki-il of 
Alexander and bis oountry miieh as vc now talk of Sciudi«li 
n1 llolkar, or in the satDC way that "Saldrincs land" ia the 
initin desi^ation of Flaaders in the Saxon Chronicle. Tvo 
on, we find in Thucydides the phra.-^, Mayniaitf Tp 
, — Colonel Aliire render* it " Maf;n(^a in Asia Minor." 
I hurc is n tunfiild error. First of iJI, Asia Minor in a desig* 
I mil ill lutt* for iiKCfl after the timeof Thncjdidcs ; secondly, 
rendering ohlileraten the seeurstc j;co;p^phieiil precii>ioli of 
lie historian, Colonel .Mure can hardly need to lie told that 
arc two cities equally aoswerinf; to Aw description of 
i>i Asia Minor," only one of whieh answctv to that 
, Mafyfiaia rj 'Affiavrf. llincydidcs means Mng- 
iii the very niirmwi'^t sense of that last won!, tlic 
K|)he.suH, Colonel Mure's dcseriplion would ei]ually 
1 1 northern city of Mu^csia by Sipylos, from which 

Jcv..... ^ t'lshes to distinguish it. 

"riiRrB are imuierous other points in which Cokmel Mure, m 

C'l us, iui<<niider*tund> or fails to appreciate either Thn* 

If r hii" siilijcit. He in the first writer tliat we know of 

nliti 111).' Irir-il i<> dis[tarB^e either the funeral oration of Peri- 

_Mcji, or the n:irialive of tlie battles in tlw harlwiir of SyraciUft 

Polnnd Mum makes himM'if quite tnerryj over tlm latter, and 

itcbe* up hia case by translntiug ft/ian-oftvoi^ci^ by the un< 

■ i»ifie»l phrnacft of" liohhing" or " ducking" t As for the fuue- 



Qin 



Bf'l 



• t. IU> t Tku). L U7. 



• piktT«,m. JThiK.rti.TI. 



90 



(kloiiet Mure and the Attic Hisioriaru. 



ral oration, our Mcnse of NetnenU rcceiTec some aatiitfaction «il^| 
wc find tliat Colonel Mure, after attackiug the o]ipositiou between 
" di-cds'' and " words" in the oration as a mere vagaiy of ThD- 
qrdidcs, is obliged, in bia " Additions and Com?ctioaa" to otm- 
fe« that, after all, it is probably really Pcnkliran. 

Wc harv dwelt so long upon Colonel Mure** treatment of 
Thucydiilegt, tlmt we have bat little apace to )pve to bis eritictsm* 
on the litstorieal works of Xenopfaon. But, if we had more, «o 
could do little else than aflix a strong stamp of our (general ap- 
proral. The tboroa|(b unfaimces, and, if the »upprrt»io mi 
constitutes falsehood, the thorough falsehood of the XenophoD- 
tean narrative haw never buen better set forth tlian by Colond 
Mure. But wc must confcm that we do not perceive in hist Hel- 
lenica that vein of Attic patriotism which Colonel Mure ceoog- 
oisGs, cspeeiallr in the earlier books. The cold and hearties 
way in which he records the subjug&tkm of his own couutir is a 
stran-rc contrast to the hearty aympattiy which he shows tor 
Loconia invaded by Epaminundns. And thougti wv cannot en- 
ter upon the question, wc adhere to Mr. Grotc's vi«w a» to tho 
banishment of Xenophon. Colonel Mure makes him out to 
have been haniKbi-d while in A*ia, without any apparent eauae. 
Mr. Grote holds, and the historian's own text to our mind bert 
corilirais his view, that he was not banished till Itc had been 
giiilty of manifest treason, till he had returned with Agcsilaoc 
and fought against his country at Koruneia. But Colonel Mure 
haw opened an impcHtaut licld fur consideration with regard to 
the trustworthiucss of tho Anabasis. Ue i>ointcdly iu«ks wliether, 
3> Xenoiihon is uoivertoUy condemned as unfair in the Hellenics, 
where lie saerifioea truth to the exaltation of his friend, he may 
not equally in the Anabasis have sacrificed truth to the exalta- 
tion of himself'f And it is certainly a singular fact that l)io- 
dorus, in his succinct narrative of the Rctnm, mentions sctciul 
other Greek captains by name, but never once mentions Xeno- 
pbon. Now Diodorus, though extremely stupid, \» thoroughly 
Donest, and lie had before him mntiy authon whom we have not. 
If the general testimony of hiK uiitliiirities asai^ed to Xeuopbon 
that prominent place in the lt<-turii which he occupies in liih own 
narrative, it seems utterly imposMible that his namo could have 
eacopod insertion in the Universal History of the Inborioiu 
Siciliaa 

Wo differ from Colonel Mure on many points liuth criticol 
and historical, and we think that in this particular volume he 
haa undertaken a subject for which he in le.-ut ijuaUfied thau for 
some others. In so vast a licld as Hellenic Utcrature, no one 
man can be equally at home in e^cry corner. But even where 
ire think C(doncl Mure least successful, there is always much 



HiuhiaA. 



91 



Art. IV.-HASHISH. 



H 



to be learned from his suggestive nttd innriAMj'iiidcpciKlcnt 
critii:i!tiiiit. His present volume is a valuable cotilribntioii to our 
knowledge of the Greek historians ; even though w« tliiiik he \\m 
Euled to do fiill justice to the greatest amnig them. We sliall 
be delighted to meet him again on the neutral j^und of Ivric 
and dramatic poetry, as a eommcotutur on Pindar and .Eschvlns 
ukd Amtophanes, powiUy oa tlic reviver of Korinuu fwid Ptry- 

S, of Eupulis and Kntiuo*. 
Wmiliry of (Hmmim Zifif. By J. P. W. Jolin*ton. 1815(1. Svo. 
Pictitris of Palettitu, Ana Minor, SUrili/, and Spain : or, tke Lands 

of the Saranm. By Hayard Taylor. London, 1855. 8yo. 
^tiwponrle Doctoral fn Miitecine: Du. Ilaxchigch-, ton II>Atmre,«ef 
£ffel» pkytiologiqut* et thinipeiUiijurs. Par J. M. E- Bertbaitlt. 
l^ris, 1854. 410. 
T%f EUmmtt of Materia Me^ea and Thfraprntict. By J. Pcreira. 

Fourth ISdition. Loudon, I8&&. 8vo. 
3V TnaeU of Marco Polo. Eililed by H. Mumiy. Nnw York, 

1845. 8to. 
Dit HoJKhixch, el do FAUfyiation men(alc. Par J. Moreau. Paris, 

1846. dTO. 

I GoRBB says, 

" They are not shadows Klilch prtxJaoe a dream ; 
[ knim thfij ar« «UTnnl, for iLey an." 

'1ht|dte»omeQaof the human mind, in trauaient and aboormal 

*tUci, derive a atartliug interest irom the rcfleetiou, that under 

I (VtuB conditious thvsc ntutes may poMibly bceoinc normal and 

I pBiDBaent. At all e^entit, drt-Jimt), insanities, opium 'viHiotm, mo- 

■Otti of poetic and religiouN «csta»y, and no forlb, art- ruvclationa 

rf the cmpacity of the kcjuI fur <legr<x-H of [lain, bbKii, und Hpiritual 

•Sirily, which life in its ordinary eoui^e givwi no conception 

"■i uw an such, these cxaltatious aud perturhations of the spirit 

WB a Bignilicanee which no one, who is not wholly abaorboi in 

*f<tbr LDtcrost*, will be disposed to disregard. An apprt'hcn- 

, 'imofthiK significance has, with some nations, surrouniU-d tlie 

j Idnan witli a divine an e ; and liax at all times, and n ith all jieo- 

' Wi vroduiced a curiosity in the obHC-rvation of kuiIi jilicnomena, 

^>ai the ridicule of a material philiisophy lina not been able 

t*lubdiie. There arc few persona who liave not rccciTcd, in 

' ^CUBs, in moments of religious contemplation, or during some 



92 



UaBhiah. 



passing gust'of (inaccountablfi emotion, such revelations of i 
tht'V arc capable of, for good or evil, as, if tliev arc vnK, wiB be 
tmuurcd up in their tncmorr as tlie pcarU of their expcricDOe; 
Bwt the higher or <lecp<rr these revelations ure, the itioir difficuh 
docti it become to retain aiiv cflectual inipnwuoii of tbem. 
poet tajn of such exix^rieitcot : 

" Whnt'ii tlint, which, ore 1 luk'd, wu goat— 

80 juj-fiil aatl mt«ii«! a tptrk, 
Thnt, wliilst o'er hc&d the wondv ihone, 

The dnr, before lint ^iill, gmw dark 1 
I do nrjt know ; but thin 1 knnw, 

Thnt, bad tiic upkiidour liv'd ■ j«nr, 
Tlit^ tritih tliai I Boiue hv^ivvul)' shiifi' 

Did wo ci>uld iipl be uow inoro clwir. 
Thin know [ too : mig'tt mortal biTAth 

ICiproH the ptusooii then innpircil, 
Kvi! wuuM dk a iiutunil death. 

And iiulhiiig InnjHii'iit be dekit^ ; 
And error froiu l'h« world would pMH^ 

And loitTe th<< «eni>C* pure nnd utroiig 
An minbcitinii. Iliil the belt, aIiu. 

Ua» neither mcmut; nut tongue.** 

Verf nearly rcscmliling these, for the most part unaooounltt^ 
and indcHCribuble moods of thi> spirit, are the iitntes of nund 
which are noini^timeH producwl in i^raous of hi^liir iiitcIlecWil 
and imngiiiiiti^e constitution, like Coleridge 11ml Pe Quiiiecy, by 
the luw of imreotieo. The states so prodnced «cetn generdty to 
faftTC been of a lower, and therefore more communicable, natiu* 
than those which arise involuntarily; and we have several bril- 
liantly writtcu records of the "happiness which may he bought for 
a penny, and carried in llie wnistcoat-pockct j the portable w^- 
sies that may be hat) i^ork»l-np in n pint lx>ttle; nnd the pttCB 
of mind that can he M.-iit down in )^a1lonH by the niail-«oadl>-° 
Hie interest attaching to tliesie elates, though inferior, is, how- 
ever, of the same class and Wind ; and no one enn read the ic- 
coimts of Coleridge, Ue Gnincey, Bayard Tavlor, Dr. Madden, 
Dr. Morenii, M. Berthaidt, and others, villioiit nn increaMil 
teiuie (if the myiiterieM and ciipuhilities of his spiritual being. 

The Icmperaraent which {■» suweptible of t-sallation by nar- 
cotics into a raptnrous or virion- be ho hliiig condition, sireni* hap- 
pily to be rare in northern climates. A predisi>osiiig n^rmth 
and activity of imagination — a common quality with eastcre 
nocit, but a rare one with us — v> absolutely necessary to enable 
a man to become an "opiimi- enter" to any purpose. The 
ordinary effect of the more (tnwerfid narcotist U]>on an English* 
man, when they do not make liim simply wry ill, " is," »ays l)r. 
Christison, in his 7'reaiUe on Poisons, " mcreJy to remOTC torpor 
and sluggishness, and to make lum, in the eyes of his friends, an 




Hathith, 



08 



ami oonvcrsaltic maa" Tlic reaction of narcotics upon 

nut, H Iteii liir>;rly um.-(I, ie, however, so imtuvdiate mid dis- 

ti a penalty. Unit the Kiigli:>'li an iii no dkngur olidtover 

beooroinf^ a nution ot'opiuiu or luuthi^h detMnidieen; mid wc 

firi'l no L-i(>ui|iiiiitrtiou in placing before itiem au account of some 

if tlinee rxccptioiial cases iu which tlie nsulu )iavc bctrn siifli- 

rutly drli:!)ilful to L-oiixtitutc a temptation to one of tbo most 

iti'" -i of dclwiwclicrj'. 

'1- :ir« iif TinrooticK, and tlie phenomena attending the 

lU'tii III the cliuiatis> to vrhii-h thfv iic«ni to he more |ttr- 

l_v iiiitnl, (WstTW more atloiition :is an element of " gcne- 

ItiKiwliiiltc" Ihaii they have received. Those who woiiI<i be 




\y iufornicd upon the aubjcct, wUl find it very well treated of 
IS Chemhiry of Common Life. The 



in 5>U8. n and 9 of Julinston' 



'' ■■■ nux^otic", »hich arc articJen of national eomumption 

rt of the world or another, ore — tobacco, opium, heiup, 
Mild i:i>ca. Tobaci-o is the one uiiircria] narcotic; the 
arc eoiiAiinicd by the huinnn raee iu the followinR projioP- 
upinin by four hiuidn-d miUions, hemp (i. f, liashish) by 
:wcen two and thrix- hundred niillions, lietd by one huiidml 
., anrl coca by tcu niillioos. finldcs these, Siberia lias 
tic fiiiipiH; the I'olyne^iiui lidands tlieir avo; New 
a nix) (Ik' Himiuulnyan tlicir t bom -apples ; tlie Florida 
t' tn-hully; Northern Kiirn)ie and Auierit-a their 

iir [ pile, iiC. " No nation so ancient," sava 

iiliumiiii, " bnt bus had its narcotic soother from the most dis- 
.ton! tiiiira ; none M) ivtnotc or iiwlatcd, bnt liuu* found within its 

:) Ixirder^ a )Min-ullayer and narcotic carf-divpellcr 

iti'1 M-ejit corn, and iierhops cotton, rcpre^'nt more 

111 li, or WW the subjeota of a more exieiidcd ami 

ati 1- MHin^G of more commercial wealth." 

- effects ithieh are cummuu tu all the prin- 
.bptl Baruotics, t^eli has charaeti-riT^ties of its own. Hashish 
Imihian rval eatalcgiHy, anil e.vaggera[i>s rather than |K.T%er1a th« 
nfmt of the M:Mat a» to enlerual objects; the thorn-apple, on 
the utber hand, caiiM^ truly s|)eetral illusions, ami enables tbe 
Iwlian to converse "ith the ispiiite of his aoeestnre. The Sibe- 
jivcH insi'iiHilnlity to jiiiiii nitlioiit interfering with 
The eoiiuiioti pnlf-lmU nlojis uLl mn»etdiir action, 
liuikuii-w tbe jicKvpln* powers untouched. Coeculns indieus 
iii.l.. III,. t>.idy drunk, without atfceliu); the mind. C4ica hna 
l>owcr of sustaining inuscidar 6tren;;th in tlie ab- 
ii)ii, and iif |>ii'veiitin? the wasting of the tissues of tJ>0 
_ tft ttie !;t"jite*t mid mo«t jtToluii!^*d e^rrlioti. The 
oTthi'i' ilicii air iim only |)i-<niliar. but ofleii 

oj^aed. Uji ->!th, i»miuuu in uiuuy of their eflods. 



£»1 



HashiBh. 



nrc opposite in this, that the former diminish^ scnsibilitT to Cl> 
tcniiU imprCMioiw, vltcreaathv latter almost inflnilrly iiicreMO 
it. Iktfl ia eren an antidote to oiiitmi, asK^a is Ui al<s<hol. T&- i 
becoo niupends mental aotinty ; opium and haxhisli increase it ^| 
tJioaaand-fi)l(l. ^^ 

PBychologically, opium and hashish are by far the most in- 
teresting of the uarcotics; B.nd of thcsv two, hashish, though the 
1cm known, inilubitiiljly bnirs the palm. IVy hftve> homnr, 
mnny 4)unlitioB in common. We seem to be reading of the 
KaMern " hasbishins" in Lord Macartney's deflcription of the 
Japanese opium-cators, "Tbey ac<iuirc an artificial counje; 
and when suft'ering from miafortanc and di&appointmcnt, Ibcy 
not only stab the objects of their hate, hot sallr forth to attack 
in like manner every person tliey meet, till self-prcwsrration ren- 
ders it neceKsarr to dcKtroy them." The temi " running a-mnd" 
is said to l)e derived from the cry, "Amok, amok!" meaning 
" Kill, kill," with vhich they aecompany their fantastic crusade. 
Ou one occasion a Japanese was " running; tumuck" in I^atani, 
and " had killed several people, when he was met by a soldier, 
who ran him throngh with tus pike. But «uch was the despera- 
tion of tlie infurial«<l man, that he prctsed himwlf forward on 
the pike, until he g;ot near enough to stab hi<t adversary with a 
dagger, when both expired together," While sueh is not tm- 
eotnnionty the etloet of opiiitn, as of hashL<<)i, in the Kaat and in 
tropical climates, the ordinary influence of both these drugs ia 
nortlicm countries is described by Dc Quincry in the coutiwt 
he draws between the cffi.-cts of opium and aleohot : " Wine robs 
11 man of his «4f- possession ; opium greatly invigorates it : wine 
unsettles ami clouils the judgment, and give* « pretematunl 
brightneHN and n vivid etnltation to the contempts and the admi- 
rations, the loves and the hatreds, of the drinker ; opium, on tfce 
contrary, curamimicatcs serenity and equipoise to all the fecal- 
tics, active or passive; and with respect to the tcmprr and 
moral feelings in general, it gives simply that sort of fibd 
warmth which i.t approved by tJie judgment, and which wonU 
probably alwava accompany a bodily constitution of primeval of 
antcdilunnn health." I>r. Madden's description of nis feefing* 
under the influence of o]>ium esactly corresponds to the eflbct of 
R dose of hashish just insuflieient to produce thc/anforia: "Mj 
fiMJultie* a]>peared enhii^rcl ; e^'cry thing I looked at seemed iB- 
cretMd in volume; I had no longer the same pleiksun; when I 
doaed my eyes which I had wheii they were open ; it appeend 
to me aa if it was only external objeet«> wbieh were acted on by 

the imagim^tion, mid magnified into images of pleasure 

In walking, 1 was hardly sensible of my feet touching the groUBtl; 
it aeenied as if I slid along the street, impelled by some innalik 



Httshith. 



06 



tax, nnd that my Mood was comjioacd of some ethereal 6utd, 

liich reiulered inj- Ijotly li^hti.T than air The moet vx- 

traonlinary risiouM of (!<?lig!it filliHl my brain nil njghh In the 
momiDg 1 rose pale nnd dispirited ; my hcnd ached ; my bodr 
wa» so debilitated, that I waa obliged to reinaiii on the sofa all 
day." When, however, hashish is taken in laive doses, it pro- 
da'ec« effects more cxtraordijiary than those of any other orug 
of it» claw; aiui.us bdn;^ the most singidar and the lenst known 

Pthe oarootica, it deitcrvuM a Kpeeinl notice. 
The narcotic ^irinciple of heiii|) in wry iiiipcrfcelly developed 
in northern climates, although the plant rivals wheat and the 
potato in ita power of self-adaptatiou to almost every soil and 
temperature. The narcotic quality resides in the sap; it b » 
renn. The odour of a herap-field, and the pddine<» and hesd- 
•che Trliich attaek per«oiii« rcmiiininf; long in it, prove the exist- 
flOOeof thiH resin in the northern plant; but it w oidy in the 
Sut that it exiiits in mieh quiintitien ast tn render its extraction 
pwcticablc. In India, Persia, and Egypt, however, the roain 
inontaneously csudes firom all parts of the herb in sufficient quan- 
titiea to he gathered by the hand. In Central India men with 
Inthcr apron» rush nlwut among the hemp-plants, which deposit 
their baUam upon that primitive gunnent. Tlii* even is dis- 
pensed with sometime*, and the Coobeo receive the precious 
«m upon their nak»l Hkins, The "chiu-ms" of Herat, which 
om; of the most powerftil species of the narcotic, is obtained 
pressing the hemp in cloths. The resin is not always sepS' 
ntcd from its parent plant, which is in some places gathered 
vben in flower, dried, and Rold in bundles. In this state it is 
the jfUtf/aM of Calcutta. The larger leaves and seed-pods are 
denominated bang. The tops and tender iihoots, and the pistils 
of the flowers, are htaJtUh par exctllence; and this is the form in 
>Ucb it is usually smoked. The name kashitih also belongs to 
« eitract from the gftyah, obtained by boiling it with butter. 
Tbeyut^aA, — that is to say, the entire plant, — when boiled in 
*lc>nol| yields as much as one-lifch of i^ weight of pure leahu 
' Is llie E«st the hasliish is made up into various kindn of mrcet- 
■nts. 

In one form or anotI»cr, hashish seems to have been known 
In Esrtcm nations from very earlv times. The following is the 
j^iu^ of Herodotus which is alludutl to by most of those who 
j '■It written about the resin of hemp : 

"TliFy who liave liten ciijfnBpd in tlic pcrformniK* of tln-M [funeral] 
"'■[W Ihc Scytbium], aftcrwurda xvc th« fi>!1owiiig modvuf jnuitation. 
^Atrtborangblj woahingtbi: li«si), and thpn ilryin)!: ttt tliey do thus with 
"V^lo thie body: tlwy place ia the ground llirc« ttAkn inclining 
t**snl*caicb othsr; round titcsc they bind pieces vi vwA an thickly 



96 



Itathuk. 



iia })0iiNbl« ; ftnd fniHtly, into the xpiiM Iwtwixt the iit«k« tbej- throw 
re<l-li»t cUiiKs. Thi-}' liuvo nmong them it «pi!cica of facmp rweaiUin^ 
flux, i'Xu<]it lliut. it is bi>tb tliirkrr iiiii! t«rger. .... Tlw ScjtliiMit 
take the netid <if till* bcmp ; and ]>ltkciiig it bcti<»tti the woollen Meecet, 
.... tlicy throw it upon the rcdiioc clones, whan iuuMduiely ■ pa- 
fumed vapour nHcoods rtrongcr than from any Grcdan stove. Tlii* to 
Ui* Scytlii»ns is in the placo of a batli ; and it exdl«s ttotu tkeo^m^^ 
of exultAUon." ^^^| 

Dioacoridea and (lalen allude to certain j)ro|H-rticn of hemp u 
a paia-allaycr. M. \iicy has cndearaored to htiow lliut tli<: ^_ 

" Nopcnthcf, which th« wife of Ihonv ^| 

In Kgypt gnvu to JovC'Inrn [Idlciin." 

mitBt have \nxa no other Utoa ha&liUk. This drug aeeus alwan 
to hiivi: boL'u kiiovni to tlic Egyptians; who of old ar^ed, «c- 
conliiifr to DIodoruK Siculua, that Ilomcr must have Uvt^ in 
llicir WHintry, from hin po^seaaiou of the stvret known to tlie 
troniea of K^fvptian Thebes. Pliny nieiitinux lieuip n* ■di'ViW 
to virile power. In the Arabian Sights lia^liiHli is int^tioMiI 
under ilic name of beng. But the chief lustorieal interat fit 
tliv drug IK in cunncctiuu with the strange and formidable arcl 
of Ihv l«liiniu.!lit(H, who, in tltv time of the Crusades, »pm<i 
throughout ami ttevond th« AIiiR.''iiluinTL world a terror out of 
all |)i'ii|H)rtiuu to llieir iintnhen. By mt^uuH of this nattotie, tte 
chief of liie t>«ct, the "Old Man of tin' Mount»in," ohtainol 
over hij> fnlloweru an inllueiioe more ali.-uilutc than luineier, be- 
fore or since, been possessed hy one man over others. HeniT 
Count of Champagne visited the leader of the sect, who to« 
him to the top otn hightowor.on the battlements of which nift 
atattoned men in white ruhe*. " I doubt," eaid the Old Mui 
"whi'thcr you hate any aubjcet* no olicdient iw mine;" audi 
makiuiB a w^v to two of the sentinels upon the tower, tltey p«" 
cipitated themselves fioni it, and were daa!i(>d to piect^ Sum- 
nioiied by the envoy of a powerful enemy to submit, tlie shHl 
called a soldier, and ordered him to kill himself, whidi he for^ 
with did. " Tell yova master," Mid the J»hraselite, " that I hv(t 
nixty thou.sind men who would do the Kanie," Marco Polo]* 
romantic and piuturctquc account of the diHcipliiic by which thit 
terrible sect of the " Assafisins" was created and maintatDto 
eeema to be tnie in its main fcatuiTS : 

"You »liall hear all about the Old Man of the Moantain, «> J 
Marco Polo heard re]at«d by many persona. lie waa ealled in tw 
Inn^-uii^i? Alaodii); and had caused to be formed in a volky b«t«Mi 
tWu iiiuuiitaLiid tlie lur;-(-st and uiufit l>«!uutiful (.■anien tlut ever Mf 
•cen. There ];rew all llie fiueHl fruit* in the woriii : audit wm adomiJ 
with the uioNt beautiful liounes uud pulnccii, the interior bda]^ tidilj 



HathU/t. 



97 



gildnl, and funitBlied wilb fiuelj'-voluured picluree of birOit uud bowte, 
Bad iha mint Birikm;; ulijovt*. It contniituc] aevi-ral (x>ti(luit<, llirough 
wliicli AowihI witter. wiiiB, buuty, iiiid uiilk. Hcru were lodip* and 
dau»el% itovijuultej in lipuuty luiil the clcill witli wliich tlicv «nng kod 
pilled 00 iniitruiiiciitii nf rvrry (IrRtn-iption. Nnw thn Old Man inftde 
turn people bc]i<:vc tlint this gnntcn wiw I'ltrndiiic ; nnd be formed it 
there becauM ^[nhaintitisl had given the tSni'acens to b(^lievo tliat llioae 
wlw went into thnt i>bi'* wi>iitd nictt grcftC numlriors *if bcuutiful women, 
and find rivvTs of wnur. u'ino, niilk. and tiuney : bvncc tbo vtsiiura were 
W to think that tbls was reallj I'aradiBe. Into this gardeu be nd- 
mittc^ no niAo, excepl tbuso wliuiu lie wlabed to m«ke AwatBinii. Tlie 
entry to tli« spot •ms cuiuinimded b; a castle so elrou^', tbut lie did 
not fear any power in tbe world. He kept in hiH court all ibe yontbs 
of tlie country betwct-u twelve und twenty years of ugo ; and wiicn ho 
liioaglil prujier, iH.'](.-<:ted n nuiniier wbo lud been well inHtmcled tn tbc 
deacriptiou of Purndixc. He kovc tbein u buvcmgr wliicli tbrcw them 
into a dieep »lccp, then cnrHetl them into tlio garden and niude them 
be awakened. When any one of tlicni opened hiN eycj^ iuivf this de- 
lij^fnl Kpot, and heard the df^licious raiinic and Kongi, be renlly beliavod 
binurlf in tbe stat« of bkascdncsa. When nguin, however, he was 
oak-ci), he was broiiji-fat out into the castle ) when he nwuke in grent 
wonder, and felt de«p re^^t at having l<'ft thai delightful abode. Ue 
then went huiahly to the Old Man, worshipping him as a prophet, 
.... The ehief Ibeu named to Lim a ;;reut lord whoru be- wished bim 
lo kill. Tbe youtli cbcerfnlly olieyeil ; uud if iii tbo aet be wu taken 
and ]>ut to deotlt, he ciiilcrcd with exiUtatiou, believing tbut he woa to 
go into tbc happy ]>ln«e. .... Thu« •carccly any one could ceespc 
Wng abiin, wh«n the Uld Man of the Mountain dcnired it~ 

Marco Polo's account is corroboriilcd by Ariiliiuii writer* ; and 
the historian Von Ilannirr ilovs nut di»|)uti> itc probable vem- 
city. Sylr^lre Ac Sacy lins deoioiiKtruted tliat the word ' asftsaun' 
ia a oomiplion of /uif/iuftm, and Las provided us with much 
curious information on the subject of hashish. T]ie following 
•ccoimt of thp discovery of the herb — or rather one of its disco- 
ircrics. for wc have seen that it was knowTi to the uiciviit* — is 
t altcD by M. Sylvcstrc do Sacy from the Arabic : 

^ft " In tli« year C58 [of tbe Uegira], I axked the 8cbcik Djik&r 

^Bdiiraiti, tbe too of Muhammed, and monk of the order of Ilai'iler, how 

^nba propCTtlea of tbi» drug came to be dixcovered } and how, after 

^^einf ooufined tu tJie Fakirs, ita use bceunio geoeml. This wan his 

inner: 'Haider, tlie ehlef of all the scbeiks, prartiBed many excr- 

Qiea of devuiiun nnd murti6ent!on. lie took but little nourifthment, 

tarried hi» dctoejimcnt from every tliiug heKin;;ing to the world to a 

avTpriaing extreme, and waa of tlie ntost estruurdiuHry jitHj 

tie hiniM'lf lived alone in a corner of bic cunvvnt, and tliere parsed tavK 
than ten years wichout going out or Heeing any one but myself. One 
»«ry bo4 day the seheik went out alone int<i tbe eooutry; and when he 
Ktnnicd, we renuiked an air of j«y and chccrfulucM on bin countenuiee 



98 



HaSh'uh. 



r \hr 
tting 

tttii- 



very iliDcKiit from its unuU apjieunuiw. He alloTed faia Fakir moh 
pnnioiiH to \ml biin. iiiiU Wjican uouvvning with ibem. AVbtu nt 
SAW the Kchrik tliti.i Iiutnaobcd. . . . irr lukeil bim the cause ofM 

surprising a circuRiRtaacc He rrjiIrMl, .... "1 nMicrd 

every [ilant wn« in a state of |>crfrct mlm, withont ex]>rrirDoing 
le«at &)•''»''«"■ V f"^"""* of iJto extreme Iicat, and the ah»enc>^ rf 
sti^Iitest breath of itmA : but, ]nviaing bv a certain plant, I r>W 
thHt it waved gmcefully with n gentle swaying, as '\t inehriflte«l bT \hf 
fiimeH of wine. I began plucking tbe leaves of tbis plant 8n<l eating 
tkem ; aiiJ Ibey bave produced in me Ibe gaiety you hare noticed."'" 

The )K)et Ktottamiiinl Dimiucbki, the con of Ali, also *ttiv 
liules \\\v ili^\)v<-ry to the Shvik lliuder, in au ode of vhidi 
arc specimen pafoagtrs : 

" Leave wine, nnd lake inBl«sd tbe cup of naidrr. which esb, 
the Btiiell uf umber. Never ba« nine evoked the i)eli;;,'ht whieh it 
<!ut.-ed by this benelicent cup: eloae your ears, thLm, to the niadmis 
who wouM diusuiule you from tbe druuj^hL .... Never baa lie prieM 
of a Clirixtian aaerlfice mingled the juice of it io hb profane ([ubM." 

Another poet, Ahmed HiOrhi, likewi.-w ultributea the discVFOf 
to HiiVler; and celebrates \«irlicularly one of the properliea Ar 
which the herb is famous in the KasI, in verecs which M, S. dc 
Sacy thus renders into French : 

"Telle jeiine beaute a la tmille l^rc, que j'avaia toujoim rat 
prtte k preiiilrc! la fuite, dout jnmaic Ic vinage n« *'£(ait oR^ S 
ngard* ({ii'nvvc! le^ traita fitroiichc* d'luic (icrtc cndte. 

Jc I'ui rmiciiutrt-e uu jour nvec uu vinngc riant, une humour iIolW 
et facile, ct toutcs l-a grAcea d'uoe soci£t£ plcinc dc doucour el 
oharmea, 

Jo liri ai t£raoigo£ roa rccouDUMaaM ^ c 

qu'i tantde rebuts avail en&n succ^A un aocueil fovorabl*. 

Til u'eo es piu redevahle, ni'a-t-elle r^pondu, au caiact^ qoej" 
re<,-u de la natuK, Reuda graces a celui qui t'a concilia aies faveun^*» 
viu lie t'hidigent : 

CTe«t le liasehisclm, ITierbe de la Joio ... 

Vcux-tu te ri'Ddre maitre k la ehaaae d'une jouue ct timid6 gaedltl 
nie soin tiu'eile pnissc le f<Tuilkge ilu chauvrvL" 

As a 9ct.o IT against the priii«?s of hashish by the Arahicpoel^ 
let us hear wlint iiu Ambic ph}*»iciati says : " Let lis tuni aside 
bom the crroneoiw paths of meu. The truth is, thnt tlierc i» 
nothing more injiiriniis to tlie human con«liliition than tlus 
lierb." .Maedflin, miii of Nefis, also bears witness : " I have bad 
ample experience ; and I have seen that the use of this drug pro- 
duces low inclinations, and debases the soid. The facidties of 
those who tnke it arc dejrraded nion- and tnorc; m> that at lail, 
so to say, they hnvc iioni! of tho utthbiites of Imtnanity left." 
Makrizt (translated by M. dc Saoy) t<.-Us lu, that for a lou; 



nc 

ivmV 



Hashiih. 



99 



it Willi con«<lcn.fl di^p'occful to cat hashish ; and ihnt 
TH wi're iiiaile iignin«t the u»c ofit, ont^of which wa", that the 
Fender should have all \n» tixth extraotRd. " Rut at iiwt, in the 
vcar BI5, tbia ciiraerl drug began to be pul>lieiy uied, . . . aod 
the ntost refined persono were not ashamed of making presents 
of it to onv aDuther. Thp consequence naa, that vilcuess of 
^entimcnt aiid tnamiiTs becanic (general : shame snd inodratjr 
BkiuxhiN) from unimig mt-u ; llit-y limnicd to boast of their vices ; 
uid nothing of manhood reniaiixid but the form." 

I>et lis uow set before otir ri-ailt^rs Mueb authentic personal 
exncricnces as we hare been aWe to collect from hooks and 
Otncrwi*(;. Three accountii of tlie " plcasui-es of hashish'' cany 
llii-ir luitidotc with them ; and few, we imagine, will Ijl- di^posnl 
to ht-0(>ni« " lUKasMiis" under penalties so unpleasant as wc shall 
•et l>pfi)re thom. 
■ M. Mnrvau, who has guiM^ more fully into the Kuhjeet of the 
^fecta of baSihtHh upon tlie human system than any other writer, 
concluites that there is not oiJy an analo-^, bnt an identity, be- 
tween the mental conditions of insanity and funtama prudneed 
hj- this n.-»rttitic. Even the Reiicral c\hdiirntion, wbioh is tJio 
remdl of a mixii-mU- dtwc of hiwhish, closely resi'mhlc* ttiat which 
is wrv fr(Mpienllr (he preeursor of a pnTOiyjud of mailnesa. This 
exhilaration is tfius described by M. Moreau : 

H " It is real hapfnnets which is jiruductd by hasliish ; an enjoyment 

HDtir<<ly mural, and hy no meuiiii sc^nsuul, un iiiij;ht be iimi^iui^, . . ■ 

Tor Ihe liiLii'ii»ln»t*T i» liiippy, not like the ttuurnwuU, or the faiuislietl 

when ulisfvluji liis n{i[ii.-tite, or tho voluptuary in tliu gralifita- 

on tit hi* iktim ; hut like our who heare news that fill him with joy, 

' like th« niiscr counting; liix storrit, or the nucccMful gnmblcr, or the 

dMcjoom nuin in the moment of nttninment." 

a more advanced stage of tiio intoxication 

?e bMMne the sport of iin|iresir!ons uf every kind. The coorse of 
' ideas may be )>n.>kfu b_v thv aHifljtvst cuuap. We are lurued, so 
io aiteak. by eit-rj- viiiiL By n woni or a K"-'*'""-, our tliotigLl-i itiaj 
he iuoceMiveK' dirFuted to a multitude of ditTurrRt lubjcifls wilK n ra- 
pidity Mid luciility tndy nuirvclliiuii. The miud becouirjt jinstcwted 
with a fiMling of pride corres ponding to the rxaltnlion of its fncultiuK. 
Thaw who make use of hnaliish in tho Ksst, wlien they nisli to give 
tbenwulvas up to tlw /oMtifwut, wiUidivw tlicnuelvcs carefully frc>m 
•rvry thing tltat could giv« a melancboly direction to their delirium. 
They take all the means wbiuh th« dissolute umunors of the East placn 
at their disposal; . . . aud tliey find tlieuudvus aliuost transported to 
the ra™di« of the Prwphet,' 

Under the influence of hasbidi, "SI. Mnrcau has frcquoDlly 
found distance immcusclr couggented, crciy thing appealing to 



100 



Hathuh. 



\ 



tUe eye Ds it dous tlirmigli tti« wron^ end of an opera 
SuHi urv frccjiiontly the illusion* of Inie iii!>aiiily. But in no- 
thing nr« till- hiLthish-vi»ion!t nnd liiita<:y mj i-iirioiinly iileiitilkil 
as in the coiiaciouHiiw» and partial power of will which coo- 
iDonly characteriiics both. For a time the poirer of tiaabish may 
bo yielded to or not, at the choiec of thi* will ; aod it U ontr in 
extreme intoxiciitiun that the viMoiis are wholly uncootroUahle. 
"The marked «»nx'si>on(ienw," sayn a writer in the British flitrf 
Foreign Mrdiral Heeine, '• between the |>beiK>inenn of iuMiuty 
and those whieh are indueecl by the iiitrodiietion of sitidi kul>- 
atances into the blood, must not be overlooked in any atteni|>t to 
arrice at the true patholofry of the former condition, or to hriaf 
it williin the domain of tlie tliernpcutic art." 

M. Berthaiilt, iti hi* Thrtia for thr Dortor^t I>effree, gtTCt' 
the best Hummnry of the phvi^ieal and iMyehieal effects of liadad 
which we have met with ; he also adds some interesting experi- 
cnees of his own as to the /on/tMia. One day be had swallowed 
a large done; and while under the eflcctof it, the band of a re^- 
ment of draj^Ds «uil<U-iilr be^iun to play beneath his windoin. 
Ne%cr, he tvWn us, had he known what ninwie was till tlien- 
HiH perwplive power* were »o much iiit<^i).iified, that be 1>ccuiK 
able to dlMingiiisb the part taken by each inatnimi-iil in ilic 
hand as well as the best lender of ao orebestra eoiitd have done. 
He ex(tcrie!ieed, in a remarkable degree, thai cslraoniinary nw- 
terialisation of ideas, which seems to be one of the maic con.«taiit 
cftccta of the drug when taken in large quautitica. The dementi 
of the harmonica heard by him a»i<umc<l the form of ribbons of a 
thousand chan^n^ colours, intert«i.-«Ung, waving, and knotting 
lhem«elve» in a manner apparently the mottt caprieioiu>: "uu- ' 
twintiii}; all the chains that tie the bidden soul of harmony," 
says Milton; and what occurs to the poet as the best figurt? 
under which to represent bis idea, with the bashish'Cater aasomcE* 
reality. The experience of Theodore Gaulticr, tbc artist, wbci* 
under the effects of lia»lii«h, wan curiously the converse of thfc* 
of M. Herthattlt. ('olonra to him nprixtcntcd themselves a^ 
Rounds, whieh pr^nluced very sensible \ibr;ili(m-'< aii<l nndnUtioiL' 
of the air, M. licrtbault's hallucination of the ribbona after ^^ 
while chans^'d ; but only Uy Ix-comc more material and taiigibler- 
Each note bec»me a flower; ami there wcrx; as many differem kind*^ 
of flower! lis note* ; and these formed wreaths at>d garlands, i«* 
which the hiirmonyof the colours represented tluitofthc sonnd*- 
The lluwcn soon t^vc place to precious itonea of vuiou^ kind* l^d 
which rose in fountains, fell s^aiu in cascades, and strcmmi.-d >wsy^| 
in all direction!*. The next phatic of the vicion will at oiic^ »ns:p*t 
Coleridge's Kubia Khan, which, our readers will remember, wa-* 
written under a similar inspiration. The band began to play * 



I fat high. 



101 



Waltxt «ith the cbfto;^ of the measure tlie viHojiphtirely changt'd; 
M. Bcrth&ult found him«df in a miiltitiidc of sitloft^^ f orgr^ouxly 
deoonu-d nnd illiiiiiiiiut(.-d. All tlicM: iipiLrtmcriUt'VytfV'^ "'^ 
one, !iiinnounU.-d by nii ciiorinoiM dotne, wliicli wnirMviilt of 
coloDrcd cTj^Htala, and )iiiji[Hjrt('d by a tlioii^aiid coliimiia. T^s 
dome dissolved, au<l beyoml ita vaitialiing walls appeared aiiothc*. 
far more glorioiui. This gave way to a third, more splendid stifl-j;,- 
ond this ni^iii to a congeries of domra ouc upon tlie otLcr, and*- 
eacli nnjre gorgeous tlian any of ils prill ccosors. At llie suiiie 
time llicre iipjx^ired the vUioit of nn innnuii-Dthle u.-^<^iubliige 
excctiling a frantic waltx, mid rolling itM:lf like a ftcr]tent from 

•hall to hall. 
From a great number of experiments made on himself nud 
otbers, &[. Bertliault concludes that ibv rao:^. eoustfint efl'ect of 
hiiKbi«h i« a great exaggenition of the pfrwpliouJt of Ihc sense* 
OP the emotions of the mind, w/iatet>er thf»e /ntiij 6r nt tUf time. 
Sorrow, accimiitig lo IiIa experience, is not disMiijatod by luishish, 
as its eastern panei.Trists say, bat intensified. The slightest 
^^celing of personal irritation or resentment becomes u deadly 
^bevcuge ; the gentlest affection is transfomieil to the most piis- 
^■■Bionatc love ; ordinary fear i« ehangi-d into overwhelming terror ; 
etiviiage to headlong mshness, and m forth. Of all nieauM of 
L ilhiatrating the [KiwerH of hashinJi, there is nnthiuf;;, lie says, like 
I miuic. Ho pnifesse?! to hate repeatedly witnesied |)er&nus car- 
I liod through the most opposite conditions of min<l, in a sjmee of 
t lime incredibly &hort, by variations of music played to them 
H duhag their balluciuation. lie further remarks, that penwns in 
^B Ibis (oitditioii can be guided iu their vinionw by a lookcT-on; n 
^1 rendition reminding us Mtrongly of that strange stale of mind 
^H pttUoed by the manipulationK of the " electro -biologist." With 
^B IfefbUowiiig curious extract we take our leave of M. Ucrthault: 

^H " Unsicura dc mm ami* m'ost mcoiili^ nuv dium It« Dmnhcii, a 
^H '(p«]ne oil r«n rvco1t<^ Ut chnnvr« (licjn]>), Ir* [Rmmes chor^ci dc rctto 
^H ^***l(n(> cnlrrnl prnfoiB lUiis Ics accds dc fiircur, ntlni|iiriit Irs pusnote, 
^H *!> Hmblabks i dm Itaccbaatos. so livreut i dfs debauches; .... 
^H ■'k* «tni>loi«Dtt dit-on, la violenco contra c«ux qni voudroient les 
^H 'Mmct ; od Ua a mem* Turn parfais se livrer a dcs a«tc8 d'unc barbarie 
^H AifiBectvaut^ digB« des t«mps anciene." 

^1 Tlie following account wc give from a private source. Ttie 
^H liitiid wbo sends it to us is a miin of highly nervous tempera- 

^H , " My experience of tiie effects of haALish is as follows. I \\a\f tnkeii 

^V "rixar Mv«a lim«a lu tli« sulid form, as pills, and about as many times 

~f !■ tleoboliA extract. Tbu lutt«r seems to set more pou'crfiilly tlinn tho 

cl fceintr, the (luaulitini being alike. Five drups of the alcoholic rxtrad, 

^1 UiitB tm a iniup of Ftigar niW tea, pioiltice a Yei>' appreciable and 



im 



, '■::•.'■ JtatkhM. 



Uiout 



■emuLile rxliilnfitljiis, WiwmbliDg, nxirr thtat AOf thing •!*• 1 kiHiw, i 
cm«ttipoD{U*si>iriboflhe first rMlsprin); day in ili«]rMr. Thecin 
Ution «f t^^jfloud s(«ma lo l>« iBcreoMtl. the bnta of tlte k<*rt b«tt>i 
porceptlblot 'jibd a ptmliMly yttaai couditUiu of monl and pkjui 
Im^S ia'iiKluced. Hti>ic)i d<ii;« uot at all r(*«nli!v tlu' unproved »tat« of 
^tjcliag that aruM from tUe woaooablc a9>« of wine, Ua, or coffee. 1 
•* Jt^^'talcen five i>r t«u drofia emy cTenioK for acTenl ilara, without 
>.'«ty amiarait reaction ujiuii the UFmiui ■}«!«». A di»e of (iflc " 
* dn>pa incnuuicd the pulaattini* iif the hrnrt to mt to pruduce a fccli: 
of nnxictynnd rccttcvinciu ; thnugli, tnkrn five or mx boun lirforc goioj 
U> bed, it Itept me awnkc hnlf the nisbt. and wben I went to tk*^ 
CMuad a ancccMioD of Ytry rivid and disireMing dnama. Tba iol- 
lowiDg Any my nerves wtro tensiMy ili« worec ; any uddra noiaa or 
novrmcnt startlnl and aiiiioye>d tuc. and I felt bbuf aitd indispoaed to 
•sertioD, mental or bodily. A similar doae ou anotlicT oecaaioa pt*- 
diic«d Binular eff«cts. I have twice tried to produm tbe j'anituia Ij 
takiag large dosca, but liave faiW each IJuo ; and tlie ^ffeeti upon my 
nerre* have Iweu no eridenlly iujtirioua, tUat I have uot iliuugbt it ftit- 
dent to rcjient the experiment with n latter jauntily. On one oeeani 
I awaltowod five luwIiisb-pilLi (cuch nn oniinnry do*v) ; and went rtrtigi 
to bed, ill order to aroitl betraying the cRccta, which T expnrinl wok 
follow, to others. I experienced no exaltation or drrnngrm^nl of n,inil 
whatever, but foimd that my *ensec wrr«i Tondercd exiraordinnrily arvCe. 
Tbo ticking of my watch somkled loiMr-r ih.in that of a kiteben-dMk; 
and the alight noiaes oii« bears at night, from cbanjiea of temperatsic 
in the timhera of the houM, iic., vrrre quite <ilnTtliug. Tlie neaftM 
approach lo the haaluRb-viaiomi 1 experienced waa on looking at tbt 
picture of a lady, which hung near nie ; tlie countcmncc, to tlic he*l tf 
my fitcnity of aeeingireiilly did «iiiile and langh and vary its exprootun 
from moment to mtMnrnt, atid the ligure h«<iamc nniiitlcd and living auii 
■Minctl to Rtir ii) itA fmmc ; niul now and then the fnoc, vhicb wut 
very 1>enutifiil one, assunwtl n ghiutly or lutlieroua rsprrwion. .Utet 
n while 1 put tli« light out, and tried to get to sl«ep ; but could not, ua 
account, a» it aeenicd, of tbc atrong palpitations of niy heart. I hvl na 
tru« akrp the wbolo nigbt ; but only a conditton of doee, distairbrd by 
nnplcasnnt and half-coiMcious dreams. Tbe next day, nud fur mv 
tlire« days ufler that. luy nerves were miMruhly uustruug. I wai in- 
capable of thinking; tit'u consecutire tliougliti ; I wax quito untUMbil 
by ordinary cnuseB of ititereHt mid plesnin.- ; my temper was irriiaU* 
in the extreme, uud nltoKelher I felt as I haU felt only once bdcn 
wlieu si;vi.Tul wei-ks of severe illui^iM bMl pmntratoil my mental n<l 
pkyucal ttlrength, uod \th my niTrvcn relnxeil aixl incnpabic of aoy tm' 
tUangreeable inipruR«ionK. On nnnthrr ocession I took a atSl laiS" 
dote, J. «. sixty drops of -the atcoliolic extract ; but still failed to cvok^ 
the jt|)irit of htt;ihish. I exprrirniTd. indeed, something of that exlf»- 
ordinary exaggnmlion of the idea of time which niuAt haahish-caltf* 
have described : actions and moTonients nhioh could not have ootUjiieJ 
teconda, seemed to occupy minut«8; but besides thtti nothing wondarfiA 
happened. The subsequent nervous elfeet, — 1 cannot call tt reactioBi 
when there had been so little action, — was a» nu[)k-uiMut as before ; aoi 




HaihUh. 



103 



^ 



I tW) tko^'iujiitv oomprebc&<l Iwiir u gqumc of liacliiah-«a^ug mtuL end 
in till- tl ictvriuraliiiii aftlic mriiUl atii] mnnit ctiiiiwitcr ile- 

•'-i-i'-'-l ' . i:i tritvrllcni ktid ottivnt. Tliti foUuwiii^ iliiy, in tlio 

' .-rr "li^hl lUngcr. — otie whicli vrouM not li»vi? in ibi; tcatt 

.,>< ' - ..<! mc Ht ntiothcT tiino, — 1 felt cowed, iucngiAblct, niid t«r- 

I rtllpd. I kaTQ rvHotvirJ n<it to rc|ieat on csporiinciit nliicli \\u* tviim 
pfuvMl so ilifa^rvitblc. As to tlic vcr^ timall rluttM, t)ii*y m-ctii t/a lie 
bvtniM' nii>l nitreimUe ta their cffitct, onder uoe miidition, tliot while 
iWr adiuii la»ts. iLu mind and IhxIv rvuulin lutolivo. Any exertion 
uf ibouK^t. even wi inncb as iu vrntios » leUw, dntrojn tlie Bgrfvabla 
eOwt* uid riiai)]{<.-s it tu « fuelia){ of im|)ati«iiDo knd fuvcrinbDM*." 

Mr. IJityanI Tiijlur )iiw plaoi'd on n?cord the results of two 
fitpmiiii'tiU OH tlir i-lft-CtH of hiLHliinlt. Tlic tirst was while he 
wu iu n Ixkiil iijion tliv Nil^". He took the iiid-Fotic in a mild 
l^n and miKli-raif (iiiiuitity, and dotcrilx-s hts Munitions as 
Kinu " tihyaiddly, of exquisite UglitDess and iiiriiic-Ms; niciiUdly, 
of a wondcrluttv kc«u perception of the ludicrous in the nunt 
Hiaulu and famdiar objcds." While the lit lasted, tie waa [)er- 
* ' ' I'j ubsiTvc itiid rcScct upon liis feelings, " I uuted 

! attt'tiliuii the fniu seiuwtioiM nhieh sprcud tlinjii;;h 
lutxhr ul'uiy uervout Ghnt, c^i thrill hclpinp; to divc»t 
lO iif iu uirthl}' and iniilerijd luilun-, until my sulutuicx; 
imn-aiN-d to OIK iw Krtinser tbwt tlit' Tn|>uun of the utmospIiLTC. 
Tbc olijci-tN by wiiii'li I was Btirrouiided uMtimed ii itmngc and 
vhiinMicAl enurcMton. My pipe, the oars whi<:li my hoittmcii 
plipd, the turtian worn hy the captain, the Vf»ii>r-jurs n»d cnli- 
iMTy iinplcmciilH, bccnnu': in thcmsclvca so ine\prQu^ihly nbsurd 
aiwl (^>l1liad, thiit I him provoki^ into a lung fit of Inuf^htcr. 
II10 hid I tiri nil till 11 dini uwny a» grnduidly ua it oume, kaving mc 
ovtuTomi! with a M>tl and iileaHant drowxinew*, from whii^h I naiik 
into a deep rcfrc&hiog xleep." This experimetil, Mr. IJayard 
Tuyiiir tell" vs, only excited his curiosity, and prompted hiin for 
once to throw hiniM'If wholly under the iutltteiicc of the dnij;. 
ilij; lit i>niniuu:ue with an Ko(;li»h (;eutlcuiau and his nit'c and 
ilht'r Aniirtcitn, he deti-rtuiued upon a I'cpt.-titiou of the nar- 
io doM! ill nil iiitviiM'T furai; and tito tvo other gentlemen 
tliv pafly uKrised to join him iu tlie trial. i\ dru^omau, on 
briiifT roinroisciortcd to procure the dnic, domandeil, in the lin- 
fma franra of the Kwt, whether be should pun-luiM- ha»hiiib 
"l>rr riilf'f, o per Homtira." " Oh, ptr ridere, of ronree," wna 
Ihv nnnwiT, It Hoems that it w thu custom with the Syrians 
" to take 11 MiiidI portiun ininieiltnti.-ly Ufore tlic evening mral, 
an it in ttinK dilfiiNed through the niomiK-h, and nctn mure ^ra- 
(liiidJy, lui well aa niuit^ gently, upon the sy»tem." The nn^linli- 
nian olijretrd to Mr. Taylor's i>ro]>osul to tjikc it, fullowiuK the 
Syriau e\uiuplei al diuucr ; ana it wan agreed that it should be 




104 



Ha»hi$h. 



in the crening, wIiimi the parties anclrr its influence might In 
more in girivat^^, mkI retire, if ihey pleased, to their ."Ciiant 
apartnicriita. Not knowing the proper qnantity to takf, aiu 
findiDf; that a tcaspoonful of the preparation had no immediat 
effect, an additional dose mix swallowed bj" each of the tl 
■nd its cfffct hastened by a cap of Itot toi. It appcurvd 
wnrdifL, thnt ihcy hiul taken at h-axt sis tinti-it the proper qtumtH] 
We have to thank thiit aoctdent for In- very much the most < _ 
rioiu and aniuaing account we have read of the effects of this 
extraorcUnsry dm^ : 

" I was seated atone nearly in th« midi]l« of the room, talking witli 
mjrfrfeuiU. who werolounKin'; upon a »i>fa placed iDaH>ttofal«)Te«tthc 
further end, «'b«u tht.- suiuu fiuf nerrona tliriU of which 1 hare spokto 
nddent}- nliut Uiruu^h ra«. But tliiH Itiue it was ac«in)pani«d bj S 
buruint.' Hcnsatton at the pit of tli« stontach ; aad instead uf n;rawid^ 
vipOD xnt. with tilt! ({rndunl |»ue of Iindtb}' aluinbcr. and reM^vin); OM^ 
M bcforr, int-n air, it ciinie with tbv iotciunty of a ]huk, and «hut thnA- 
l>ing along the iirrv<« to the extrcniilicai cif my body. Ilu) iienc af 
limitation, of Uin conftnnmctit of our iicn»c« witbin llie bounik of oar 
own flesh and blood, instAntiy foil away. Tlie wmllji of my fnunc irc« 
burst outward and tumbled into ruin ; and, wilhoat thinking wb 
form I wore, — losing nght oven of all idea of form, — I felt that 
«xi8l«d throughout a vast extent of ^a<r. Th« blood, paired from ro| 
heart, aped tbrouKh uncounted leaKues before it reached my extr 
Ilea ; the air draun into my luu^* expauded into »eua of limpid HheM 
nud tiie areh uf my skull wili bronilc-r ihau llie raull uf heuvcu. With 
th« connivQ thut held mv brain were tlie fftlhumleu d<r«pii of hlue|l 
clouds flaittrJ thcr«, and the wiiiilit of hearen rolled them together, ana^ 
there nhoiie the sun. It wa* — though 1 thought not of titnt at ibe 
time— like a rcvclntion of the myctrry nf omniprmenee. It is diflknit 
to ilescribe this sensation, or the rapidity with which it miMt«rfd me. 
In tlic slat« of mental exaltation in which ! was then plunged, all na- 
satJons, as Ibey roM, suggaated more or lem coherent Imagce. The; 
presented themselves to ma in a double form : one physical, and tbcre- 
fore to a certain extent tangible ; the other spiritual, and reveoliog 
itself in a ituucessiun of splendid metaphors. The physiad fcehug i2j 
extended beiug wns accompanied by tlie iiiui;;« of au exploding i 
not subHidiug iiilci darkneaa, but continuiug to nhoot from ita centre < 
nucleus — wUicli correspouded to the burning spot at the nit of 
stoRiaeh — lueestunt adumbrations (t) of light, that finally lost the 

selves ill tiie infinity uf 8|Ukee My curicwity wan now in a war- 

of being sikliaficd ; the ajiirit (demon sbnlt I not mchrr say t) of hashin 
had entire possession of me. I wn> caxt njxin this flood ofhiiilla- 
sons, and drifted hett)lc»ily whitht^rHucvcr they might choose to betf 
me. The thrills wliicli ran through my nervous sy«toin be<uiuie niort 
rapid and ficvce, necompunicd Ity seusatioos that st««ped my wbolr 
being in unutterable rapture. I wns encompassed by a sea of tight, 
through which played tbo pure liarmonioos colours iliat an bora 




Htuhiah, 



105 



litrlit Wb)l« cndeftvouring, in Iirf>ken exprCK«ii>nM, to dcscrilic tnj 
beling* to tnv frieiidii, vrlio iiiit looking njidii me itKnT^liiImiely. not yet 
Wring b«m HfTccti'il \\y the drug, I middrnly fmin'l tnvHcIf At tb« foot 
of the gnat pjT«mi«l of Cheops. The tnppring courgcs of yellow lime- 
•tone gl«atDcd like golil in the oitii ; nml ihc pile roee so ht^ti, that it 
wwaed to lean for support upon the blu« srch of tli« sky, I wiahml 
to MOOnd it ; and tLe wish alone plnoed loe immediately upou it) apex. 
, . . . 1 esst niy eyes downward, and to my astonish men t »hw that it 
irtB built, not of linieMon*. but of hu^e squnr^ pli>K» "f Cuveudlsh 
tobacco. .... I writhed in my chair in nti ui/finy of limjihler. wbicb 
ira« ouly relieved by tlie visiou nieltia^' awuy like n diiuolviiiK view; 
tin Aiiirfher and more wonderful visiiiu arote. .... IilcKpaIr of repre- 
aentiiig itit exceeding glory. I yina uioviiij; over the dwtrrt, nirt npon 
tbe rocking dronii'ilary, but Meatctl in n biircpie mncle ofinotber.cif-penrl, 
Mulstnddvd with jcwrl* of iiitr|inii>'ing luitre. TheKaiid wasof graina of 
gold ; tb« air wm rmlinnt, though no huh wiis to lie seen ; 1 inhaled the 
OKXt delicious perfumc4 ; an<l harmonicK, «iidi as Heethoven may have 
bcuxl in drofUDB, bnt never wrote, floaleil around mc. The atiuosphere 
haeir was light, odour, music ; and each and all sublimated beyond 
tnj thing tl>« sober senses are capable of receJTiijg. Before me, for t> 
tlioiuaad leaKueti. aa it aeemed, stretched a vista of ntiubow:). .... 
By tliuuaandt uiJ lens of thouiaods tbcy flew past me. lu my dux^ling 

barge ji|i«d down thi' tiiu^-iiilicciit ureade I revelled in u icn- 

Stiotu clyatnni. which wiu pcrfei't. hccuuBU no Herine wiui left imgmtilicd. 
~ beyond all, niymiiid wan filled witli a boiimllew feeling of tritimpb. 
y journey was tbdt of acinKjucTor, .... victorious over the grandest 
■A well M the subtlest forees of nature. The spirits of li^jht, colour, 
odoor, sound, and niotion were my slaves; and t mis master of the 
■niv^ne. .... Those Huer senses, which occupy a tiiiddle ;n'oun<] be- 
tween our aniniiil uiid intellectual A]^titea, were suddenly develo|>ed 
to a pilcli heyood what 1 hiid ever dreamed, awl firatified to the fullest 

esti-nl iif tlictr prelerunturiil cupai'ity. Slalioiriet's parudiire 

would have been a jiuor uud mniii tcruiiiius fur my iircaidi- of minbowK. 
Yet in the eharneler of this piirudlse. in tile gorgcoun fiincie* of the 
Arabian nighln, in the glow ami luxury of nil ()rientnl pnetry, I now 
recognise more or leu of the agency of hnKhith, The fullness of my 
Tipture expanded tlie ornse of time; and though the wtmlc vision was 
Mobebly not more than fire miuutes in jioMing, years seemed to have 
MAT 

H&ahisb-catcra agree in this curioux experience of the es- 
tion of the idea nf time. M. Momtii, nri hnbituni swal. 
of Ihii nnrrotif, stntca that one eveniiifr, in imviT«ing tlic 
pMsnf^ of the Opera under its inHuonce, the time oceiipied in 
talciDg * few ateps scenieil to be hours, and the passage inte^ 
minsble. But to return to Mr. Tnylor'a visions : 

" Hy anil by tbc rniiibow-*, the hun|ue. Ac, raiiiilied ; and. still 
bathed in light and jicrfuine, I fi>und my»elf in n Iniid of ^reeii and 
flowery lawua. i» :• '^^ jwople who came from tbc hills, with bril- 



■Sot, 

■^yj 




106 



IJatMsh. 



liant goniii-nts tliat Kluino iu tlji; Hin, h«iioi^Ut lau to fpv« iheni Uie 
blc*«>ng of walrr. Tlieir liaui]* wcA full of liraucliot uf tlie tuni- 
houcjxucklc, id bloom. Tliccc I took; end hrcakiDg off tliv floucn 
<m« by oiM^ act them in tiiecurtli. Tlic sIciuUt tri)in|Kt-)ikc tukm ira- 
inedj^cl}' became »Iia1U of nuwonrr ; Ui« tip of tbo flower chwigcd 
into n circular tiiuiith uf pose-ColouiW marble; saiJ tiie people lowcccil 
their pitcber^ anU drew tbem Dp again, filled to tine briui and dripjiiiig 
wiUi liou«y." 

Strange to fay, all the time theac riniona were ^m^ on, Mr. 
Tirlor iras [ffirfRotly conscious tliat ho waa seated in an ipRrt- 
mcut of Antonio's hotel in Damascus, and that his drewns were 
ai\ simply the result uf having taken hashish. 

" M«t«phveiciMW," b« icmarkii, '- eny tiiaC the tuind is incttpKUe of 
perfomiing two operations at tlf sauie timo, and tuny attempt h) ci* 
plain tbii phcuoinenoD \ty supposing a rajiid and iiiccaaiuiL vibration cf 
tho peiTMptioDB between the two stauv. Tliis ex|>lMi«Uoa. howcrnr, it 
ootaallftfactory to lue ; for not more cleurlv dues a skiJful muKiciaii villi 
the same hreuili Vluvr iwu distiuet iuuhjcuI iiuUi* from a bugle ihaii I 
waa etiiisciuus uf (wv distiiicl cuuilitioiiH uf beijJK ii> the ^amo luoDKaL 
Yet, siii|{ulur (t* it miij* m-vm, iiuither coufliutvd with the othor. Hj 
WJu}'uic^iit of the vi«it)iis wu euTii|>l«U; and abw>luU-, and ooclutnrtied 
by tht; faintest douhl of tlicir retilicy ; while, iu Koine utiicr chamber of 
niy brniii, Reiiaou nut cuuUy wutehiug them, uud heaping thu tiveiioB 
ridicule on their fautuclic features." 

It will occur to nuiny of oiir reader*, that the only pheno- 
menon that rcsoralilt^it tlic nhovc, in ii normal mental stale, i* 
that of wlial is coninio»l_v and cxpreB-nii cly called poetic inspira- 
tion, in which the most lively and passionate rcJilisation of a 
Bcrica of events and images goes on simultancoiuOy with the con- 
acious cxcrcUu of the cold skill of the nrliiitic inteUcet, 

-*'<*' The ilnig, whii.'h hud been rrtiirded ill its optrntion nit aceount 
bavioK been titkini niter a nicnl, bow begnii to niuhe it«clf mnrc povw- 
MIy felt. Tin- viniiins wure more griih'in[iie tliiin ever, but 1«» •gr*»- 
able ; and tlit^m wut u [minful trmaion throughout my ncrvoos eyat«ia 
.... 1 wuii 11 niiud of trnnspnn^iit jelly, ntid n confectioner poured tar 
into u tvrinted mould, 1 ihrrw my ebnir imidp, and writhed and tO^ 
lured tiiyiclf for wmv time to force my loose subslunco inlo tlie nwuli 
At Wtt wlii-n 1 bad so fnr succvedctl tJiat only one foot r«mwoed nnl- 
nde, it wns lifted olT, and anotltor mould, of still more crooked abd to- 
triciitc shape, substituted. 1 have no doubt that the couturlious tli/iiugh 
which 1 went to aeconiplisli the end of niy gelutiuou^ destiuy woom 
have been extremely Iwlicrous to a s|>colat(ir, but to me tbey wett 
paiufid and diHii^reeable. Tho sober half of me went into fiU ol 

laughter over lliein I bnd laughed until my eyca overflovnJ 

profusely. Kvcry drop that fell imineil lately beemue • taT]ge loaf if 
bread, uml Uimhlod ujion the Kliop-lioaiil of a baker al Dains«cua. The 
more 1 laughed, the Eaalcr tho loavca tell, until suuh a jiilo wn* 



.4 



1 



//oMiaA. 



lor 



■Iwnt tbii 'hmkxr that I couUI livilly km lIm top uf Iuh ImuJ. *Tiia 
I ituB will 111! MitTocotcd,* I cried ; ' t>ut if Iii! wum tu tliV, 1 cunnut »top.' 
Mv ^>-'-- I'li.Ki- ••■.» b«t«iu« tnuro iliin «a<l eoatumxi. I fuit tli*t 1 was 
' in i: ' itiu ^-iiuit fonxi, otid in the glimiovriug of luf fadini; 

I reuw-o ^M >• oil iK-jttly >laniiml ; fur tho terrible ttrcn wtd«r wliich uy 
fruinc laliuuml,iTK'iriuuil rr4'i-jr niiiiuU. A Rurva out) furiout \trat ra- 
ni fr-<in in)' Mttinini:)! iliroiigtiuiit my qtftcin ; my nMMitli Olid ttirottt 
' iwt dry aii'l IiArd u if m»Ae of brass ; luul my toDgiu, it bmbuxI to 
n, Wtta a Lor of ruaty inm." 

In this <-«uditii)ti Mr. Taylor rcinainwl for Konif time, deriving 
no alU'viatiiiii from gri-nt draii(;)its of w:iti:-r, " beariii^,' Mglm lliuC 
sei-uii-tl li> aliatU'r hb wliolo Ixiiug;" aiid yet, ut thU crUis uf hia 
iiioniiity, lie was fully able to remark tliat " tlierc was a scream 
of lliL- wililf4t laui;liti-r, aiitl my cdUutryiDftii epraii;; upon tbe 
floor, rvelaimini:, ' Ve go<ln, I am a lucutuotivc ! This was bis 
rutiiig liaUiiL-inntioii ; aii<l for tlie npoce of tno or three liuurs be 
UDutiiiiieil t<i pave to ami fro, with a ineaxiu-ecl stride, cxhnliiitj: 
his Im^illi in violent jcla^ and, nhen he 6|>oke, dividiii(; Win 
woi -vllalitcs, each of which lie hrousht out with a jerk; 

' at ■ lime tiiriiiu^ his h:iiidfl at hi» siilc«, as il'thcv wcro 

tbe cnitikH of ima^iary whecU." The Euglishman, on Ending 
iLf dru^ ))v;{iii to act, chiir.ictvristtcaUy rctiml to bis apartuwnt, 

I and c(nw\ never bo [irevailed ii)kiii to relate thv results. Mid- 
nijllit lurivrd, ilitiu^h evi^ry minute np|)eAred ccDlurinf, and tbc 
terrifle tninet! still enutimtml : 

" tty till* time I biwl |>«)BMd tlirough t^c jiamliiiii gf liMlusb> atul 

VTM |i1iini;v'l loto it* fivrtxvt ht'll 'I'bo cxcittKl likwd rushed 

OirQii^li iiiv (ratiKi with a suunil like tlic nuiriii^ of mighty wotvri. It 
1 iiit» IIIV «yM until I cuuld ao lon^ tec ; it bnt thickly 
mil M iLrohbcd in my h««rt, that I feiured tho ribs would 
, uuiJcr its blows. 1 tore open my vest, plactd my Land 
■!;•'>(, aiiil tried to ooont tho pulsations; but tltere were twi> 
' i^tiiiK al the rsU' of a tlioUMml b«sta a minute, and the 
' stuw iluU muUoD. Uy tbruat, I tliOHubt, was filled to 
tha Ihuii witti Uuiid. uiul streams of bUiod went |xitiriui{ from luy ears. 
... I lli'd from ihv room, aiul walked over tlie fbit terraced ruof af 
thii hotLH', My tioily MM-nietl to shrink and grw riyid. and my fnce 
lu hsuixuu wiliL loan, and hiif^nl, .... laTolunlarily 1 raUcd my 
Innd iti fitci th<- Imnoess amf sitsrpiitw of my fncr. U lionxir ' tho 
flmh I' ' ' ))-it from my b(in(i». nml it wii( a >k«l«li>a-liead I carried ou 
taj - ■ With utic butiDil I Hpniiig tu tbi) |>sraimt, and looked 

duwii iii'v' •■i'« site&t L-ijiirlyanl, Ibeit tilled with the ahnd^jwe thrown 
iulti it liy (be riitiiiir mouu. .Siiall 1 CMt iny«flf down hciMJlxiiK I w4m 
'Aim luTS^lf ; htit tbuui-h tlie burrur of tbe skeleton 
I 11)1! fvsr III' death, ibvre wua an invisible hBtid 

■yuUii I I uv! away from llir lirinl:. I uia'le my way 

^^^^B i: . ..i.Lii of the kectient Biilftiriii;(. My compoaiou 



W&. 
ill I 

0<i.' 

thsi 



108 



HashUh. 



WDS still ft locomoUrc, nishing to itni) fro, am] jerking out liis srllablM 
with tiio disjoinwd nceent peculiar to a ftfJunH-ngioc. His inoutli bftd 
turned tu Lmm, like mine. And liis h>ind raised ttie pitcher to hi* lips 
in llie utleuipl to tnuisti^ii it: hut. hef»re he had t«k«n m moullifu). 
net tti« tiilclicr down apiiii with u yvW of lau|>hter. crying uuL ' How 
eau I take vruter into my Wiler. while I aw leitiu^ offstvam f" 

Mr. Taylor tt^Us us llint he was too fnr i^iic to full into tbp 
nbsiinJity of tins. Ho frit himN'lf sinking dwprf and deeper 
into niitittcriihic ii^ony and ilotipair. Tliert: wa^ notliin;; ri'si'Ri- 
bliiifi: "nlinary pain ; hut a distrpss, from tension of n<-r\t*, nliich 
could not b(- rfescribed, because unlike ta\y previous experience, 
and which was far worse than anr pain. The mnnsnt of the wili 
wa« gnidaally dii'apjjcftring, without any corrt-sponding diminu- 
tion of consciuicnicm; and n ilrcndful four arose tlmtnlint licnss 
now Kuni'ring was real and iicnnnnoiit in^iinitv. Indit^l, it ap- 
pear* fr(im a fact mentioned by Dr. Madden in bia Travrln in 
'I\ifkey, 6ic., that this fear was not so groundles* as Mr. Taylor 
aflerwartifl eame to regartl it. I>r. Madden assures us that owl 
of tfairteeu male inmates of a TnrkJdi nindhouse, no fewer than 
foiu" liad gone mad from over-doKC* of liashiKli, TIic rest of tbia 
profoHtidiy interc'ting and viviilly-c^preM.'M'd dt^jieription. whieh 
wc have relnetantly abridged, miut be given in Mr. Turlur's 
vords: J 

" The tlionght of (Irnth, wliicb alse liaunted mo, was far leas bUt«r 
than this (Irrad. I knew tlisl in tlie struggle which was going on in 
my fninie, I was borne fearfully near the dark gnlf ; and the tbmitiht 
that, at such a time, both renson and will were l<?aviug my brain, &IImI 
mc with HU a^foiiy, the depth and bW'kness of whioli 1 should vain^ 
alU'inpl to portray. 1 tliruw myself on my bed. the fsciied blond sttil 
runriug wildly in my ean, my heart throhbiuft with a f'in.i- that ■l^cnml 
to he rapidly nvurjug away iny life, uiy throat dry us a imtslterd, sad 
my stiflciiud tongue cleaving to tlie roof of my mouth. My companion 
vrax approodiing the eudic coiuliliua ; but hn the cHect of the drug upon 
Iiim had been lets violeut, do his stage of suRTrring wn* more clnmo«wuL 
He cried otit to iiie tlifit he was dying, and rvproAcbed nie vehcmeDtly 
lieoause I Iny there silent, niiitioiile««, and apparently careless of his 
dangei". ' \s\i\ will he disturb nic V I thr.ught- ■ He thinks lie is d\-iii^ 
but what is dealli to niadnessi Let him die; a thonsand deaths wet« 
more easily borne than the pangs I suffer.' A^liile I was luQiricntly 
conscious to hear hie exclamalions, they oidy provoked my keen anger; 
but after a ttitie. niy seiisea became clouded, and I nank into ■ Mupor. 
As near as I can judge, this must hate been lliree o'clock tu the moni> 
ing, mther imirc than live liuitrs ufU-r the haiihish hr;giin to lake effect. 
I lay thus all the following diiy mid night, in a atalc of ttlnnk oUtvtUB, 
broken only by a itiiigle watidering gleam of eonsciouancSE, 1 recollect 
hearing Francois' VQieu. He told me afterwards that I row, attvmpto] 
t*> Antt myself, drank two cupa of coDce, and then fell back into tfat 



4 



HmMn/i. 



109 



N 



same doolli'Iikc stupor ; bttt of »ll this I did not retiuii th« l^asl knoff- 
ledflW. On the moniing of tbc lici-uud d&y, aj\ev a tierp v/Ourty kotira, 
1 Awulte a^A'm to the worlO. wkti a ainleiu utterly giriMitrate aud un- 
KtniD};, liud a brain clouded with tb« liu]f«riii); imu;;M of uiy vi«iunii. 
r kiMw wlirre I was, ulkI wliui Imd ha{i|)i>aetl to iiiii; but ull tliul 1 aiiw 
Nlill rMDatoed uureal utiil nluuluivy. There iriw no ijutc in whut I utc, 
no rcFrealiinonl hx whut I ilriiiik ; unrl it n^qiiin^il ii |)niiifiil cR'ort to 
romi>tT-hrnd whnt wn' iniii tii mw, nnil rctiini u cohc.rMil atisn'rr. Will 
still rcuHOU hiul cintic hneXi, hut t.hny still nut unntciulily on tlicir thronc4. 
My friend, wlm wrm mucli fiiitlur mivnnccl in bin roovcrv, wcompa- 
uied luc to the mljoiuing bnth, which I hopoii would assist in rwloriog 
IDA. It wu with grrat difliculty that 1 prracrved the out<rard apprar- 
Mwe of cvngeiimsncat. In sp)t« of Diys^lf, a veil now and tiieo fell 
over my mind ; anil after vandtriiig for years, as it seemed, in boiiiq 
diataut world, I an'uko with a aliock to titid myself in tlie steamy halls 
of tJie bntli, nith a l>ruwn Syriau i>y|i(ihiii({ my liinhii. ... A \^ast of 
rcry •cid ulieHint vaa pNSi-nled to nil*; and aftyr driiiktuj; it, I cspe- 
rienccd inxtjuit rctiff. Still the ii[il-11 n'ti.i not wlioUy hi'okeu. and for 
two or three ilay-> 1 continued giiibjc't^t to freijiiiint liivuhintjiry lit« of 
■baeiice, which mode me inscnixilile f<ir the tinir Xa nil tbut iron pnisiiig 
■rooml mc. I walked the Ktrectsi i>f Danimieiu »itJi ■ utrun^e coii- 
9c\fiwfDfvt tlurt I wii-i in Home other place fit the siiiiic time, nn<l witli 
a eoiutant effort to reunite mj- ilividcd [icrccpt.iong. l'rcvioii» to the 
experiment, wo lind decided on innkiuj,' a bar^'aiD for the journey to 
tUmyra. .... But all the charm which lay in th« name of I'almyru, 
anil the roinantje iuternt of the trip, wua ^one. I wan without uouruKV 
Mid without energy, and uotliing reuiuiued for mu but to leave Da- 
maMi Ut . 

Yet> fearful as my rafili experiment proved tti ine, I did not regret 
banog made it. It revcakd to mc deep* of rapture and of sutTeriag 
whieti my oalural facultien aei-or could have »ouiuled. It hax taught 
me Um miyesty of liuman ronton and of humnn will, even in the 
wcakeat; aiijil tbe awful jicril of tamperiug with tliat whicli as«iiils tlieir 

Tlic action of hasbuh, lUtc that of opium, is very different 
vttb diflbrcut persona. \Vv have licanl of ecvernl attcmptR to 
excite the funtn«in proving utter failuros; indeed, failure seems 
to be fur innrt- frctinent than j<ueee--<». I'rohiibly the ex|<urioiicc 
of M. de Suulcy ajici hLi friends, rvi-orikd in iiis Jiitimeg rouittt 
tht Dtad Sea, would he that of at least nine Kn^liHli, or French, 
baahiah-Mtcrs out of ten. "The cxporimeut," says thia tra- 
veller, " to whidi we had recourse for an amusement, proved so 
extremely disagreeable, that I mar say with eertainty tlint i)on« 
uf ua ia likely to wish to try it again. Ilwdiish is nn idwiainable 
poison, . . . whieh we had the fully to tnkc in exeensive doitea ono 
Pfcw-Yi-sr's day. We expe<-(ed a delightful evening ; hut were 
nearly killed throtigh our impmdcuee. I, who had taken the 
lai^eat doso, remained insensible for above twcntr-four hours ; 



Hathiah. 






Pr(t wliielj I woke to find myi>dr«>m[ilrtply«IiattCT«<l in wcttw, 
and Ktilijcct tn nonotis Rpasma and inoohercni drcamit, wine 
seemed to lasl hundreds of years," 

It ia to be observed, thst almost all the foregoing experiment 
were mode with doses fur greater than art> usually taken by W-T 
. Utual bashtsh-caterv iu the Emt. AocMinltug to Dr. O'Shaugli- 
ncMy, half-a-gniin \# cousidcn.'d a .sufficient quantity to l>c taken 
at a tiiuv ilk India. There is no {iroof that, when taken with 
motleratioH, and with Ute {>iir|>ow only of csusiug the gentle ex- 
hilaration iiroduccd by a prudent use of wine or tea, tite one 
would he more datua^ing than the othcR. The testimonies of 
^>r. Humes, Dr. Macphvrwn, and Dr. Eatwcll (quoted by Jotiii- 
■ton), oonecming tlie nnioiint of <>fii>ct produeed by opium in 
^Oinitries where it itt hahitiially taken, mijclit [irohahly iitand 
good for hashish nUo. Dr. Humes, lone resident at the court 
of Scindc, writes, that " in general the natives do not suffer much 
from the use of opium. It does not seem to destroy the powot 
of the body, or to enerviitc the mind, to tlic dt^rw that mJdil 
be imagined." Dr. &[nc|)Iiersuu obM^ncs of the Chiim*:, iTmi 
" althoiigh tlie luthit of smoking opium is universal amoiig ridi 
and [loor, yet thev are a powerful, muscular, and athletic pooplc; 
and tlic lotver ortters more iutellicent, and far »u[>crior iu inent^ 
ac(]iiiicnients, to those of correftpouding rauk iu oar ownoosu- 
tiy." Ur, Katwell writes ; 

.,,■ a'W\f (jU(5ttion t« bp ddnrrotncd n, not wbnt nre thr rS«U ti 
Opitim uieil iu cxirfiw, hot wliiit ate \t* cifpcbi on the mom) nnd phj- 
■nnil conittittition of thn ninw of individiinU who ii«c it habitUHUt'. ■&■! 
in Riodcrntion, cither iw o siinnilnnt to nii^tain the frame nmlcr titiete. 
or Bs a restorative Hn<i *c(lnlivc after labour, Ijodilr or mental ? Uaring 
passod three yean in China, I can nffimi thus far, that the eflticti) "■ 
the abuse of the (iMif- do cot winie very frequently ander observation ; 
and lliiil when vannit do oei-ur, tbe liubil Is fre-jueiillv fouiid to tw** 
been ioduwd by the jireaeuca of wimi; puiuful chronic ■Jiaeiu«, to eacop* 
from the Huifi-riugs of which the jxitieut Inw fled tu this rcaunrM). . - ' 
There ure ih^ubttcss mnny who indulge tu tlie habit to ■ prmicioiu c*' 
tent, led by the snmc nigrbid influenecji which indut* men to becol*'' 
dmiikiinls in even the nioet eivilisctl coiintrie»; but these «i»«»i d« u**** 
ut all events, come hcforc the public cjp. Ah rcgnrdn the cfleets of tt** 
habitiiid use of the drug on the maw of the people, I must aRinn d*^ 
no injurinus results arc visible. ... I coDclude, therefore, that proc*** 
are WRUtiii}^ to show that the mndvratc . use of opium produces mrT*^ 
pernicious cffeds upon the constitution than tlio moderate nsevf spint*'' 
ons liquors ; whilst, at the 8Aini> tiiuei it is certain thnt the couMqnen^^ 
of tli« former are lea* iL|ipulltiig in their AHeota upcai the vi<7liin, a*^ 
low disnslroiiK to locJety at hvgey than the cuniiequeuflea uf tbe al>use 4fa 
the lattT." I'liaT^iuteatUeai Jountal, vol. xi. ^| 

Hafihieh ia now in considerable n«c as a mcdicamcDt, nnd^ 



HathUh. 



HI 



tlio name t»f VanHahu itniica ; and ita thcmpcattc Application 

I •cents deMtinn) ttt W miidi (<Kt<>ii<)cil, imrlifruUrly in cupiicctioa 

with iiL-t-irous ilcmnjci^tuciitM, il« ibi jinipi-rliet hi>cume better »n- 

(Ifivt'i^Mt. IiiiifH-d, the above flinteiiicniH with reference to the 

' KTUOti^nris of luiidcriite opitim-Katiu^, itnd tlte 

■!i i» hiibitunlly used by Iwtwffn tfto and three 

I littudrul uitllioiiv, mid tliiil it w, if any thing, less injuriuin than 

lApiuin, M)iJ niudi iiiim'^ )^-nerally p«lHtuhK RUggcst thv poMi- 

iliility »f itK one d»y l>ei.-omin^ nn article of extensive coumim])- 

B auiun-; na. Its cfl'c<;ta, wlteit iiioderatcly taken, greatly re- 

Rlilc lltowoftea; niid it is a cuiioiis fact, that the eflccts of 

tM, in i-xc.j.iivc "Irciifjth, an; nut nnhkc those of hii*hish. .Most 

peiTHiitH linvi* their nrrvoii* ByBtera unstrung ami shattered for a 

timt! hy exo««t in tlic Wveragp "which cheer* but not incijriat«," 

tacM ReeniH to be thi! eA'ect-itn muM ]>eivoiu of too much 

nhifth; t>ut furthermore, inoensihility and hallitoiiintton aic 

liy t«a as wcU-as bashiBb. The friend who §u|iplied 

.riKJiith-experieiices also snpplica iih irith the follovr- 

jiit <irtUi:rMult ofancxtw** in ti-:i-drinkin^. Tlw r&> 

koc to Mmii? nf the nwwt ]XHni)i<u: cffi^et-t of hiithiKh in UfgO 

will strike nil who hare read the foregoii^ p<^e« : 

" n<-iti-' unilet an iiiiuMinl Ntrcw of work, whii'li OeiunTiiteil (fTMt 

tlvily ijf bniiii, I lin'l rcomrw, lut iixtul, to tc* for ex diriment. For 

vttriii ihiyii iiuL'i'wiivi-lf I took a hnnin of very rtrong tea foar or five 

lei r. iliv. Oiii> ui^iit, an I vnw itittin^ alonr with my mother and 

fci ' a Jtuddrti ilixxinrxB (iverMtnn mp rmnirilint^ily nfler a 

1 utrongM^ llian any 1 hiul taketi yfl, and nxturalod my 

ituiUfir III "ft mc a :;lam of aberry from the sidcboird. CuimioimMi 

■ iiiliag obje<:ta l«ft in«, and I full into a ilnam, vhich I can 

iWin by Myin^ that it wa* inilML-riliably t«rriRa. It Momed 

- '-4, aiwl I awoke with the hurror ufaauul which Iiad hocn 

1 hell. My ii»*thcr wan atandtDij hufuro iiw irilh the 

llwny. 1 uii.vd iiei' hour lung 1 h»<l been iD«oD>il>le. Sliu ankcd me 

iMt 1 inmnt ; Hhu liml ju«l rcturncil \Tith tlw shorrj', n»t having bocu 

111 lialf-a-miunte. " 




i »« ] 



Art. v.— BEN JONSON. 

Paetiml Works ofjtett Jotuon. £dited br Robert Belt Londoii:^ 
Jobn W. t^ker and t^o, 1836. 

The Work* of Ben Jotuim. Witb NolCT, &c. Br W. Gifi«r<i, E»q. 
1816, 

The American lady who iosista upon tnerEiDf! the existence of 
Shakespeare in the pliilos^ipby of Uhcod is not cutirciy with- 
out excuse for hur infatuation. Sl)akc)<pu(trc u un inijalpable 
tort of bvinjjr. Among the men of his own time, h« shows like 
tradition tloes liy the Hide of hiatory. He was bom at Stralford- 
on-Avon, Did he poach some de*r? lie wcut to London. 
Porhaps he was a linK-boy ; undoubtedly he was a player. Hi 
ti»cd to be witty at ibe Mermaid. -He married a wife. Hi 
died, and i.f buricii. He disliked the idea of bis bonea bcinf; 
disturbed, or somebody else disliked it for him. There is a 
bast of him ; we wonder if it is like He wrote a rast number 
of personal sonnets, which tell us nothiuir of his own life ; — of 
many of the best of them we cannot »ay whetlier (hey are ad- 
dressed to mun or woman. We want to know how hie nams 
is spelled, and Jind he spelled it dilTerent ways himself. The 
most persevering bloodbounds of biojirapby hare been on his 
trait tor a hundred years — every clue has been nnrareUed, 
OTery hint exhausted; and the result has been a, few minute 
details which in everv other cam; would have l»een considered 
onwoiihy the chronicling. Many injcenious suppositions have 
been vented ; hut the sum of the matter is. we know nothing 
about him. Of whnt the man bimeclf was. " in his habit as 
he lived," we can fonn no idea beyond a certain faint lustre 
about him of cheerful companionship and gentle ettuanimity. 
Of the sort of temperament and genius he must have possessed 
bis works give us a sufficient idea; but as to the actual human 
character, as displayed in life, we arc utterly in (he dark. Far 
difl'eront is the cusc with Jonson. Shakcsjiearb is the name of 
a number of plays. Hen Jonson is the name of a man in tbe 
flesh— a burly man, who wrote The fox and Drink to me vuly 
with (AiW eyes. 

It is of the very essence of the two men's genius that they 
should be thus distinguished. The one was tike a mouutoio— 
large, strong, deeit-nxitvd — which all the world's changes l«aTe 
unmoved in its massive independence: the other was like 
the light — (lilfused, alt-peaetratin);. setting forth all shapes, 
displaying all hues, a vesturo of tnterprctation to the wond ; 



r 



KA&ycTcr^S^^^H in itself, yet so adapting itself to Qvery 
Dcvf conditioHIIRF ect'm to melt into tW nature of tilings 
with whicb it comes in coutitct. Tlic mountain Hxcs our at- 
tention on itself. Hy the li^lit ve sen all thiii^^t ; hut what it 
16 itself, we neither see nor fcnow. The one was Aja.^, mighty 
in bis strength ; the other Proteus, powerful in his changes. 
Shakespeare lived in the vrurld, and nhsorbcd without cfftrt 
all the knowledge th»t came across him ; Ju[isi>n conqiierixl 
knowledge hj persevering and strenuoui* effort. He was learned 
snd ohservant ; Shakespeare was wise and penetrating. The 
one retires hchind the screen of his works; the other thrusts 
forward his own individuality on every possible occasion — in 

Erologuc^ in epilogues, in diulogues ; he in his own critic, and 
is own appmver ; he is the hero of one of his own plays, and 
trumpets to the world his enmities and his friendships — his 
merits, his vices, his repentances, his wrongs, his sufferings, his 
needs, down to the very deformities of bo<ly that years bring 
witb them — ^his stooping shouldei«, his " niouutuin belly," and 
his " hundreds of ji^ray haii-i>." 

Yet, contrasted as he stands with the ^eatest genius of 
all times, Jonson justly claims somcihioi; of a fellowship in 
greatness. H« was a large man altogether, massive and some- 
what unshapely botji in mind and body; "«oliil but slow 
in his performances;" of a hold spirit and jovial tempera- 
menL His countenance, harsh and ruj'ged — " rocky," as he 
himself calls it — was the index of an intellect which, though 
t remarkable for depth either of insight or thought, was 
Dg, aggressive, and capacious; and its stores, laboriously 
piled, were in tlic grasp of a tenacious memory. .Some men 
we their pre>.^miuence to fineness of intellect and delicacy of 
urbanisation— characteristics not inconsistent with strength and 
iliancy, and which arc the attributes of the highest genius ; 
ut there are others, who work out effects scarcely inferior by 
heavier blows with a blunter tool. The power of unremitting 
labour, the strength of unfailing self-reliance, the independence 
'if callousness, are among the advantages such men possess 
onson was a man of coarse fibre ; so was Cromwell, so wu 
Milton, so was Samuel Johnson, so was CUvc, so, in a Btill 
cater degree, was Luther. 
Jonson bt^n life near the bottom ; for though his grand- 
father was a gentleman and came from C'arlii^le, his father lost 
his estate by forfeiture under Queen Mary, and died early; and 
his mother murried again in a lower rank, llcr second hu>;- 
baod was a bricklayer, and her eon, after having been edu- 
cated at Westminster School, wa? de»liut-d to his stepfather's 
craft. It is told he worked in the building of Lincoln's lun, 

I 





Ill 



SenJon$o»^ 



with a trowel in hU hand ftnd a biwk id liis pocket Bat lie 
wns of those men who shoulder thvir way through the world 
as A giant does through a crowd. He left nia hod and trowel to 
flcrve in the army in Flanders; whence he iioon rt-tnnied to 
London, to throw himself on the support of a lil'e of It temry ad- 
venture. There he found ineuns to proHccut* hU Studies, and to 
live — precariously enough at first, nu doubt— as a playwri^hl, 
and probably partly also as an actor. From tlie«e uumblc b«- 
ginnin)^ he raised himself to a higher social standing than any 
dramatic poet of his duy. In Kinp James's time he woa a fre- 
({uentor uf the court, and ttlls us thut for twenty years he bad 

" Ealen with the twautiea aud tlie wiu 
And liRtvoriiai of court, aud Mt their fll« 
Of luvoBudhiktv.'' 

His convivial talents were great, and no doubt recommendetl 
him not lees than his learning and ;;cnius. lie was intimate 
with many of the nobility ; and thounh his connection with 
them probably partook in great measure of the relation of 
client tt> patron, there were some young men both of fcntos 
and noble birth— amonp whom he who waa afterwards known 
as Lord Falkland may be instanced — who viewed him with 
affection and veneration as their literary father. The great 
writers of his time were hia familiar associates. Sbakci-pesre. 
Hir Walter Raleigh. Donne, and Ht'uuiuont ranked amon<; his 
nearest friends ; Seldcn loved him, and askei! his jiid^'mcnt 
on his Titles of Honour ; and he speaks of Iiord llaemi as if 
he had personally known hiiu. He was Master of Arts in both 
the Universities "by their favour, not his study.** Altogether it 
is dear that in his prime he stood in the very first rank of 
the men of letters of his day. If not the greatest, he was 
esteemed the most perfect play-writer of the time; hut high 
us was his reputation, it was sup|iorted mthcr by the opinion 
of the judges than by the applause of the people. He insisted 
so strenuously and passionately that he wai< master of tfae 
true rules of art, and wrote nothing which was not excellent 
and admirable, if the hearers could but learn to understand, 
that the world in general seems to have been content to believe 
him mther tlian enter on the arduous task of contradicting 
him. Still the belief was rather a cold one. The learned 
critics admitted his plays to be miracles of art; but, with two 
or three exceptions, the people did not very much care to see 
them acted. Nor is this to be wondered at, when we con- 
sider how dilFerent his compositions were from all they had 
hitherto been accustomed to admire. He stood alone in bis 
own times, as indeed he stands alone in the whole history of 
i^Dgliah literature. 



Ben Jotuon. 



115 



N 



^ 



The miuw of the plays of his time were remarkaWe for their 
utter dutreftard of scenic prop notice : they made no m{e«rd of 
place and tlma The French code of dramatic unities had not 
u j«t been deduced from the ancient models. Eacli man, under 
the sole limitation of a few general rules of practice, followed 
the bent of his own tiistc, Htiit the suggestion* of his. own know- 
ledf^e. Play.i c<>[isii<tvd for the mo8t part of altemalinf; itceneii 
of passion and humour, carelessly connected and huddled into 
8omo sort of plot, and minsled with dances and scenic display 
to eateh the eyes of the spectators. Shakcapcuro was by nature 
a law unto himself; his plays arc symmetrical and hurmouiuus 
not from study or the observance of ascertuiued rulot, but from 
the iosensible moulding of a genius whose native sense of 
■ymnictry and harmony transcended all that art had hitherto 
attained to. But setting .Shakespeare aside, nothing can be more 
onmtisfactory than the headlong conduct and distorted propor- 
tHMi of the minor Ktizabethan lilaya. Kxceptions then- are, no 
doubt; but we are speaking of the broad features which dis- 
tinguished ihem. As we have said, to express passion is their 
aim ; and passion has received at their hands a more vivid, 
UAturftl, and often Icrriblo utu-rancu, than from any other 
literature. It« milder and every-diiy manifestations have been 
recorded in the language of tenderness and beauty ; and its 
wildest vagaries, its profoundest horrors, its most fierce and its 
most unnatural delinquencies, have been drafiged from their 
native darkness and thrust naked upon the scene. The poetry 
of tliexe plays shines in fitful gleams of sjilcndour; human 
nature is at times laid bare by some titrange and startJing 
reTelation of masterly insight, and at times burlesoued by 
some ridicnkms caricature; the humour, much of whicti is lost 
opon us, often degenerates into the purest folly and buffoon' 
cry. In the midrt of the men rioting in thin unrKftrained 
liberty appeared Jonson, with an intellect naturally orderly, 
and trained by a long course of attentive and self-imposed 
etndy. Thoroughly conrersant with the dramatic productions 
of the ancieuls, and the critical rules connected with them, he 
,de ihcm his models and his tests of excellence. But he was 
imueh too great to imitate them without di.tcrimi nation. Ho 
adapted them in the most skilful manner to modern condi- 
tions, and shows himself at once deeply versed in the ancient 
funns and modes of expression, and thoroughly and person- 
ally acquainted with the manners of his own time^. Instead 
of Uxjgcly linking scenes of passion, he makes it the glory of 
his art to build up well-proportioned plays, and to manifest 
skill and judgment in arrangement oi^ scene, and choice of 
fable, action, and language, llis plays may be said, with very 



ofl 

^ina< 

■ada 



116 



Ben Jonton. 



litUc exa^^rfttion, to be absolutely destitute both of pasbioo 
ftnd rc«lii)|!;; but tliey contain jwwerful pictures ofTiw, tod 
most witty pillorying of the prevailing ab«urditic« in cunducl 
and uanncrH — th« 

" Folly and liraiusick humounortb* umei." 

In tlio udvcrtisuniciit tu tliv reader prefixed to Tlte Alcky- 
, ho sets fcirlh very clearly, and siuiiewhat more roodesuj 
is his wont, the relation in which he conceiTes blms^W 
fltund towards his contemporaries : 

"to the rk.vder. 
If tlioii ticcKt more, thou nrt an iinHcmtAiiiIrr, nitil thm 1 Uml 
tbco. If ttimi nrt one tbat tnkcNt up, and but a Pn-tcniler, beware of 
wlint hniiilM tliKii rcpcivcst thy commodity: for thou wwt ucvict mow 
fair ill ttio wny to l>o cosi^ncJ than ia this e^ge. in I'oetry. cspcciaily b 
riays : wherein, now tlio coDcupistenoo uf dances and of anlica M 
rcitjDctli, aa to run away froui Nature, and be afraid uf ber, ia tht ealt 
part of art that tickles tli« spectator*. But how out of purpoie. od 
pIuvL-, <lo I uame artt When the professors are Rruwn m obstiute 
coiiti'tiiiiers of it, and prenumers uu their owu uuturalt, as they art 
(luriderii uf all dili^i'iii^u tliat way, and, by simple moel(in]{ at the tem* 
wli^u tliey uU(U'r»tiiiid uot the tiiiiiK", tlijnk to get off wittily with ihfir 
iKnorance. Nny, ihcy are wlewiii-d tlie more Imnn'U, and ■uffidwil 
for thin, by the inuny. through tlicir excellent vice of juilgineiit. For 
Ihcy ei)mmpiiil wrinTn. as tlK^y do fencers or wrcstK-rs ; who, if thty 
come in robiintuouJy, «nd put for it with a great denl of violence, m 
received for the brnvcr fellows ; when many times tbcir own radenMS 
is tlie csuso of their ilisgrace. and a little touch of their ndverssry gi'n* 
all that boisterous force tti« foi!. I deny not but that these men, wto 
always seek to do more than enough, may sometime happen on some— 
thinfi that is t-ood and great, but very seldwo ; and when it comts "" 
doth not reoouj|)euse tlie rest of their ilL It stieks oul, perhaps, 
ia ttiore eminent, heeauite uU is sordid uud vile about it : as lights 
more dtsceriKril in it thick dikrkui.-aH, than a Gunt ahaduw. I spnk 
this out of a hope to do jjood to auymau iif^aiiist bii will; for Ikiwwr^ 
if it were put to tlie ciuestiun of theirs and mine, the worit would fin** 
more auffr«;;es : becuiue the inoHl favour L-ommon erront. Hut ! jtiv^ 
tliee this warning, tlmt there is a great difference between tiio"* llis*>j 
to gain the opiuioii of co]iy,* utter all they can, however unfitly ; an** 
thogn that use election ntid a mciin. For it is only th« disc*<« of tl>^ 
unskilful, to think rude things greater tbuii potishcfl ; or scattered ntcC^ 
nurocrons thiin composed." ^i 

The new style did not at once j^ain favour; but Jo03o4| 
was not the sort of man to have any hesitation where the faul^^ 
lay. He was always " the first best judge in his own cause. 
No roan ever believed more implicitly in himself, or insisted 

• Lt. mpts, — to gain credit for fertility. 




litrti Jmatm. 



117 



If"- ■ usly tliint others shoald do so too, ITc cxtrava- 

piii , iuiiti.-<I til*; onlvrl)-, classical, semililu >iilv of art, 

to which iiuth iiin iialuru iiii<l Iiih stuilics drevr him ; and liein^ 
hftnt clearly utiuppiM^ched, he meitsured bis relations to other 
men b^ his own rule, and set himself far iiln)vc them. lie vras 
vont in htH pk-asunt houn to call hiiiutoir "the poet." He 
told DruiaiiKiiiil " he wan hetlor vciwd, and knew rnoro in 
Gri>vk mill Littiii than all tho ]M)<.-t.i in England, and quint- 
ooscnoi ihoir l>ruiii&" So far wafl he fmm guhmitting his plays 
U} the Jiiil^meDt of the public, that be exactly revcrHcd the itro< 
ceHK, atid n-gardcd itii uiihi-eiuiting appruWtion of what he had 
written At the tent of intellect in his audience, A competent 
otitic was one who praised liitn. If you did not like what he 
wrote, it was a proof you did not comprehend him, and were 
thcfufore not ca|>ahte of jud^iing him. To hisM him off the 
stage, was to he l»elow the heiist« in undor^tandinjr. Cen»urc 
did not hiinihle him or aflVt^t him otherwi-Hc than a.i an irritu* 
tiun. Irecnuve he had a (genuine heartfelt contempt for the capa- 
city of any permn who tliou^ht he wrote amiss. 

A few extracts from hts prcdogucs will show that wc have 
t overstated bis own self-estimate, or his ecom for popular 

itieinm. In tiic prologue to T/i« Aldtymiitt he boldly asks for 
tncro justices 

" PorttiD*, that fnvoata feo!s, th«se tw9 «hart Iioun 
W« «trii awaj, tiotb for tout take and oura, 
Judffingsiivvtauin; uidiktirei'lli' plaoe 
ToUi'aulborjuiitlce." 

Tor t1i« Sttiplt o/A'twa (a very indiSorent play) ho makoa a 
Tnnch holder claim : 

" Ureal notilc irita, bv goni iinto fou^l«'In4^ 
Aad makd a diRciiaici- 'twixt poutia l-Ivcx 
Aiiil poet* ; nil th«t dubtilc in the >uk, 
And <l«lil« iiullU, acu not thoM few can tliink, 
Oonoeliv, eipraw, and ttwr tliv kiuIb of awn, 
A* with a TU(UIi!r, irmnd, (bui, (rith thdr pen. 
lie nuiHt b« one thai cnn iounict your ^oulib. 
And keep j<>ur acme in tlie rtalc of Intli ; 
Mud cuterpriM thid work. Mark l>at hU wajv, 
Uli how ttnw 1 ud tboD 1i« Mjri, 

If - he Mud* to-aijcbt. 

"T.- ii:.L L .jr>,ljo~iiot lie to write." 

Bfttli tilt' ,■. (Ill iiiiin to the Earl of Pembroke and the ad- 
drt ' d to the tragedy of CtitUiuc are worth '|uiitin|; as 

fptL.... - j| the eye with which the author resardcd his own 
^work, and the temper in which he approached Uie public : 

I" Uv IiiiitD. — In »u thick and dark au i^^ioranci*, m nnv nlmo^t 
I tbo n^, 1 cnre tetre to stand aeair yam lij^hl, auil b; UiU to ba 



118 



Ben Jonton. 



•J 



read. roBteritf ravf pay your btmcfit tbc honour uiil tlianks, wim it 
vliuU know that jou ilnrc, in Dknx- jig-gircu times, tu cuuuU&abcs ■ 
li-(;itiiuate [luem. 1 cull it eo against nil noiK of ojnuion ; from irhoM 
cruiJu uuO uiiy reporU I Bppe«I to the grvnt «nil Ningulnr facultf of 
juJgiueul in yuur lordship, abl« to viiii]ioat<> tnjtK frpm error, ll it 
ttic iirst uf tliiM rui"^. thai «ver I dedicated to any p<-TMin ; dihI liad 1 
not thought it thu hesi, it should have heeu taught « l<--« nmhilioD. 
Now it •|j|ircuichctli your ceiinun! cLet'rJ'ullj', and wilh the taaoA % mtt 
ABM that kitoooeuc]' wuuld u]>pi-(ir hefuru u luuKi^t'^t^- 

Your Lordsliip'a most fiutUful UoiK'art'r, 

Mm Jcuwov. 

TO THB HKA1>Blt tX OXDIHAIIT. 

T^e Jlf uMH fcrhii! thut I kIiouUI restrnia your nieddliug, vhoin I 
■M slreudy huiiy wiih tlie title, uiid tnckiiif; over thu leaves: it ij 
your uwu. I depurluil with my right wheu 1 let it Gist abroad; ud 
now, so Micuru an interpreter 1 lun of uy cImuuv, thut ueither ptsiM 
nor diKprikim: fruiu you cnu vSiviA, me. Thuugli you coiuiiieud tk 
two Rrfit net*, with tli« people, becnuHA tliey lire the wor»t, aitd di^k* 
tho oration of Oicoro, in regard you reitd Rome jiicccs of it at bcIiooI, 
and uudeTBtand thrm not yrt : 1 nhall find the way to forKive yiM- 
Bo any thing you will bn at your own charge. Would I bad de- 
served hilt lialf HO wrll of it in tniniilation, im Ihnt ought to dwem of 
you in judgment, if yon have any. I know you will pratvnd, wbo«o- 
ovcr you arc, to have tliat, and more : hut all prctengioua b« not jut 
olaiuis- The comiuoiidution of good tbiu};a muy fall within a maayi 
the approbation hut in a few ; fur tlie uoMt eutuuieud out of aSiwtion, 
self- tickling, unetisiiioss, or imitatiou i but men jud^e only oat of 
kuuwl«dge. Thai is the tr)iu^- faculty : aiid to tUuw wurkn that vill 
boar a judjje, nolhiuf^ \& mure dHn}ceiuuit than a fouli.ih |iruti>e. Voo 
will »ay, I Bhall not have juuw tlierefurc ; but rather the coiitntry, lU 
vexation of eeiiHure. If I wvre nut uhuve Nuoh inolatiitiongt now, 1 
had great eauao to thiidc unworthily of my vtudie*, or they lud W of 
me. But I leave you to your cxcrdtc. Bc^n. j 

TO Till BBADKR EXTBAOKDtXAST. " 

Tou I would nnderstand to bo the better mitD, though placet d 
eourt go otherwise : to you I aubniit myeelf and work. l^nreweU. 

But JoitWHT.* 

Often lie invents critics of hie own to stand ott the stagi^ 
and to rebuke iwid infarm those in th« body of tlie th«uU& 
Tlins in many of his pkys he iotroduces a apecinl set of pef- 
Bonnges, wlio appear in tho itucrrals of the acta, anti discusi 
what has gone before. The.ie either wisely applaud, or aie 
brought to condign ridicule for their cerisurvs. They form a 
sort of modern chorus, not uncommon in the jiliiys of the timf^ , 
and used generaily for the explication of the story; but bji 
Jongon dcvot«d to bis own rindicatioD and glorification. ' 




Ben Jonmn. 



119 




Tn TA* .Vfl^nWiV Laiiy wis haYfl an "indaclion" coiitinumi 
tliui inuniivr tlirou^h thu play. Tho singe is occupie^l by 
Jbl)u[«r frobte had Mtalar VamfAty, who are represented m a 
■Alt uf delegated fhim the people, nnd nra met br a lioy of the 
_^boiu«, who enpi^s to 5t«nd lor the po«t, and tells the others 
^■be will venture thv play, tso tliev will undvrlakv for the hearers 
1^^ thiit they kIikII know a gofHl jday when they he«r it, and 
will haro tha contcience and in^nuity [iutcvnuoiiitiic**] he«idc 
itu iMnfnss it" The poet, he eays, '* cnrcle&s of all vnlKtr cen- 
tre, as not depending oo common approbation, is cootident it 
'ihall super-please judiciouii spwtatorv." The boy is U-arncd 
in the fi>rmii of comedy, and a tboroagh-jioing ndvocale of the 
^B^UK intrusted to him. When poor Ma!>lerniitn]ilny — who exists 
|HtDly to he confuted, and is created unly fur the humiliating 
mnfession that " tho hoy is shrewd and hits him crery where 
g—whi!!) he ignorantly objcctH to the first act, that there is 
' nothing done in it, ur concluded," he i» io-vinntly extinguished 
ty bin young antagonist. " A fine piece of logic !" cries he ; 
do you look, Masitir Dumplay, for conclusions in a protasbT 
It tiiv luw of comedy had rL-scrvcd them (o tho catlt- 
and that the t-pitai;is. as we aro tau);ht, and tho cata- 
Sis, had l>ccn int4Tvenin^ jiurts to have been expected. Hut 
>a would hnTu it all oumo together, itsccnis ; the clock should 
rikc fire at once with the acts." 80 the learned young gon* 
lemon Roes on with his confutations of all adverse criticism. 
Uastcr I>iimplay, in spite of his nn;n'y claim to takeout his two- 
■hUling* admiltunce-moncy in cctisurc. is con tempt uously hid- 
^ou to limit himself to m) much, mid nut talk twenty-shillings 
rorth : hiH ignorance i.s ex|Hrsed, bin rcinon^lniui-us {xrcmp- 
Drily silenced, and himself condemned to a miserable minority. 
4>od Maiit«r Damplay, be yourself still without a second; 
'bem are ufyour opinion to-day, I hope : to-morrow 1 am 
Vtben wilt h« none, when they have ruminat^-d thitti." So 
>n /i" ■• i/jVoCT we have go»»ip«, Mirth, Tattle, Censure, 

And .lion, "four gentlewomen ladylike attired," who 

iijjear in llic same way, and are made to minister to the au- 
lor'a crclit by the folly of their criticisms; and for this pur- 
9se th«7 Tent ituch a rna-is of dull old women's twaddle as 
luat have tried the matt patient audience, whatever their 
[liuion of the play itself At other times p-iticisms arc in- 
crwd in tlio ixKly of the play, which, under a certain 
fof ((<'"'"'■»' "ty, arc in reality special vindications of the 
tr't "kill and jmlgmenl. He never believed he dcserTed 
re ; hut bin lem[H'r would not allow him to bear even un- 
^awn-ed strictures with o(|unnimity. He chafes under any 
contemptible, and is goaded to fury by 




130 



Bm Jon»on.' 



the hooting of the despised and ignrtrant multitude. Neitlier'tli« f 
uniTersal appUuso of his great pln}'i«, iiur the well-mGrited ran-' 
demniitioD of his biid omx, softened this impatieace of spirit, 
vfhidi grow stron^r as. he grvw older, iiui] was strengthened 
probably by the remembrance of old xuccvssus, und the socrret 
conviction that his powers were impaired. It i* in fai* later 
niays more c^pccinlly that he usen his prologues to anticipate 
judgment, and assert a scornful independence bf the spectaton 
in the theatre or the readers in piivnte- As an angiy oppo- 
nent says, 

" Ckitling ui fiMh and roguw, unl<itt«r«il mtin. ^M 

PMr uoTTOw (ouli that cannot judge of Bcu." ^| 

The arrogance of temper and impatience of control vhkh 
display themaclves in his writings, cast their shadow also otct 
his private relations and personal character. In 1618, about 
the time of hi.t grratest reputation, he made a journey to ScoU 
land, walking the whole way there and back on foot. I>ariii2 
ills stay, he passed some days with Mr. William Drummond w 
Hawthorndcn, the poet, who made a note of his convcrsatioii^ _ 
which, long known in an abhroTiatcd form, has of late yemfl 
been dincovered and published in ejienso. It i* certain tbat^ 
he made no very favourable impression on his Scotch enter- 
tainer. They seem to have parted, indeed, with mutual ptofc*- 
sions of friendship; and some letters passed between them, 
full of somewhat orordiie protestations oil Jonson's side, bat 
cold and guarded enough on Drummond's; and their intimacy 
seems soon to hare died oul Indeed, we can well undenitsnil 
how thi.s huge roistering poet from l.>ondon, in his wayvufs 
shoes and sIoA'enly garments, — for Jonson we know ira.>t no gitxt 
student of appearances, — must navo jarred on the nerrt* of 
the retired and mming sonneteer of Hawthorndcn. MoreoTeTi 
Drummond's wine Kcems to have been cood, and that was « 
temptation Jonson never could withstand, and in his cupshc 
spoke the woreer part of the Veritas w hich was in him, as mea ^ 
wont is; and worst of all, he criticised his host's poems in a 
curt and somewhat contemptuous manner, tcllinf; him tbc^ 
were all good, in u manuvr which showed he valued none o» 
them at sixpence ^ we have no doubt Drummond wa^ 
heartily glad when his hoistenms visitor, with his maKiatcris^ 
opinions, his boastings, his broad jests, his unruly temper, on" 
his drunkenncss,^ns fairly oiF the premises, and on his va^ 
back from Leith to Dnrntoii (wherever that may be), in th^ 
aiune shoes he had brought with him. And when he was<]nit^ 
jgone, the half Italian half canny .Scotchman set down his pri' 
Tate impre-tsions of him in a few pithy words which have sincO 
come to day (though it does not appear be ever meant tbei^ 



Ben Jornon. 



19T 



to do so), and b8r« stuck like a barb«d arrow in the rear of bis 
departing guest ever sidco: 

" He [Jonson] is a gri-nl lover anJ pntisM of himitelf ; a oontcmner 
and Bcorner of (it)i«ni; giv^'n mthi-r to lose u fri«nl lliim u jwt: jcal- 
009 of KVtry irronl unil action nf thoKo nliuiit him {pj|icriall_v utter ilriDk. 
wk!cli is ouc of tb<! clctncntK in which he liveth); a diuii'm liter of ill 
parta wUicli rtign in hiiii; a hrn^grr of «onie good thitt lie vniiti-tli ; 
tliinkttb Dolbing good but what cither lie himnrlf or some of In* 
friend* and cooiitiTincn hath said or iJon« : he is pnmionatrl}- kind 
auil angry ; «arelfas eitli«' to |>niu or kerp ; Tiodicativc, but if h« be 
well aiuwcred, at biinself. For any relijijioii. as boiiig vtrscd in both. 
Intt^rprrteth best Bayi»;j« auO doiuKs oft to the worst. Oi>pres8od 
with fanta^'e. wliidi iiatb ever mustered Lia rcuson ; a ijeuiArid disease 
in niaujr poeta. His iuveiittuuM aro uauolh and taty; but above all, 
be exoetktli in a Iraaslatioii." 

■ Tbis is a harsh judRcnent Still there can he no doubt it 
T«prescnt6 with a good deal of truth one side of Jonson's cha- 
racter; that, however, was the least estimable side, and Drum- 
mond not a very catholic judge. There is alwuyn ttiis great 
fact in Jonston's favour, that he wa« b(-st esteemed by the 
greatest men of his day, and tlial his friends were numerous 
■nd warm — nt Icaxt in his beet days ; for he aeems to have died 
lonely and neglected, his old associates having passed awny 
vith passed years, and with them his own powers of engaging 
new ones. Jonson thrust himself iin'l hi» own opinions into 
liiii works, and may mon; fairly thnu moKt men be judged by 
them; and no one who reads them but must be struck, in spite 
of the snarling siitiro which defaces so many of them, with the 
jiTMence of a uniform mnnlincss and olVcn nob1ene.-<s of tone, a 
•corn of false pretensions to merit cither in hiinself or others, 
\ largeness and fullness of nature, and n spirit which did well 
" tlioroughly what it thought lit should be done, and despised 
ke pettinesses and frivolities of life. Tliat he tlattcrcd cgrcgi- 
sly. \e not a mutter of much moment, in times when flattery 
'•as a bnsiness, and as current n coin in intercourse with the 
peat OS our '"Dear .Sir," and "Y'ours very sincerely," are in 
our modem letters ; and he often mingles too with his flattery 
"freer and higher tone of admonition than is common among 
lu> ton temporaries. 8uch is to be found iu the lines to Ludy 
Diftiy's sons and cls«where ; but nowhere in a juster, nobler 
Mrun than in the conclusion of the epistle to his friend Master 
[Ctlby, to persuade him to the wars : 

" Oo, quit tlK-ni alt I Atid take aloui; wltli thM 
Tby true frit'ud'i wistivH, Culbv, vcliidi »)iiiU ht 
Ttiat Ibina Im- just nod hooe«t, that ihj dsudt 
Hot woand thy cou»cic»oc, wticn thy bMljr bleeds: 



123 



Ben Jonson. 



Tbnt thou diwt oU tbhigi mure for tniUi tluut ^orj, 
Aiul uvvvr, but fur dviii^; ytrtuif, \>t Mirry j 
ITial bj cciDimniiding first th)'«Rir, thoii iialc'rt 
thj pnn»ii fit for miy cbnrac thou tnk'it; 
That fortuiiu oc^-vr nuJcc tbce tu uoinpliuu. 
But H'liai s1i« ipvi's, tJi->u dar'st j^yv tier agaiu; 
That wliiit«'«vi-r fiu'ii ihy (ate piitfi on. 
Thou shrink or xtnrl not, but l>c nlwRy* ono : 
Tbnt thou tbiuk nothmx Rrcot but wbut u> giwd, 
And from tbnt tb..-ughl aiiite to be uuilcntvuiL 
So. 'Urn or AviiA, tliiM wilt pre««r?e a EuM 
6UU prvclcKis witb tho (idoiir of (by naUM. 
And Mtt, bla^phi-mc not : wu did novvr bear 
Htui tliought tliu valiaiiler \iiusi- lit durvt direw ; 
No lUOT* tuaii w« sbduld ihiiik n lord bad bad 
Moro honour In him 'miM wcSw koonn Um mad. 
The«* tnk* ; ftod now, |ro •eek thy psMoo ia war — 
Who fnlU for lovu (if Uod, abatl Hm a ilv." 

Thu sentence, " For any relifiiun, m K'ing vet^iwi in both." 
v-liicli uccur» in Drummoiid'ti estiiiuttc, refers to hiH having fiir 
itome Tcors professed tlie Catbolic tenets, tftking t)i«iD "co 
trust ' from a priest, as lie himscll' eays, vhile lying in pritmn 
on a charffc of Iiumtciiiv. " After lie was reconciled to ttic 
CUurcli," lie tiiM Urummottd, "and left off to be a ruvuMnt, aX. 
his first communion, in trikcii of true reconciliation, he drank 
out all tlie full cujj of wiue." 

To bo considered in connection witb tbis description ^>y 
Drummond, are tbc notes urescrvcd of Jonson'a actual «n»- 
vcrsatiim during bis Htay nt Uawtbomden. Brief and dceul' 
tory us tlicy are, tliey are full of interest From tbcm Kr« 
derived our most authentic axtcount* of bis early eareer, a* 
furnished by liimseK They afford also a very valuable axko 
curious specimen of his table-talk, and an abstract of hi^ 
criticisms on the men of his times. His "jests and apo* 
theginii" are niustly dull, and, to modern vunt ut Icust, pointr 
less.* His criticisms are outsjioken, and oflen liplenettc cnou^b > 
but be gives good praise too, and it is not fair to judge him 
by these hasty censures. By nature it is clear enough ne w** 
jealous, and apt to take umbrui:;o at small offences ; proud, and 
yet more vain than proud; but when he sat down deliberately 
to record hi.4 judgment, his better nature and good itciitc pre- 
vailed. Something too hasty and violent he ij both in censuN 
and in praise; yet, in an impartial observation of all he hat 
left behind him, it cannot be denied that, on tho whole, be if 
candid and ^cnemus in his uppreciation of bis contonporarici 
It wa» the fashion at one time to represent him m toe must 

• TbofollowincniiijMiiooiBitwciinfn of one of ihc bcit— jcil and RpothrM 
eanblnod: "One wbo flrod {lighted] « lobacco-pipo wuh & bdiid. iha iipxi diy 
haling > i»rc hcsd, iworo be bad a frrat linolnK in hi> hvad, and b« Ihongklit 
nai ibe batlud. A poet abOoM deleil a baDad-makor." 



d 



Jien JoHBoa. 



123 



](al and ma1ij;nant of m«n, and enpccially to denounce bim 

ftii envious caviller ii;<uinst tlie superior ptuins of Slink«- 

pii-aru. Uitl'uril. wliu l-\uIIs Jiin^on as {ircpostLTouivly wt Malone 

ml iiUicrx imvc dfprx!(riuli:d liini. dinpnivtil tlii.-i cttltiiiiiijr very 

BlTectivL'ly, and cnadQ, after liis wont, many ferocious afisatUu 

thuft« who liad set it on foot JnnBon bimscif always a«> 

rtvd itMHt fltronjttly the abscnco of all personality in hi» playi^ 

tnd avtitiwd tliuiw who i^avu a |>vri>uiiul direction tu hU nalire 

Iff making "tbat a libel whioli Im meant a play;" but it is 

Etcar be waa not alwnyii so innocent and aniinble as b« claimed 

l»e, and there are one or two expressions wliitli may possibly 

ivo bvvii uieaiit ae a ^ird at >Sbuk<.'tJ{>c»rc; yet tbwo arc very 

jht innuendoes at tlie wuret, and Jonson ha« l«ft no doubtful 

oL-urd botli in v«rse and prow of the iwtticd estimation in 

[which he held his great contemporary. His praiiics of others 

l*,Te ui many cases lavish, and not quite sincere He hiimwir 

{•^>in{)l«in8 of the custom of the day of furniehiu); men's buokt 

■litli j)aneg)'rical vnnas, characterising it oa a 

" Vidoiu hunukiiily. 
Than which tlisiv is not unto study a mora 
Pcruiclou auwDjr}" 

unl confoues thai he has 

" too oft pntentd 
M«i put tbcir Utrmx, and i>m(n)d wns Man toi> iiiueb." 

It U is not diniciilt to discern when his heart f^s with bts 

and if it d«v.< m> any where, it i* in hi« lines to Seidell nod 

Vi« to ijhakc»pcare, which, though familiar enough to tno«t 

s, may bo cited as one of tbc best specimens of these sort 

■eB. which occupy so lar;;c a Kpatco In Jonson's minor 

na He told Drunirnond that Shakesfwurc wanted art, and 

le did in Junson'ii narmw Sense of (In- word; but whan he 

**%v to write of hiiu, the Mum whispered him the truth that 

'■^kuepeikre needed no art beyond the refleclioQ of liU own 

-«*"uiiini»ieti mind in his poetry: 

" Triunph, my Britain, ihou liasl ono to rfiov 
Tn nli'^n all wcaM cf liurapa hoaufte ow*t 
lie wiu iMt of an Rge, but Mr all Unc ! 
Anil kll till- Muse* (tiu w«r* in IImU piino 
WImiii, likv .^uollo, be canie fottb to wanu 
Our oan, or Itkv ■ Mcrcut7 to cfasna I 
NaIuk bcnwif wu proud of hi* duuni. 
And Joyed to wear tlic dmiine of fab lifie« : 
Whkh vr«n lo richly mun and woven to dt 
Ai, rinoo, iho will vouommIu uo oibcr mil. 
Tlw nit-Tiy rirwi. tint Arist(i[ili«nM, 
K«t T-rnirf, ■itty T'luouu, duw nut pleoK; 
Be I tl and d«Mrt«d lie, 

Aa : . not of liatonaB iwuly. 



Mti 



Ben Joiuon. 



Tot niNt I not pn S«tw« >1L Tfaj att, 

H; gentle Sbake«fMu« nnail •11)07 a part: 

For llioiigh Uw Po«t** omurBUim bo. 

HiaiLTt niut give it &tfiiioiLMtilkBtIi<^ 

\Vh« cut* to aritc » Urii^ lin^ ■ml ewc«t 

ffioch M Uiiae an) and alrik« tbe wooad hatt 

UpoM tbe Mum's anril ; nini tha vnw. 

And biniMrlf «iik it, ttat be thtnka to fnaw; 

Or for tbo laaid be tiw;g>iii Bfoara: 

For ft gaoA poM 'e amk w <*vU »« born. 

And wkIi ««n uon. Iiook bow Uw btbcr> &« 

Ltvoi in bU iwM ; own ao tb« mce 

Of Shakamcan^ mind end bbub«t« bvightl; ibiaM 

In hb wcU-tnnied and Irae^iled liiwa; 

In eacb of obiA be wou to dnke a laaoa, 

A* bnndiahad at th* tj^ntiigaamic*. 

Sweet iwan ot Avon, what a ngbt it tren 

To fvc tlicc iu «ur wtater jret aoptar, 

And maki! (ho«e Ai^hU apoD ta» banks of ThamM 

Thai M di<l i.iki^ Kliza, and o« ivaml 

But i4ay, I wo ihw in tbe baniipbcni, 

AdTnncci) unil madea auii*(«IlaUun tbeR. 

t<[iitic rurtli, tliou star of poeu! and witb ngi 

Or iiiiueiM«i dude or t^eer th* droapinff «t^ ; 

ThLeli, KIM* tbj lifcht from bonoe, baM tnournvd like night 

And de^foun daj, but for thjr lolnme^ ligbt." 

And in bis Discorcnes he speaks of him in a Etylc wfaicli, " 
man guarded and critical than hia Ycrs««. shows clearlv tint 
at l«B«t hv v»s not di»iH>!<cd wilful]/ to andcmtc )ii» fnend: 

" I remember tiM pla}-cra havo aft«n mentio&vl it an an hononr te 
Sba]cM>«arc Hint in hia writing («hat»o«v«r be pfRnrd)hr never blotf" 
out a line, ily answer butb bwn. Would h« hft<l blotted ■ tlioiuaiul! 
WliicI) tlicT Ihoii^tit a nial<?\(>l«Dt spceeb. I bad not told poattHt; ^B^fl 
but for tbrir ignorance, wIm) choM to juatify' that circumaiance to cMB^I 
mend their friend by, wli«»iB be motl faulted; and to juitify miiw o*" 
candotir : for t loved tbe mau, and do JioDuur bis memury, un thi< s^c 
idolatry, as tniicli a.i any. He tnt ( iudeed) honest, aud of tui open •»> 
free nntiire ; had un excellent pbnntasy, brave notions, and ijenile «*' 
prc««iong, wlicrviti he flowed nitfa Dial bculitr, that Mmeljnie* it *^ 
nccTMsry he hIiouIiI bo iilo|>|>ciI : Hu^miitatuhu tvtU, aa AuguatutU'" 
of Uttt^riuH. Ills wiL wiw iii bU own iwwer; would tbe mlc ofil t^ 
been so too '. Muiiy timns he M\ into tboac thinjts cntitd not eua^ 
luu^kt«r: ns whun lie maid In tKc person of Ckemt, uiie*p<'Akingtubin>- 
'Cwaar, lliou dcMt nie nrong.' He rvpliml: 'Csr-*ar did ucvtr nVS 
but with jiixt miiiK',' and lucli-likc ; which were ridicolous. But ke 
redeemed bis vicc4 with bia viitiics. There was net more in bin )* 
be prused than to bo pardonoj." 

Jonsnn vus sudden and fierce in his rescstments, both mth 
hand uiid pen. In early life he killed an antaoinist !o a dud 
with swords, one Gal»ri«!l n jilajror, and lay long In priaoD io 
consequonc« ; uud he told Drumuiond that be boat Uaiston, I 




Aen Jotuon. 



123 



lie tiU pixtdlH rrciiii hiia The verses on Inieo Jones, vrith 

irlmm h- 'i-tiirrvllol filt-.T Iiavine been long u I'l'lltm-latiourer 

ill UirMjuifi. an; as scurrWe railing' lu wns erer vented, 

111 I -.'; contain ulmndant ynol' iliat he was neither 

ice nor sfAnns in invective. But hisquurreU do not Be«ni lo 

kTo be«n long-livivj. He wnii rcconciloil to both Dokker and 

{IftTHtun, hi* grenivHl lilernry fuen; and he vrithilrcvr his attack 

Tnieo .lunisi in the fvar of its injuring hit) own inlorocu »t 
mrt ; a rf§ult, howovor, which ho was not succcsaful in wtrd- 
tg )il1' His cmpluynicht both in tViL- court and in the city was 
itbdritwii ; utid he cveiii.t to havo :«|ieiit Hoino of tliv last yean 
~ hin life in iicnnr^ and miwiry, conlmcd t" hii himno in Wwl- 
niiifttnr lir iiaiuful and complicated disi-ase. A brief rav of pit/ 
' Dtn th« barl of Newcastle and the kin? ;;ilded his linal hours. 

[^dicd on the (ith of Auguitt 1637, and litis buried in West- 

ur AhU-y, under his terse and well-known epitaph, "O 

nre Ikn •fotu»on." 



No ijueation hjis over been raisvd as to which arc Jonson'e 
, niuierjtie<:«8 : 

"TIm Vox, the Alcbymikt, and KItnt Wnnun, 
iKiitii hj Ban Jonaon, and ouUlane bjr no num." 

1V« ttand ijuiti! apart fVom all his other efforts, — from the 
I'wr tint Iphs matured and less chanieteristic efforts of hiM car- 
frears, such as The Cote is altered, and Eterif Mitn in hit 
r, — from his two groat but unwitddy ira^c^ics, and from 
iil*p eomedie;*, marked hr various degn-es of decadence; 
^» iiifiniti; HUporiority nfihciie three a.4 a ela.s4 is ap|tArcnt; 
"l •' ' - Wen Ht)me dilVt-renc* of opinion us to their rela- 

t^*^ . a For ourselves, we should feel disposed to re- 

*v Llie order in which the [xtpnlur dixtich abmc h.i)> arraneed 

*rr. tiifford gave the jwdni to TU Akhpnigt: but TheFoxtaa 

^jm had a eertain jireseriptivo claim to the first place. It 

In- '' rlny^ in greater force than anj other all the most 

iiarities ufils author's genius; but if it shine, as it 

Iij I'ivs, with his <!x«rIloiiee«, it hears nl the same 

. than the other two the Ktanip "f lii» dcfcctB. 

a Ta«l ett'ort of wit and invention; but the effort is too 

>n. It ifi planned with consummate art, and conducted! witli 

''jitisite skdl; but the rigorous conditions of art under which 

*a written luro not snflicicntly dii>giii«cd. It wants breadth, 

?e. and frveilom. We feel shut in by fene«s of conventional 

' walls "f learning, Jonwn wanted, above all thines, 

tu -Hand llexit'ility of ima;;i>i)iti<in . and The Frtr i.^far 

nuTow and rigid than iithtT 'J?if Hilfiit Womnn ut ITie 

litf. The mouutouy of rhythm and mode of expression. 



126 



Ben Jon»on. 



irhicb ^res a Ubourcd and «tnin«(l air to all liis y\a,y» ' ^^ 
in verse. »nd malcM us ev«r sensible of an artificUl atmoiiphcn^ 
is here more than nsnallr piomiDent Tiic pl&Ta of ShakeapeaR 
sprioi; like branching trees from tbc gruund, and the fresh vindi 
and RfMtrkliiig light pla^ tltrough their foliagv: but JoDwn'stR 
inner pM>nM, lilc« the theatre in which ihej vere to be act«)); 
the air ia h«avv, and the light:* are oil In Shakespeare, erei; 
character has a separate langna^. and every play a roparai* 
CMt of motrc In Jonsnn. the fools, the knaves, the scholan^ 
the courtiers, the ^cntlrtncn, the women, — those who are moM 
eJcTated, of whom ihrrc arv few, and thoM who are mn«t de- 
based, of whom there are many, — all speiak in the Eamexet form, 
the same s^yjo, to borrow a word asuaUr employed oslv of com- 
position in writinff. It isaa if iheyhadall learned to speak fton 
t-mts M-hnolmnstor, with a very distinctive manner of ht« ova. 
U is uut that their lnn;ciiagc and ideas are iiulUtiiiguithsbl^ 
— it IS not »f this wr itrr imir it]>eaking; but (hat there is a<w- 
tain system of collocating words, a cast of utterance common le 
them aU. It is the same sort of thing that strikes one in readiii; 
plays in a foreign language not perfectly familiar to us ; th« 
!«ame which ail, except the very grcat«4t scholars, and perhaps 
they too, if they would oonft'ss it, feel in reading AristophanA 
or Plautus, or Terence, it arises in these cases mainly, so 
doubt, from a want of susceptibility to niceties of difierenoe 
which do exist, if we c«uld perceive them; but in Jonson lliess 
difl'orenccs are in a groat degree re»lly absent Uis famili- 
arity witli the chissicnl drama, which, as «e have said, icBFt 
always seem to a modern more homogeneous in expression ihsn 
it really is, no doubt tended to blind him to his uwn deficicntr 
in this respect He UTUits. indeed, all those minor arts ofdi^ 
tiiiguisliing his persons which suggest themselves intuitively » 
many inferior minds, and make indeed with them, part nfiW 
character conceived. But Juunun ran every thing thruugb iHc 
filter of hia own preconceived ideas of propriety of expresiion- 
You must read him very attentivoty to see how true and tnathe^ 
his distinctions really are; for though not dvep. they are botb 
marked and true, and in a lia«ty first |>crusal you way some' 
times be confuted ta to who is #]<vaking. Bui this is a blenuili 
much more prominent in the clooei than on the stage. A cer- 
tain limitedness lie:^ deep in the whole nature of JonsotL Ym 
cannot say absolutely hie mind is a narrow one, in some if 
spects it seems broad and comprehensive; but it is one of thoie 
minds with rigid palpable boundaries, within which you are 
aluayn sensible of being confined. Tim is peculiarly true vf 
his imaginaliun ; there is always a certain prisimed air about it. 
Its highest characteristic is its great constructivfi povtf. 



BenJonMon. 



1*7 



\\\* best plots are Btrikinplr Rood; clou, ptoii when com- 

Slrx ; Wi'll knit, skilfiiiljr dcvdopeil. In maDr of llicm — as in 
'iit Fixr. uiiJ itill mow in T/itt SUfnt Woman — the dinou^ntmit 
liiM aljHilmcljr hidden up Ui the very la«t sc«n«, and ta then 
miulu with sin^uUr shar|)av3S and clearneM; the knot ffeems 
cat l>y a razor rather thnn disentangled. Th« unities are ob- 
•«irvcd with snritl but not vlavii^h si rictnc^s ; for Jnnsun, thuni;b 
tut ard<:iit iidmintr of tho anciunt^. hiid mithinj; "f the siiirit of 
aubMirvit-iue either in his art or in his life. He detmrtfl at he 
Me3 ucoi^ion fnim the rules sanctioned b^ authority and an- 
cient practice, and many of bis plays are models of careful and 
inguDKiiis ooniiruetion. Kach accne supportn the next, erery i 
apeudi friririu-iU the action ; and the Mat of the ]>)ot arc n>in- 
plicated without confusion, and smoothed in the end without 
fiifcc. His onstructiTe skill specially adaptc^l him for writiiiji 
moauues ; and in thcie the riL-h and varied scope ufTordcd fur 
tcenic diiiplay, and the injicnuity am] fertility of mind cm- 
ployetl iti iho devicci*, eontra^it atrotiely with the |iuverty of 
thi! poetical part ; for it ia impoasibie to deny that Jonson's 
harvest of poetry is won from a land natnraUy poor in this 
direction, and enriched by hich cultiration. Uis mind was 

Coworful and energetic, and rich iti tho resource* accumulated 
y a vast memory and an untlue^'ing industry. He came to 
p<;«lTy as to a i^reat and wurthv taidc, and bending his faculties 
to it with all the force of wbicfi they were capable, he achieved 
great thiof^ ; but his work bears the murks of his toil Every 
itone in his stalely and finished edifices is marked with the 
hammer. The »}H.-(-ial imaginatinti of the poet — as diatiugui»hed 
from that which either conceires without creation, or use^ other 
aria to interpret its creations — is an imapnation inscjiarahly 
iHiund up with lanijnage, possessed by the infinite beauty and. 
tlio ill" iM-<[ subtlest meanings of wurtU, :<killed in their finest ' 
ay: , powerful to make them yield a meaning which 

ati<>>>M I • ..tihl never have extracted from them, it is ii faculty 
tlmt no study csR Kive, lhou);b it may of course strengthen it ; 
it is In the |ioet whiit an eye for colours, and a power to coro- 
tiine thum, in to the painter — what an ear fur hannony is to tho 
composer. It is of the csaenee of the poet's art, so thitt in Iho 
hijiliost exercise of that art there is no 6uch thinj; os the render- 
iug of an idea in appropriate lancun^; bat the conception 
and tlie words in which it is conveyed are a simultaneous 
creation, nnd the idea springs forth full-grown in its piinoply of 
fwliant uttt^Tiuico. Hence the highest fioetry Cfin*ivt l>c tramt- 
Ifttfd Y"ii may do two things : you may. as precisely as tho 
tv :vin admit, furnish the nuked ideit mid tho etjui- 

Ttu. L ■ . "t you may write a new i>ocui, completely inaa- 



138 



BemJamafm. 



teriaei the whole meaning and poefrj of ilie original, and repio- 
ducine it in tu true (loetii- furra in your own laueuage : bnt iu 
oeillier case cua you codtoj to om i^orant of the traiuUted 
lanpiaco precisely the sasM fini9tion5 and sugj^cstioos that 
vouU nave been rouMtd in lum hj a perutal of the oriciO' 
Yuu caiiuot vunder »[iirit and flesh. But Ben Juuson alvra: 
wrote on the auuraptlun that too coald. It would he 
much to SAT he »etvr struck out at otte Bash a line or a phrase 
iu which the exprcsdoo was th« tolcly appropriate and iodit- 
solublc i^nitcnt of tb< UMftnii^: but neb lines are most ran 
ill hiia In this recpect, — and it U a ommI essential one, — ht 
standi r»r helow othen of that freai dramatic a^e whu ia 
many other rssnects — in judgmeat, in n^or, in art, in kncra- 
led^e — must yield him dtie precedence ; — far below (to wi 
Shakespeare, Flotcher, and Bcwinost aside) Ford ; below liny 
wood. Mat^iiii. Middklai^ and WebMer ; lar, far below }lu- 
lowc. Mild wen Masnnfer, who, great as he is, b not amoDf; 
Ui« firct ill tlie piwimrairn of the special poetic &culty. Joosxi 
tkever foi\-v» hutguap till it crocks with the stnin impweJ I'n 
it, in striving; to convey »)inething which language scarcely ea 
convey. lie never wuuld baxc »poken of 

" UeaTen't tkivbiai betM^ 
Upea (be B^tl^ cMMS «l the wjni.'* 

Uo thought that to make OMar mj. 



on 



-CkMrfidaeicr 



tetaUbJaMcuM." 



was absolate hMiaeiise ; and ao U voold be in any other mtnt 
mouth ; but in Cesar's nooth, can any ihin^ more fully »' 
pnss the sweeping eclf-centivd ambition, the inordinste slf* 
reliance of the mind, than this sort of asstunption that a tiiof 
vhtch from any other vouM be a vniog. oc ctco in its u'O 
nature was sa yet, coming from him, the relations in which ^ 
stood were so mighty, so dtriinct from all others, as It" I* 
ca|iabIo of giving it an impress of right f Can any thing ^ 
concvired more imperious than the haughty claim which &* 
hidden in the words, that Oesar'» needs nad power to chin^ 
the moral as}>cci9 of things T Thti> way of OL>nTeying DManlif* 
by suggestion rather than expression was intolerable to JoD' 
von ; there is nothing he treats with more contempt tbaa ih^ 
absence of a specific' meanitig definitely expressoi Wa d*i> 



lb*«alvpbraKMaUBMlt mow M W fc^ te .Mm Ctawv wM im ks* 



Btttri; wiin«»l«j hj «a* «Immc 
bMi>d tha low W oaMa 



r<L PnUiIiW 




Ben JontoK. 



1S9 



Id, both in verse and proso, is oftcD liunli and cumbrous ; 
rat h« ncYur wrote withotit knowiiij! with exactness wbat h« 
a««nt to say ; and though occasionallr there may be some ob- 
earity, from a pedantic or involved farm of expression, tliere 
B a certain uomistakaUc mcanio^ always there. For what he 
•teemed ix>rrcctnci;», be thouirht no sncrificc too great. It was 
lis habit to write liis poetry by first setting down hit) idvas in 
irose, and then transktin^ tlit^nt int4> verse. It is impossible to 
wtieve he always foltnwed this course, because he has written a 
ittle, though very little, genuine poetry ; but the mass of his 
rritings Tcry well bear out his statomt-'nt to Drummutid, that 
his was his mode of writing. He learned it, he said, from bis 
nutter Camden. Jonson'a Unguage is copious, nervous, exact, 
liscriminating. but it is very seldom felicitous; and his meta- 
iliors, which arc a part of the poet's language, run in the same 
rack—tbcy aru very rarely indeed of the essence of liis matter, 
lis will entvm largely into his imagination ; he gives it a na^ 
ow field, and compels it to exhaust it. Hence he seeks effect 
If the cumulation of ideas and epitlicts. His studied poetical 
lUtborsts. amoH)^ which may be specially indicated the speeches 
if Volpnne and Sir Epicure Mammon, arc all in the nature 
if minute and highly wurkvl description. This is work ia 
rhicli knowledge and learning tell. Hence, too, his coiuio 
;eaius is a genius of caricature and exagKcfalion. He takes a 
iharacter or a situation, and confining himself strictly to it, 
ohausts with a wonderful skill and perseverance all the ele- 
kenta of satire and ridicule that can be found in it Shake- 
qwarc is always playing on the edge of his subject, and pur* 
nuDg it along the infinite threads which unite it with other 
tluBgs. Jonson is always concentrated on the very matter in 
kaiH, which he cuts off from its connections and considers 
vfuX, turns it round and inside out, and drains to the very 
all its elements of humour, 
i " He hath nmsumed a whole night," so he told Drummond, 
flying looking to his great toe, about which he hath seen 
and Turks, Komans and Carthaginians, fight in bis 
fination." This \s vastly characteristic Observe the poirtl- 
■spfHii which he lakes in his great toe, and how he devils with 
otnaite warriors altout whom he knows something. Having 
■ D'i* tangible groundwork, there is no limit to the changes he 
I^Q ring, or the extremes his fancy can reconcile ; on that 
Hide space be caa marshal his armies with varied adventures 
BblAola night. Tliere is siimething very remarkable in this 
'^^t occupation of the imagination with one theme, which 
'■obserTable in all Jonaon's writings. Out of how few and 
aw elements is Th« Fax constructed. Vulpone, a rich Veue- 



laa 



BemJi 



tian, feigns sickness, uid at lut ie*lh ; and he and hia parasile 
Mosea ptav vritli the liopc» of tboM wbo, bnilding on i-v'mg re* 




distiagui^hcd. h&Tc ait a close &nulT reUtionship as birds 
prcv; und the niiole comic gist af the plajr turns <^n the modi 
in whidi thev debase them$«lv«s in tlteir imrMiit uf llie i 
faeritance, anu are be;r>ile(l and hntujeht to ^Itame:. C«lia and 
Bonario inspire us wilh no interest, and Sir Politick Woold-be 
and Ills wife arc mere excrosccnccs. who vear; us with thuir 
laboriuus display of fai^fetched absurdities. The tcniiinatiun 
of the play is peculiar and chamderistic Jonton in many 
respects lived afier the free ideas of hit time; but bis plajs 
stand apart from those of most of his contemimraries. in tbt 
absence of that utter licentiousness not only of lanf^af^ but 
of idea, unil th»t wilful disregard of all mural distinctiuut 
which si'i often marks them, ^onson has not the purity of 
S]iakes|)eare, he is often far from cleanly in his mirth ; but 
plays are generally arransod on the assumption of the c: ' 
ence of abiding moral truths, and the propriety of their o' 
ancc He is »«vcr«, if not to himself, ut least toothers; ud 
in 7%!! /'iM he feels no compuoctiun in sentencing the «iity 
Mosca, who has amused us so ^v,\y th^)ut•h tire acts, in fioiii 
his life in the galleys, and in commiltinf; the profuse mufHii^™ 
Volpone to prison and irons. Indeed, judgment so justly and 
so sternly overtakes all the principal occupants of the Ktot, 
as to convince us that we have throughout been ainiued wid> 
things vrliicb are not the legitimate subjects of laughter. An<i 
Joii.tou often llius errs, in wringing his comedy out of the b*** 
vices and out of degraded natures. This latter defect ca«U >** 
stain over all the inexhaustible vit. exquisite comic humoUI, 
and laughable caricature of TA* Alchymist ; one's gorge ri«* 
at being confined for five ncta without relief to the society <>< 



i 




such utter scoundrels, knaves, and fools as are here hnxv^ 
together. If all Henry the Fourth were made out of J)M 
Quickly, Doll Tcar*hccl, Poins, Bardolph. and Pistol. «' 






with r>ir John uud the Prince to bear them through, wc rk'.^^ 
tire of iheir M>eiely. liul that is nothing to what we lutte tef^^ 
there a certain airiness gives grace to tlic real wickcdnest,—!^ 
is not vice we see, but only the humorous side of vice : but i* 
Jonson. the depravity itself is insisted upon ; the coarse lio^J 
of the thing is painted ; its real native deformity not only an* 
disguised, hut elaborately set out ; nnd human nature in its 
depths mocked with jests sw cnicl and heartlws»,^lhc redeem- 
ing elements of good yet there so remorselessly thrust out of 



JBeii Jonmn, 



m 



it, — that the whole savours somewhat of dancing over « 
Ycranl. an<I a certain savour of corruption and clank of 

Ijoncs iniiiulM in the orgio. 
Subtle, an «M clieattnii ak-hymi^t and fortunif-teUcr; Face, 
cunning Ixild rogue; and Dolt Common, whuae name indicates 
T proft'saion, — Ret possession of a house in Lnndun deserted 
account of the plaguv, and confederate together to cheat nil 
ey con bring into their twiU. DuppiT, n lawyer's ckrk. comes 
to thern for a spirit to secure him luck at play; Driij::gcr, a 
man, wants charms to secure him custom; f^ir Kpicure 
.mmon, a nobler victim, is deluded into the conviction that 
ht on the point of grasping the philosopher's stone, and in- 
Iges in gorgwius dreams of luxury iind mugnificencc ; Tribu- 
ion Wh»li;.'Minie wuiit^ piKI niiide for the n.^K." i>f the fnniitical 
thren. The way in which these and others are trick<:d and 
made fools of by the confederates, and the infinite ingenuity 
with which the detection that seems constantly at hand is 
naved off, make the staple of the play ; which ends in the genc- 
lal confusion and rout iif all concerned, and the return of the 
mrprised owner lo his desecrated house. 

Jonson is himself in his descriptions of alchemy; he seems, 
iritli his usual industry and love of exact reality, to have 
mit«n-d the whole pretended science, as the first step towards 
deuruying it hy rtdicula Ills elaEjonttc display of terms of 
m; bis vivitication, mortification, and oohobation ; liis wlti- 
•iw« tuppticiHvi auri, /lyji.t /)Ai/o.«onAicu*, and lac virptnis; 
liii lalo, oEoch, zeniich, chibrit, ana heautarit. with a thou- 
tu>d others,— seem more wearisome to us than they did to 
■ttitn of his own time, when the false arts of goM-mnking 
slar-gu/.ing were as much, or perhaps even more, in vogue 
tablti-tuniin^ and spirit-rapping now are among ourselves. 
e whole thins is conducted with wonderful spirit, and must 
still letter on the stage than in the closet. The variety of 
lie situation ; the mock -solemnity of Subtle ; Face's Imper- 
ble impudence, witty speech, and inexhaustible readiness 
•firvice, and (he contrasted humours, vain hopes, and de- 
•w^bd disappointments of the various dupes, — make up a play 
^icfaonecan uevcr sufficiently admire and laugh at. and which 
T^ one can never entirely conquer unc's repugnance for. It is 
■■bptaying at mud-pies in the kennel on a mofnitieent scale. 

tht SHef»t Woman U far plcasanter; light<:r, freer, mure 
umaDC: Its being in pnrse. instead of Jonson's usual prosaic 
"tne, gives it a great advantage. It is the prototype of such 
Muoadies as Sfte stoop* to conquer, or Tlie School/or ScttMlal, 
bM on a scale fur more massive and elubontte than any thing 
tbo later stage can show ; uud it probably exceeds in real co.-nic 



133 



Ben JoHton. 



vU any English {Any exce[it those of Shakespeartt. 7%« Fox in^ 
Akh^iat, Ihoush the materials, of the latt«r ot least, are purelt 
Enjtlish, hitri; yet suiiiethiiig in their aut and citndact whicfa 
idrIcvs thciii reiu] lik<i Terence, a thousand times enriched and 
©lahorateil. The SiUut Wontan, on the conttaiy, though, curi- 
oiiilr enougb, founded on a bint from a Qreok so]>hist, and fall 
of clasaical quotations interwoven into the tnaiier of it, i» 
thoroughly modern and native. The scene is laid in Londoa 
UfHVWC is an elderly ^mlvmati with lui insane susccptihihly to 
noitti. He hati taken n^fuEe from street outcries in a pa«segc 
witiiout thoroughfare, barricades his door with a feaui«r-bM 
nailed ouuide, and admits tlie society of nobody hut Cutbeard, • 
silent barhiT, and servants who answer him onlv by mute ^pkt. 
He is on the look-mit fur a dumb wife, with the objoct of di*- 
inherilinc his nephew Sir Kugente Dauphine ; who, on his tUe, 
has found a young lady in his interests, whom, with the con- 
federacy of u friend and the ailent barlier, who is a traitor to 
his muster, he proposes to pa» off on his uncl& The convefw- 
Uon of llie young gallants is ea«y, spirited, and witty, and gin* 
UB perhaps the best insight we have into the manners nod iih 
t«roi>ursv of the young men of fashion of the day. These ara 
contrasted with two ridiculous would-be leaders of ton, — Sir! 
John Daw, who is a professed poet and man of leamiog,aiid 
an anant guU, as his name indicates ; and 8ir Amorou ht 
Foolc, a mass of fashionable affectation and shallowness, provd 
in Ilia descent fmm the most ancient and widely-distrimileJ 
family of the Poolea. We are intrwluced, too, to a Gtillece of 
fine ladies, — Haughty, Oentaurc, and Davis, — something liH 
and yet very different from, the PricieuwB Jtidiatlea of Molien 
Sir John Daw is a professed servant of Dnuphinc's proligre th* 
Silent Lady, and La-Fuole has arrangc^l a linv tliniivr at wluii 
she is to be introduced to the ladies of the college. Tmewilt 
who is not at tirst in the plot of his friend Daupblne, healing 
that Uorooe contemplates matrimony, thinks to do bis friend a 
cluvvr service ; and in the disguise of a post, gains admituncfl 
to Morosc's house, where, enforcing hia admonition with ' 
music of a large horn, he thunders into his ears an eloqtn 
denunciation of marriage^ and leaves the unfortunate old gen^ 
tleinau nearly dead. " Uoinu, have me to my chamber," say* 
he, in a ttiit« of melancholy pn>:itr»tion, when his tornicnt>.>r 
leaves him ; ■' but first shut the door." " Cutbeard, Cutbeard, 
Cutbeard I here has been a cut^tliroat with me ; help me into 
niy bed, and give me phyriie with thy counsel." Trucait 
boasts to Dauphine that he has effectually frightened his uncle 
out of matrimony, and is overwhelmed by the reproaches of 
hia friend for having destroyed bis cherished scheme. This i* 






J 



Ben Jonaen. 



133 



!ntvmif>tL'J1>y CDtUcard, who comes to saj that all is for the 
beat; iur Muruau in to cnrogcd nt thu intrusion, which La tup- 
puM* to haru twcn manned I>y I>au]>Uine. that ho ip d«toi^ 
niinwl to ititirry tliu Silent Ludv lh*t very Auj, und hits sent 
Cutbijiifi i'ur Imr and a pv^n. Vht Siloiit Woman's intcn-iow 
with Miin'iioisndiinnible. lit admires her beauty and mudcifty. 
hi- only dillicuity is lliiK she can scaroolv be mikilu to Mpouk ut 
nil, unil wlicn shcilovM, it is so low he has to make hn- say every 
thins tiriuo ovvr. She refertt all things ut his su{>enor wisdom; 
and Mnrusa is in an ecstasy ofhappiness nt haviii)i found a port- 
Mr wlm vxcuvds in roticonce ana taciturnity hie fondest hopes, 
mod h» triumphs in anticipation orcr tlic disuppoinltMl cxpccto- 
tl<'< nephew. He, on hi« side, M-ctire in the- mnrriace. 

in ■ it-d to invade his uncle with tliv ni)i.«iest possible 

cblcbraiiun of his nuptiaU. ile and his friends arrange to 
<]irHrt Lu-Foolc's i^nd partv into Morose's house- ; and a certain 
Captain Ottvr, fntnoun for his alternate servile 8ubmiM»ion to 
hui wifo in iter prcwnce, and his txdd nnd pumionnte execration 
iif her in hur absence, and fur his ridioubniH hutnotin; in drink* 
iiij( fn^ni bis lhr«e favourite cups, which lie calls his bear, hi« 
litill, Aiiii bis horse, is to Iw of the parly. To give a further 
wmt In the jest, and to accuniulitte horrors on the head of poor 
Monise, ihvy hire nil the musicians tbcy can get, ceptrciuliy 
Iruinpetx and drums. Cutbeurd obeys hii> niu«lcrN injUDctioos, 
and nupi'liin him with a parson well truiied to hifl humour; 
"line tbiki lias catched a cold, sir, and can sciircc be heard six 
ilti ' :>s if be epokeoutofa bulrush that were not picked, 

<ir ..t Were full of pith :" and ilie m-xt Hcune open:* im- 

tni-iliui'iy ofU-r the perfonnaiico of the ecrcmony which has 
united Morose and l:!i'ic<eMe. There arc few things in the whole 
rau);e "f the comic druinn ei]ua) to this sitnation, when MoroM 
fit)dj\ Uj his lnc.t|>resf!il)le oonsternation, that the lady to whom 
)iu hs« JHBt buun bound by indissoluble ties bus a concealed 
111'. imr of her own; and when, t" iidd to his niiMiry. 

h-' y tti« whole comp-nny of gi;ntleniun, cullL^L'ians, 

fixiln, ami imisirians. Fortunately part of it is decent euou;;h 
, to boar tjuot:itiiin. 

"Sans n. 

A rw»ju in SIaron*8 Ifviue. 

fSf^ MntsMH, RriemsB, ranon, uaiJ CvrBxtap. 

'" an Buftol fiiryiKinH'ir, luii n timet of aiutuU fur jourcoM. 
M I I miRO of iBjr bouuty. It u lit we ihoud Lhatik furtiitiv, 

V bme&ltbuMuivnupan us i iM^iks, Ititrttiriiu- 
. ..& 

J'ar. (t^-tiiit iM l^rinj a e«U.] I tliaak your nonlup ; so tt i* miss, 
num. 

Mfr. WhBlaiysbe,C«lbcanlt 



104 



Btn Joiuon. 



fU. Ho ajB.pnuto, tir, wIichsmtct jour wiinliip mviIb lilwt !■■ ■») I* 
rmdy witli tlic luc. !lo got tbU coU with silling u|i Utc, and ilagfag 
CKtcIiM with cloth -H-tirkcn. 

J/or. No tnon>. I thsiik him. 

J*af. Ood keep jooT wonlilp, and gin jwi rawili ^j vilU jov Ur 
f^onue t— lit), uh, ith ! 

L JVof- ri, 01 itay, CutbmnI I kt bim pvo no Gw tbdlinxt pfmjriiioa*. 
' Inefc, A* it in Iminty to r«imtil bcDulitc, k it i« uijuitj to mulot ibjurict. 
I witl liavu il. Vihxt urn be t 

Clrr. He cannol dintig* !!, ilr. 

Jt«f. U nuat be clAiigod. 

Cvl. Coagh kgkiii. [ilni/* te . 

Mur. Wbftt Ajrtbcl 

i?Kr. Ilu will oough out tlie rate, itr. 

/'.tr. rh. Mil, Hill 

J/or. Any, Kway «lth liim ! itop liin moutfa I «mj I I foripv* il.^ 

[£ril Cut. lAfvtliiyDtHl^t PmrJ" 

Spi, tie, raut«r Moroae, dial you wUI om tlui rioknoe to a tnou uf Oi9 
ehtirdi. 

Vm-, IIow( 

i'/ri. It ihiM not tioooioe jrour gnntj, or brooding, m jou pratand 
court, to have offerod tlii< outrage on a watcniuu, or u; man! 
creaitun.', much lees on » niftu of lu* aril c«*t. 

Jtfer, You cnn tp<nk, timi I 

S»i. Ytt, oir. 
ar. SjN«k out, I mean. 
t^fi. A]r, rir. Vf br, did jou tliink jxiu had nuuried ■ itAtue, or • L 
t]on oidft onouflbv Freudi puM<ota, witii (he i-jrvti lumud wlib a wiret 
•OiBO iiinoeent otit of tJio b<4pilAl, tint nould alaiul wllli ber Inudi 
■nd a plaiH laonth, and look irpon you T 

JVer. intnodeaty ! a maiuEcat woman ! What, Calbtard I 
fyi. Nav, never ijuamel tritli Outbcwil, air ; it U too lale now I 
few it liotli Wt« focMH'liat of the nodcMy I hod, wbou I writ (inply tnaJd ; 
but [ bop« I tJiall make it a atook tUll oompetent to tlie cslate and <iigfatj 
of your nifo. 

JVm-. Site cnn talk I 
£pu Y<a, Indeed, rir. 

JFnCfr BlfTB. 

Jfor. What, (inrab I Hone of my knarea Ibare t wliare b tbli buf 
CuilHwd t r \K!f .....£w . _ 

£'/i'. Cpcnk tu bin, felluw, tMuk to liim I I'll lui' i lkb~ 

act«<l utiuataral diuiilxieM in lay Iiuum, in a family whi'i 

il«t. ^\k if IDT rogeiit ulnMdy: I bftve matriad a PtmlbcaiTea, a Sooi- 
nunia [ anld my liberty to a dlMaff. 

Bnl*r TaCKVIT. 

Tfitt. H'bnv "• naM«r MoruK I 

Mar. 1» li« c>Mu<r otfabi t licird have mere/ Upon m* I 

Tnt. I wiiti you oJl Jo7t mialrvm Eploutie, iriUi your gntT* aad tu 
aUa miit«h. 

Xfii. IrMurtiyii .3(vrTnK«it, aofHoidlya wiifai 

itor. iQiK hMa<^., 

Trut. *loJ mvr ■ . , . 

Inn I Uuturv, I a.i 

luMwuigvr of )iaao«, i; y»u Um ^Ud suLu cJ u^uiy tfitmlj 

ItgtlkeMlAlnuoiioI 



Ben JoHton. 




135 



r < MurHiiKe Iwur, tir. I comnienil janrrOfotution. tbnt, not* 

il' < I the <]tiu){«n I luid ftfiiro you, in tbe VMM of h ni^bt-cruw, 

i>, aiii] l)« yuuivtlf. It sliowH fiiu arc n nno oon*Uiit to yoar 

: ii>nght to your puqxMM, Uiut vhmU uot Iw put offnith hA- 

llu Ci'lU bint the burber hns betrayed bim, and announces the 
mrival uf cumjMiny to felicitate bim : 

" itor, Ikr mj Aooni Imr ntj doorel Wbara ore nil mj caUra! my 
nntitlij, niiw I— 

Tt, ymi \itt«i» ! 

i vnrlft iliAt siIt* to mic}i «B olSoe. Let Uiem Mtuiil op<>B. 
I"" rn ihut d^rc' nioiv hit i;y<M towsrd it. Shall 1 )in*v a Iwtri- 

ad niKt my fncwln, lo he Ixirrtid ofuiy pIcMure tlwiyokii tintiD ill 

I Bie nii.t !ir t I .itiouniMfl viiiititionl [Srruutlkr. 

Jfvr. I' i.iiL ■,.-, r.diii ilu|nl<li;tiO«l" 

5be fiirgcts bis hnln-d of nois* in joining Tniewit in ovcr- 
beUhint: ibe barber vrttb witiy curses; but sonn tlie crowd of 
iailnra hreaks in like a sea, and overwhelms bim. Epicieoe 
LToirL-^ ibt-m witb ull tbe ^ncos uf n tino lady, welcomes ibom 

to tb<^ fra.tt ; and the tccnv ends in the ludicN disjmtin^ for |>rc- 

tedemi! viib iitirill voiccd, and a KHkud crash of immifcte and 
rums. Tho wreti'lied Morose, after an ineU'eclual n-i^ia lance, 

liotakctt himself to flight; and Daupbine thus describes bis city 

fit refuse : 

" /Tntijv. 0, hnU lu* uf> ji l)tll«<, I riiaU «t atnv in tli* jmt Aa. Ila 

1 (Ml )ii< '. < ' -.of iiight-ea|i». Mid b>ckcd hinMcIf up in tlie top of 

lu ' I I bu can diiol> rrum (lit uoi>e. 1 peeWid ia at a 

IT, iitii] mH r.iiii MiiiiigoYeru ctow-Imuu (if tbt roof, llku liiw mi tlia 

-•bone III FInt strt>et, upright; ami be will »le«[i thimi. " 

iiu avtiiiu Is now fiUc^l up for »omc tiinv by tbc ridiculons 

Rumours of tbc indy coUcgJiius and tbv two foidi^h kniifhts. 

1ie f<imii.'r ar« nil b«trnyod into d«claratious of love for jlau- 

ine by the skill of Truewit ; and tbe latter are engaged in 

pre|M>3t4;nfUB ([uarrel, in which each sci>arately betrays bis 

viin t^pirii, and voluntarily subinits to bo iMttti-n by the 

Mi a ctinijHuttion of which (he wits take ihu execution 

their own hund^ by blindfiddiuf; tbc viciiu)*. Morose 

ani'iu); them a^ain, and is terrildy turnieiito<l ; bis new 

wife iiliccts Ui think h^im mad, and bis misery culminates when 

' L' hmnin that Hhu lalkit ten tiniej; worse in bvr sleep, mid snorM 

Jkv a ponmtsc All bis bopcH turn upon a divorce, and be is 

Uijieii to liuTt> Tvco'inio 111 bis ni-pbew and imjiloi-v bis assist- 

lov. Hu Ki'cN, iiiiiffid, biinsvlf to tbe lawyers ; but makes no- 

<tf it. Tlicrc is siicb a nuiat in tbe court of wriinzling 

ibal be NuVn " the riot at bonie is a sort of citlni niid- 

rgbt to it." licuve ha graups vagcrty at a suggeatiou uf True- 



)8G 



BenJontOH, 



wit's, who cngAf^es (o proTidc him with two Icttrned doctors, «bo 
sliiill discuiis the matter qiiicilj- in a chamber for him, and 
Hatiftfy him what hii|te» he muv entertain of j;etting nd of his 
iocubus of a talking wife. The confederates dic«B-up Otter tJ 
a divioc, and Cutbcard as a canon-Uiwycr ; and the two arfnc 
the whole question of the |p^>unds of divorce with iin[>aruUcM 
humour und nn utter dixrcicard of (l«oeitC7; they L-avil and dUpuie 
OTer every one of their twelrc impedimenta, with a profusion of 
Latin terms of wit, and with wamiinf; temper and nsJDK voices 
Each hoped-for impediment is in turn disposed of as inapphc- 
[|blc to tlic case in hand. Daw and Lu-Fonle, who phime thtrn- 
Qmvcs on a reputation for irresistiliility with women, are so- 
dticod by the wits to boast of the favours of Epictcoe ; but exen 
this brings no relief to Xorose. His nephew at last asks biv 
what he shall deserve, if he shall free him nlwolmely and for 
ever from bin unhappy condition; and lIoniKe, though incre- 
dulous of his ability, eagerly agre«8 to give him aii allowance 
for life, and leave him all nis tiropcrty ; and in iipite of tb* 
esj^er protestations and lamentations of Epicceae, he signs deedi 
to this effect : and then comes the suddeu catastiophe : 

".Vor. Come, iirp)ii-ir,j[ivi!nic the fwn; I will ubMsibolo atif Uiiiiff.nd 
ptnX to whnt thou wilt, for taj dflivcmncc. Tb<iu nrt my rertcrnr. nw<i 
1 deliver it ihw an uij di-cd. IJ thcrv be a moid iu it Incluug, at writ >iA 
lulu: urilitigrapli;, I |)ivt<it Inrfori: [heavcuj 1 will ud lake tlie Rdvantti^ 

[/Cdnrnt lite irfintft- 

Damp. Tben \xn \m jom tvicnac, «j, [Takrt i^ Eficaai^tjifmhaaitliit 
Jitpiimi.] YuD have awrtM a bor, & gvutleimn's toiu thnt I liave Um^ 
up thishslFyuLral my (neatel)UE<<8, nai fur this contpMitiou, wUchIid« 
BOW madft with }«u.^Wb«t any you, iiiMtn doctort Thi* UJvMim <*tf^ 
if MUBfwn, I bopo, emr ptrmna f 

On, Ye«, At, in pritm> graiht. 

Cat. Jn ptino gradH." 

And with this discovery, which comes in its startling sudtlcl* 
ness, not only on the spectators, but on all the actors, even th^ 
confederates of Dauphine, the play briefly winds up. 
perhaps the best iinreTellins of a plot that has ever beeoio 
vented ; it is like the pnllinp of a single thread which lo 
and betrays all the structure of a complex web. And the plt^ 
is worthy of the plot ; it is one of the few of Jonson's in whidi 
wo .veem to be assuciitliiig with real living p<H:i]de ; and Ih-vdcn 
said truly of it, that " there is more wit and acuteness of fancy 
in it than in any of Ben Jonson'&" It does not carry msch m 
praise to modern ears, to say that the time occupied by the 
events of the play is not longer than that in which they ate 
played, that the continuity of ^enes is almost unbroken, and 
the change of scene restricted to the narrowest limits ; hut it 
is r«al praise to «ay that, whatever may be the advantages of 



venthej 

■eeniit^^l 
looMrtf 



'onsen. 




nti nrrangpment, it ii hen obtained without the ImisC men- 
nf oiuD tir riiihneM. 
to Imri- '■ - to (liwusH iho lc« fiimnu^ c^>nio<]ies of 

_^our author, i my of them wouM affoni t-rimiid for 9pe- 

^Hpiil critiL'i<iiii, Tliuy linvc all nno distincEi'tii ciitnmiin (o tli^m, 
^^bliirli Jons'ifi tiiiTMclf mlmits, kiid nhicli lius bcvii putvnt to itll 
^Kia rculim. They deiil not wicli men m much n« with what 
^^c ciJIh "humojirs" of men. Evory rhumoWr is lielected for 
Krniu special humour, and bis situationn and xctioitK are all 
•nsuffM so hs to show this liuniour nff. In the Poetaster, he 
[AuUms htN oj>|)»nt>i)t diMorilio himself (Joiison) iu "a more 
; iiochiti;: hut huimmrs iind nlisorvntinn : he gnc» Up 
i)owu nuckiii^ from every jMiciety, nod when he comes 
irae si]uec]-^s himself dry adain ;" and the de^icriplion is in 
»• niftiti a triiv onv. Auhruy says he gathered humiwrs of 
non daily whi-rvvor ho wont. In his eitrlier itluyn, such m 
7(uw ut aUertd and fiivry .Van in fits Hwnoitr. this ilesx'tip- 
^iif (Mraonal eccentricities is united to a Uidy <if (>ersonal 
ictcr. KiteW is a man, and so is llohndil, however airica- 
I ; but in Ins hilcr comcdiits, such as The M'i;rnetic Ltitlt/ 
Tiilt of<t Tub. his iihajucti'm df^ntrate into mere hun- 
'ftf oddities, and iiitmducv u« to tt world ridiculuui eiiougb, 
it iiuitlier rral nor natural 
There is littli) of iteniulity in Jonson's writinga He is bj 
'^Atiiri' n iiaiii-i't, nm) was |>oH!ic»*ie(l hy n st-lllod conriction thnt 
' uf cxiotiiig mMinurs was the m'lil legiti- 
11 iK-dy; and tho miuutdfall hiH auiu.tement 

Mctttrariirti iiiiiicr troin thecuricaturc of EMnno individual mon- 
(ity, or fpim the ati'oct^d and ridiculous habits of some par- 
dUt (ilass. Ho ndopts Cicero's definition, "who would ha»e 
I WKntdv to bo imilatio viltr, speculiitn ootifuftiulini*. ifna{fO i¥ri- 
«K*" 'rhi? court nsfieciuUy is a favourite md.j.-ct wiib him; 
*lab;nird and nverchHr^fcd as fuime nfhts descriptions seem, 
oust be cautious in disero<litinj.' them. Jonsitn, ilmuKh a 
iturisl, was a keen and aiciiraic uhscrvcr ; he had little 
leiioy or power to invent, and n huis of matter-of-fact no 
»ulit nnderliv.') all hii fictions. He Is one of the 1>v«t and 
4ot«it nulhiirities we lure for a.^certaining the manners of 
art and city in the time of James I. 
1 lias in his wit. Generally it has a snecial 

't'l itwu: it is ponderrjus hnilt-u|i mirth, heavy 

iiinituro. He litys on <:>.>ttt after coat of the same 
;.. .jt relief or variety; yet he cover* a wider tield of 
IMU moit men, and it would be dillicult to say in which 
krtmnnt hn lint pnivcd himself mosL sueoossful. Ttto Fwe (■ 
hu-Mt witty. Ti4e ^ii<-ut Wouiat) most humorotu, The AfdiymiaC 



138 



Ben Jonton. 




moiit (TTotcsnuc. Perhnps hw gcnios Ivans most in the 
direction. 1 lii.'< ts a field nf Uiufiliter not much (•CL-upicd id tk; 
present day ; perhaps it belong to a coarser and eimpler suu 
uf mind tnnn nuv provaiU. Sucli cairic«ttires as ihoH of iji»^ 
nardo da Vinci show it in its rudest forms It prevailed ii 
the time of Geijrgc HI.: Hmollett and Gilrtv are ^T<»ta<TMk 
Sterne if often w>. It is the element of the ridiculous that bt* 
cither in the native disproportion or in the voluntary di«'«^ 
tion of real things. The tisure of Punch is the tvpc of the 
gnitesquc It dcnU much v ith the dUcaM.' and wrvlchclnesit rdJ 
basenesses of human nature, and is ^nerally more or leas tn- 
human. It is rare in Shakespeare : perhaps the Apothccoir i 
Jtomeo and Juliet, and Faletaff's rap:;;ed regiment, are the ■ 
iniitances of it. In Jonsoti. on the other hand, it is cnmnioa 
hut rather in its iiiond thnn physical manifestations. Ba 
U/mmp Fair is made uji of it, in the most defcrade^l forms ; 
Atchymisl, The StapU of Neaui, The Xew Inn, contain abundant 
specimens of it. His worst works are full of instances ofkii 
unbounded power of ima^ninc ludicrous situations. 

Jon^iin wrote two trawcdies, iSejnnu* and Catiline. Tbe 
former >>< incomparably ibe bett<-r. tILs aim was not to rc[W- 
sent man under the intinencc of deen and moving |>assioD, but 
to find ocwision for pompous pcrioas and stately diction. Il 
was his ambition to "do it after the high Kunian fa»)ii<'0-'' 
He laments that it is not possible in modern tiran " to <^ 
8er\'e tlie ohi state and splendour of dramatic poems ;" bul h": 
adds, " In the mean time, if in truth of argument, dij^tlf <if 
persons, jrravity and height of elocution, fullness and froqiieni? 
of sentence, I have discharj^cd the other olhn-s of a tragic p*^- 
let not tbe nbsctice of thpsc form< be imputed to nni " And i>. 
indeed, these be the only other ollii-e^ of the tragic poet, Jonwn 
has succeeded in tragedy; and in some respects, he has p>iiel*- 
yond thcM; requisitions, espocially in the character of Tiberin*. 
which di.Hpluys great insight, and is remarkable for it« mvtf 
and originality. The picture is in ^reat uK^iusure prDlitbly 
true to the oHgiiial; and tne stage has no figure like il><" 
deep and eraftv dissimutatiou and unbounded self-indulgSW* 
pressin*^ into their service an astute intellect and large ntBm 
capacity. Catiline is historj- distorted into poetry; uod botn 
history and poetry suQcr from the forced transformatioo. Vt. 
vould ratlier read the In CatUimtm in the original than I 
lated into blank verse, and made a speech in a tragedy, Ts 
■ay nothing of other objections, it stops the way. The dewii]'- 
tion of ihc battle, with which the play concludes, is a fine 
speciuicn of *' height of elocution" and " fullness of sentence' 
Compare it with a similar description in MadtetJ*. It was veQ 



1 




Ben JctHMOn. 

lid \>y Olilyn of t)ic.<fl classical triif.'<.-<lR-iy ilint Uic auttiur "bftd 

lllc^] ijiiwrt nil nii(i'|iiity on liis livail." 

Mr \W\\. t)iv tnWutr oT tlii; ncttt liltlu edition of Jonson's 

jn*G(icul >iiirka lati^ty jm I ilia lied, U:1U qs tliiit "il is in liiit uiiiior 

' -ifm?( Wo muBl look for him as he lived, felt, and tliouglit;" 

ind iImI I'nim liis plays alone " wu Khuuld arrive at very impor- 

^ct and vtToiiuoHS c'Ondusiuiis iijM^n his Mminiil and poetical 

character." This \« one of tlioM things tlial it suits a pn-sont 

purfivsv m well tti say, llisl a man does not care to inquire Uio 

n !icth«r it bo correct or not. No douht the minor ixtcins 

II ndil something to our knowledge of him; hut llii; in- 

II < from tlieiii into either hi» ^renins or his character 

1)~ ,_ tit comjian-d to thiit afiorddd liy hi^ gr«al<;r works. 

Rveu the hi:htur und mure graceful side of hin poetical faculty 

to ho found exercised in proater perfection in ttie "' Sad Shop- 

btrd," — thi>u^h that piocc has b«c-n prvposteruu^ly uvoreiti- 

uiul in the Konjf* ttattteretl throo^h hiH phiys and 

(linn in the " Forest" ami " Underwoods."* 

I 'Jill.' minor piiems rank liiKli'T in common estimation than 

phey deserve. People arc familiar with a few admirnhle speci- 

pouitH, and an.' Apt to think thorv must he many mure lik« them; 

nrlivreaa the fact in, that uur )Ki]>ular untlmlogivi conuiin all 

IJoujfan's best songs, which arv i»«pAr«tod by a wide iniorval 

■ttnn his worse ones. The nrigiti of many of iho most jxipular 

^miiiiL' llifH) has been traced hatk bv the commentators to 

■ ' , and il is probable toat m»ny others aru in- 

^1 "■ s not di>c<ivered ; forJoitson wiw not only a 

Bb K-hujiir, hut, if wc may trust (iillvrd, a most excuraive 

HBer of all that had been written iu the languages of Grcecu 

bud Itomo. " Drink U> me unly with thine eyes !' is from iho 

Bove-leltvra of l'hilo» trains, the diflereut idcax being scattered 

||lif»iii>h itovvrul tetters of the original, but each iilca haviiii; its 

'- <lent, a.s may be «ecn in (iitlurd* editiim, where 

) < iire ([UDted; und though tin- combinutiim of such 

ucaucrud thmights may show, us the present editor ui^pes, and 

bi is unduulit'tdly true, a hijjh degree of artistic ingenuity, it 

Ki a much tiiuro cold-blixidcd plagiariiim than even llic traiis- 

■tmacti of a whole ixwin. "Still to l>c neat, still to lie dre.sl," 

Bs taken fr<im a little Latin poem of Jean bonnefons; though, 

piddly auougb, th« point of thu original, " Firiffere ae semper /ton 

I ■ Il !■ n Hitniia .IrfBclilhal U ■ "orV prabwiof lo nnntaln the pKltnl ooflu 
ml Dm Jui.v/n iin.<<- vmgt iImiiLiI buI hivp (mcb euUMited. TIip «>ni*<iiimr* i*. 
ntial (kv rMilcr KiU iiirn Uio p«i;di ttC tliii Tolonin in vatn Tor ono uf (wv ut .lon- 
itna't (TTj Lsit iiKiiiiE' proitiicuniui. No cb««|ia«u uui cuuihumi* ('>r mat d[ 
JBomb". Ill ir. .\ii.>(litT inarinl bloc U tha •temo* ottuf iodrx or dploilni uUa 
^Bi < Ik* udivr ImucI, tte Ub |it«Axrd b well trnttim. kod tbv Nlca 



140 



€91 amjiden amori." ud to vbtdi Jomoe's taag too t««ins to 
leatl, U omitted in his Tenton. ** Oorae, bit C'elia, let us prove," 
and " Ki» me^ sweet, the v>i7 lorer,' mk bv-ta Catulltu. Jon- 
•on borrom everT" where latselj' fr™» tt* «ncicnts. not with 
the idea of mireptitiooslT sTuline hinaclf nf thrir ideas, hut 
in conformitT with the opinion in ob dar, that to adapt them 
vdl waa at ic««t as happr an eflort of frenios as to invent Torj 
onetelC He boldly arovs, sud defends, his practice : 

"(liiilffii Iiiil m ■JriiiMhllmairii 

It ctm hith Imm a «Mfc «r M Mwk pdK 
In d«M«M j«4^nM M M iarcu or mak*.' 

Noman waseTerleMofaoopjist He b master of what he* 
Qses. In some cases, indeed, M puts in a borrowed plume in 
the most odd and exiraTacanttr is appropriate plac«. as wh<« 
he makes nnc of hi* shepherd* refer to " the lorcn.' scriptnic^ 
HeliodoreSotStatii, Lnngi, Kiutathii. Prodretni;" iiiitl in others 
ovcrwhehns all dramatic prtipriel)' fmn the desire to insert i 
Igood translation: as where m Catiline he introdaces C^ctni 
speakinfT something like the whole of the In Catilinam ; in the 
SiUnt Woman makes Tmewii Itrtarc on k>vc ont of Ovid If 
the pof^rul; or concludes an act of the Poetafttr with a littril 
tiansJation of one of Horace's satires. In rencnJ, hovertr, 
he shows a remarkable dexteritr in ttaasfemng his borrowed 
material into the substance of bis work; aad it is onij the r^ 
tricver-liko sai^citj of some industrions commentator «!»(}> 
informs the reader that a ca^t servine-man h talking Statinii 
or a Venetian ma^itico riuniin^ Liiinnius. Jmitton, howenr, 
borrows not onlv fnmi the anciema. but frequently from hii"* 
self; repeatioR ideas, end even whole lines, of his own, anil ih"* 
furnishing the strongest prt»fihat the absence of what he c»ll* 
" copia" in hi." own re;«Hirci-!« is what often throws him on thf** 
of othera. His songs, however, are verv far from being mef* 
borrowing from the antiqtie The orifinals hare often iiltl* 
to recommend them: he supplements the idea; his strong sf 
tistic taste comes into piny, and he fires to hi« little poem ^ 
complet«ne«s and justness of form, and a finii-h which malt? i* 
truly his own. Nor can it ever Iw denied that .Ii^nsoii had * 
vein of sweet and fanciful imagination, which, though it wmS 
narrow, contained a large proportion of pure metal. It is |ito^ 
liable he himself underrated this side of his ircnina, and crampei 
its exercise; but every now and then he has given it exprtisuoB 
in furms of crystalline clearness and perfect symmeliy. Sucba 
one is the " Hymn to Diana." We quote this and others, not bfr 
cause ihcy will be new to any one, but because criticism on poetry 
is dull luid inappreciftble uuWs the poems )>c not ouly kovwn to^ 
hare been written, bularefresh in tliemcmor^-of the reader: 



Ben yoHMii. ]41 

"Qaoan an4 huntraM. ehMU oud fair, 
KoMT the HID U Uiil to tlccfi, 
Swtud ill thy ciUvn- clwir, 
8ia(« in wnnti:>l mimiitT km. 
HMpenu eulraiit* thy liicl<t> 
OoddeM, <xceUeiilly briglit. 

Eorlh, lot iMt tliv enviOMi ahodu 

Owre itnelf to Intcrpoae ; 
Cjiotiiu'* Mhiniiij; nrli wia mailc 
Uvaveu to vl«u-, when day did doM. 
Blctt* u), thca, with wiHiiicI tigbt, 
Ooddtfls, exMllMitly bngfal. 

Lav Ihy bow of pcnrl «[«rt, 

And tliy cnrntal «)iiiiiiig qiiinr ; 
Oiw unto U>c Hyin;! hoK 
8pM0 XO br«Uli«, bow thort «oevor,— 
TbiKi tlint nak'al* da;' uf uight, 
nrKlJrNi, txc^llciitly brijjhl, 

tl a calm sorciiUy in ibv wlii>Ic moTcmout of tliia piec« 
rttiut iiftlie iiiixiti tliroti^Ii tim llontiiig clouils, mid in ex- 
i|Ui*!t4i iiiunnony with the aultjc4;L-niatU!r. Tlic rolli^wiag, too> 
tery jierfect in u very tlifferdiit ^tylv, und iiiun: li^ht, easy, 
' |)Uyful than we often 6n(l in tlie wrilin^ of Jon^n, who 
III u[it u> lean Bomewbat t«o heavily in his most trifling pro- 
l>lui;tiuiu: 

" [f I ftttcly may diiwovoi' 
Whiit I'luld ptuMc me in my lote^— 
I would iiavu b«r hir and witty, 
SkTMring iiwK i>f cQort tluii Htj ; 
A littl* proiid, bait fvll of pity ; 
I^bt uid huioaroaii in kur toyii^, 
Scan butldiiig hopM, and ooun dMtroybg ; 
IkkiK, but siroel. iii tbo ai\j-iviii^ ; 
Nsithor too exty nof tixi li&ij : 
All oxtrooiM I would Imvu Uirr'd. 

Sli« should b« kllow^ her puiiotu, 
80 Ihc^ wnm but luod oa fiuhioni. 
fenwluaM fruward, and ilien frowniim ; 
SoowtioiM ncluti), and then HWawnlug: 
BvcTV III with cfatuige eiill crowning. 
Pbrrly jtnl'Xia I would lum her, 
Tlmi w"1y iiiaiiUuit when I eww hor ! 
Tin n viituu iliiMild not BVn h«r. 
Tliu* nor h«r delioitM could doy me, 
If DC liur iMWviahiMM uiuoy ine.* 

'^ luu been traced to aa opi|:rain of Uartia). Of the 
k' Boon; Mr. UilTurd ttuys, thnt "if it bo oul tlic tiiuat 
.iiul aiing in llio luifruacu, I frociv cunfowt, for toy own 
tb«L 1 kiii/w not where tt is to be fuuud."* 



. Uf •u«*»ll|>, Mr Bell iMWliRIWiltbiidktuaorOilKiPd'aU mother MOf, 

_^* th ivwoMiiB n>i{ithiir. ii la pni4alil]r Bent; 4* «r/or«rih« prawls lb* tvIlcNBo. 



BeHJoKSon. 



do not wanton «ith thore eyes, 

Lnt 1 bd «ick «itli iwtiiig; 
Nor cut tit/tm down, but kt tbera itae» 

LmA tbuno d«nro7 thdr Wing. 

hn nut ATtgrj with thow fire*, 

For ihcn llivir thrwt* will ktU ia«] 
Kor look too blod on m^ denraa, 

For th»Q mj bopM will tpill me. 

do not Rtwp tbvm iu tbj teons 

Porto will (Drrow sla; tne; 
Nor spmd thvtn a* linnet with f«sre; 

UtDe own enough bctmjr no." 

GiSard iriLs » most »lilc unil induxtrions oommontator, Imt 
his opinion on [xivtry is not vnlimble ; uid for Jonaon lie Km h 
blind parliiiliiy, iiarllv the result of a ]^oo<i deal ofiiiniilftiityin 
their ntitures, and still more from his forming an escellent fiejii 
on which to do battle with other critics, tmd funiishing a inod 
opportunity for venting the ucrimony ofhi* diK|KK(ition on ihoft 
who ha<I prvviouid/ nbu»ed, and, it is fair to add, traduced hit 
niillior. To ub, it se«ins that the above song is a favourable 
specimen <jf Junson vhcn thrown entirely on his own resotiTca, 
and that, likv the- rest of his love-Kungs, it is artificial and tiif 
roughly heartless. Xowherc has Joniwn depicted the pofHioo 
of love with nature or ddicacv. It is scarcely too much to 
say, that he lias never depicted it at all, and wax bimwlfin- 
capable of feeling it The attitude of ibe ancients iowud» 
women found fiomethin;!: in his nature which answered to it 
very e-xactly. In his life, he seems freely to have indulgeo 
his upjictitcs, without the sanction of any deep or [■emianeot 
attiicliiiii-nts. He has not in any of his plays drawn a female 
character with the slightest power to inspire us with inicres*- 
H« u«os thcin in general only, as a sort of block on which ^ 
bang to advantage ridiculous fashions and contemptible cn- 
pricea There is one love-scene in his works — ^Ovid jwrtinj 
from Julia. It is on the same model as the chamber scene ^ 
Jtomeo and Juliet, and forms a sin;^lar contrast with it. 1'^ 
both Okses the lover, condemned to exile, takes his last farevcU- 
In one cilsv, pure pa-tsion brefttbi.-.s itnclf in accents so gtnpl^ 
that the reader cannot stay to admire, but is borne along until 
the completed scene leaves its whole tender impreasion on thv 
mind. In the other, the s]>cakers themselves run into disquiu' 
tions on tore and mortal life ; and ihtmtrh we cannot help iliick' 
ing Junson h&» iu this place warmed his genius at the fire oT 
hii great contemporary, and struck out some line flushes of the 
poetical expression of highly wrought feelings, yet id llic main 



i 

* 



Ben Jomon. 



143 



peeche!) are adapted rather to shov the ingenuity ofthe 
ax than the passioo of tlie lorers. In TUe New Inn, the 
' rouEvs his iiiistrusH from cold good-will into a sudden and 
trainitltiv fiuthiisiusm uf devotion to him bv n hrncK ofsur- 
I on VDurage and on love ; which, however ill-adn|iled thejr 
seem to secure ihia happy result, are fine laboured pieces 
letoric, with thought and originality mtn;;led somewhat 
ilywith dullness. Indeed, Jonson, though utterly incapable 
vinp a dramatic rcpre^ontation to tlie most univor»iil pa«< 
IkhIi ot'the real and the mimic sta^, and ill'C<in:iiItut«d 
}3 own nature to experience its hi>,'her influences, could 
^noblo intellectual imasc of it, and express it in adequate 
IVrhajis the line^t and most imaginative piece of 
sc has written is tlie " Kpudc to de«p Karii," a» he calls it, 
nich he contrasts false and true love. We i{uote the intro- 
ion, as well as the finer lines to which we allude, because the 
ler will serve as an example of the cumbrous mechanically 
tiatod prose of which the greater part of Junson's su-calleu 
ry coQSLSt). 

" apoDi. 

^ Kot to know vice at all, and keep true •tete, 
l» virtue aTid uot fote i 
Jexl to tJiai rirtrie. !s lo kno» vioe weU, 
Anil tivr Muck bpite eipel- 
icli lu elTcct («iuRe no lirosi^t ia co Bure, 
Or Eofo, but she 11 prooiiic 
M way of cntnuicv), wu lutut plitot a goiird 
Of thvugbu Ui wntuh iiud ntanl 
At th' tj^ ftiid tax, l!)0 pnrU unto the iniiid. 
That no *tiaiig;c nr unkind 
Od arrive ibcrc, but tliu hv:irt, our (py, 
(livv kuuuiltHtgc iiJFiUiiill}' 
To wukvriil ruMua, mir nfTvcliviis' liiag ; 

Wild, in tir txnmiiiing, 
Viti quickly tiutte the treojiun, and coniniit 

CboM, the tioav cuoav of it. 
'Tis the Mcuretl policy wo Unvo, 
To mak* our neriM our dnrc. 
Sut ihU iMif rnurxR n nut cmbmccd by many; 

By many I »ca.roi! by any, 
^Por dtlier our •fftctioua do rebel. 
Or viae tli« sentinifl, 
at elioiild ring 'Innitu to the heui, doth tleep ; 

Or RDino urrnt thuujflit doth keep 
ck the iiitvriigr.-tii;i.', uiid faUvly awonn 

Tli«y 're hmv mid idlt< fears 
bsreof the Inynl cnuEdriiea no coiaplalns. 
TliuH, by tiK'KMiblk (niiiui, 
'^Do acvuml pAuiuun iiivude the miud. 
And t^eiki! our reason blind: 
Of whldi nsoririni; rank, fv-mo haw thought Icwe 
Tb» &nt I M prone U> mov« 



IH 



Btm Jȴtf(tM, 



Mod (ivqaMi UimsllB, bomm, Md UM i m , 

In our itilliiwM hmin : 
But UiU doth ftom lbs dood of error giaw, 

Wdboq Ural w wbi^Uqw. 
n* thing thef hen adl lev* ia blind dwn^ 

Annad with bo«r, itMfto, and fire; 
Inoonattitt, like tli« ma, of wbcnoe 'tii bora, 

ftoogfa, nrcUii^ Hkem rtonn; 
With wImm vko wb ridM on iht aargm at few-t 

AndbdltuifbfiNM 
In » eontiuul tanpctt. Sow tnit Ion 

Ko mcti effect* <l«th pnn«[ 
T^i U all Mamcw br wore gvnlfe, fiue, 

PuK, pcvfeet, nj fitinc ; 
It M K foMw chain n dowit &vb bcnrai, 

Wbonc linfca we bh^t and msi. 
Thai Ub like dnp q«i lonn^ and e w nlM w e 

Th« lolt and nreetaff muida 
In *<j<nl kno4«: thi* boan o« bnnd*, nor daita, 

To muracr divcmit hcarte j 
But in a aJm and sod-Hke mutj 

Preatrm c4niiiuDiij'. 
O, who is h* tliM in thLc |xae« Hijafa 

Th'cliriro(>lljoj»l 
A ftirm more troli trian »r« the Edeu bowcn. 

Anil Innttug «3 hw flomrvi 
Ricti«r tliati TIiim, and aa TimB'a nrtuv i»n; 

Sobw •• wddMt ttn ; 
A fiiM thou^t, an «y* nntanght to glann. 

Who, UMt with (ueb high clwnoe, 
Vould, al lujEKCBtioa of a nUvp dcvire, 

Out IkimMlf (ram ibo apiro 
Oratl hi8happin««ar 

Thit must not 1>o taken as un avcrugu specimen of <!>*' 
minor poems nf Jonson. For the mosl |>«rt tliej' ore ini^* 
pre.tsiMy tcdiotia reading. Therv ia enoD;{li t)ii)uj;ht, baniilf 
expressed, to require an effort to uoderstaud them ; aud not 
enougli to reward the effort when n?«d- They are weigbid 
down hy a $ort of incii tnaM of min^ which the imagiiolM' 
has not !iut)ici«nt power to kin<)le. It might have Kuftcod* 
lesser hody of intellect, hut it is out of proportion to wbsl ' 
h&n to move. Struggling gleams of fire shine ihrousb a' 
heaped muss of materiaU; Ijat rarolrdocs the vhole burst ip 
a clear hluzv. Now and then, indeed, somo exquisite _ 

idea may be found, half hidden br the cninbrou^iu-Kt ofiucs- 
preAaion, as when he compares the serenity of hi;; mltttRfi< 
face to the calmness and life-renewing influence « liich p(^ 
Tade the air after tempest; an ideu not easily suggested' 
the lines, 

** As alono there triiimphx to tho life 
All the guud, ull the gnin, of the elements' strife.* 

There is gold, and pure gold, in Iiia writings ; but mu 



BenJonton. 



14S 



bMil^ lumps of cla^. The wont of it is, tlie clu}- is as 
emiily and carefully liKminered out aa tliv guld ; und tbo 
iior evidently refuses tu acknowledge even to hiin.self Uiat 
of any inferior vatuft Labour Jonson never sparad ; lie 
re all his vorks the finish hi:) best pains couH afford, but be 
material in itsulf incufKibIc of tuking a pulixh. He bud a 
inci>ire wit; but it 'm an Andrea Ferr-ani nillicr than a 
ler. A sort of tiative unwicldinesa is apt to leave its im- 
sion in what he writes ; and his rhythm is like bis matter, 
las a lumbering clepbttntiQC motion, full ofnlops and sudden 
rgci. His ttpi^irams arc often shar|>-pointei]. and wittv; but, 
all epigrams, they are dull readtn;;. They are moulded in 
I Latin type ; and though some of tliem have point, many of 
are only brief occasional poems on a single subject, mostly 
jistic of some purticnhir person. Some vf the satirical ones 
probably ii<;rs<mal ; but in general aimed at some vicious 
or moral deformity, set forth under an appropriate 
; in which, as in the body of the poem, ho loves to show 
wit Wc have epigrams to "Sir Annual Tiller," to "Don 
Bnrly." to " Sir Voluptuous BeasC to " Fine Grand," to " Cap- 
Hungry," Ac. That on Ciieveril the lawyer may serve OS 
dmen of the best of them : 

" No caiiM>, not client fat, wiii Ciioveril leese ; 
But k« thef oomo, oa both sides ha takes foes, 
And plcawrtb Ixrth ; f-;^' wllill^ bo incU.i hi* urauw 
For tab, that wius lot whuiu he hi>lils liia jwovi'." 

TTie " Forest" and " Underwoods," — names by which Jonsnn 

ijnated two collections of his minor poems,— consist, with 

A loTc-5oni;s, chiefly of eulogistic epistles and addresses to 

friends and patrons. It is usual to speak of these poems as 

loding in pnifouiid thought and wise insight into human 

They certainly look as if they did. Tliey have a grave 

iltniiuus air which their matter really hardly warrants, 

are good tkitif^s in them, and even striking tbinss ; but 

rare. Tlicy arc ingenious and laboured, while the body 

t in them is sufiiciently comnnonplace. I'hc same thing 

observed in his *' Discoveries," a collection of his ideas 

3 disconnected subjects expressed in prose. Thouijhts 

currcd to him bo wrapped up in large bundles of lan- 

d put by here for posterity. For the most part, they 

nu mcanit "discoveries." They are not such thin^ as 

wrote in bi.i essavs, or Heldcn said at his table. They 

none of the subtle penetrating judgments of an original 

niua. They are weighty and often acute dicta; but always 

lio certain limits of knowledge already established. JonsoD 

select true jud^'mcnts to give his authority and sanction 



146 



Ren Joiuon. 



to, bnt ho liM none ofthat quality wliicli loves to unfold tbe 
inner li<.^art of true notions, or of tnat which loves to \»j naked 
and confute those which are false. 

The free use of satire always requires something of vul^aritr 
in the mind, und rccklcsftncM in thu tvnipcr, of him who emploji 
it. Vi>u cunnot strike hftrd, mid also ntrikc witlt discrimina- 
tion ; and the dee|>er a man's inaijjht, the mure corlainly do«9 
his knovfledjce of the complex intcrtan^Ung of jcood and evO 
restrain his hand from sweeping blows of censure. Bui there 
is A certain sharpness, vigour, and heullhy indigmuion, whicb 
ennoble t^ some extent ju»t mtire Jonson has these qualities 
in tp-eat )>crfection ; hut he is apt to descend into vituperatioii, 
and to rail with a disrefrajrd of all limits cither in his aj^H- 
cations or his expressions. Head his description of lus oon 
times : 

" No part or comer man can look upon, 
But there nro nbjcetii bid him to t>c gone 
As far u be oau fly, ur foltow day, 
Ratbor tbau here ru buggiMl in nrva itaj. 
TIi« whole world hw \viiwu<-A with luadncffi sircUtj 
And, hciRf! > thioK blowit nut of naught, rebels 
Attniiiot his Mnker, bigli nloiic vrith wccdii 
And iuipiuua rMiikiieaii cif ult )imU &ud mwIs : 
Not to be chi%'k«<] or friKlit^ried uow with fate, 
But more ticeott'^iis made aud desperate I 
Our dcliaicici nre growu capital, 
And cvoti our sports are dangert ! what wc call 
Frii'udsliip, i« now miukvd Imtn-dl JititJcv fled. 
And BLumt'£jc('diii.'M tugi^thi^r! all Inwii dmui 
That kept imii living ! pleasures only sought ! 
Honour mid hoiieHty, ai poor thint()i thou^t 
A( they nrv mndt^ I |>rid(? and ulttF clownoiie mixed 
To luukc up gmitncasl tiud luui's whole good fised 
In bravery, cr gluttony, or coin. 
All which he mnkea the servant« of the groin, — 
Thither it flows !" 

Further we cannot quote ; what follows is wonK than the "TO"* ' 
parts of Juvenal. 

Jonson and some ofhis friends thought his translation* lui < 
host thing». For vi-^orous closeness, and a large command of' 
the re^urcei* ofhis own language in conveying the menunS 
of another, they have scarcely any paralk-lis. Gifford, who «i 
trained in a different school, does them great injustice. 

But we have no further space in which to discuss tliem, as^ 
must hero conclude our notice. Jouson in hia lifetime nuJ* 
worm friends and bitter enemies ; and the same fate ha.4 attended 
hi.'i rfjuitation. He has been cxlnivngantly lauded, and UDJuttlf 
undervalued and maligned. Our object hu;t been to set dov* 
an occtirately as possible the estimate of an unbiased judgmtiA 



T/>e Czar XicAolat. 



U7 



He was a fireat though not an engaging tnnn ; and history will 
alwayt) urn'te his came high in the r«ill of liti?rnr>- uchicrcmcat. 
No man ever owed less to others. It was part of hin deficiency, 
as v«II as i^art of his greatness, to bo funned for standing alonv : 

"Thir «tnr Wild jmlginent only and right scniic, 
Thjrsdf bviiig to thjuclf an iiiflueiicv." 



AwT.Vl.-THE CZAR NICHOLAS. 

The Acctnion ofNieheJaA I. Campilurl, Ijy njn'cial comtnand of tlio 
EiD|ieror Alexander II., l>v hin Imfwiinl Moiefty'f Secietary i)f 
State, BaroD M. Ki>ri)^ ancT tmnslulml from the original Itu^iui. 
Third Impceseioii (dow fmi publislted). London : John Murraj, 
1867. 

Ruuian Empire, its People, Jimt'tlut'toiu, and Hrxinirce». Ily 
on Von Haxtliauseii, nutlior iif " Trmisfiiiuiisiu," " The Tribes 
! Caiirtwus," &c. Triitislntr'd !iy Riiliiwt Piirie, Esq. 2 tola. 
loa: Chiijiiniui uml Hall, l.sr>(). 

JV Nutum» of Rutiaa and Turhey, and their Dentin^. By Ivan 

tOoloTin, autlior of " The Caucasus." Two jiarts, Ijondoii : Triih- 
aer and Co., 18A4. 
Rnuae et U« HuMe*. Par N. Tourgueiietf. 9 tonie». Ilruxcllee, 

^Kret iJutory ofihe Cvutt and Oovemvient of Hutma under the 
£atpervra Aie^efindtr and A'iclwlo*. By J. II. SchniUler. 2 
mU. London : IlicLard Bentley, 1847. 

vatJer the Autocrat A'ichohji the Firxf. Bv Ivan Golovine, 
a Raasian Subject. S vol;*. Lomlon : licnry Culbiini, 1846. 

rf4OTu o/'JtusMa in 1846. By an English Resident Thiid 
2 vols. London : Colbum, 1846. 

«i 1838. Par le Marquis da Custine. 4 tomes. Paris, 
■1848. 

Atwidgfti from thu Fi-ench of the Marqais de Ctistine. Lon< 
i: Longniuu, 1854. 

Ir joa think well of us, yoti will ttay ao : but it will be twf less, 
1 «ill out be bclieted ; we are ill uiidcrsloo<l, and people wilt 

! underMtaud iw better," These words, addressed by llic Em- 
of Riuaia to the .MarquLs dc Custine in tho year 183d, 
/ a protest against the judgment of Western Europe which 
, well deter any lover of truth firom czpu»ing himiwlf to a 



148 



TTte C::ar Sleholas. 



Hmilnr reproach, hy^rawiug UieconcIiixiomwhicIiMemmgl 
irould niiiiear to warrniit reniicctiiig the Czar and hi.i people: 
Pcrhapa, after all, tlie fault Ik^s moro in th« natiooal character- 
isticB of Russia hcr8clfth»nin tlic traTcllcra who have suoceasitdjr 
attempted to delineate them. It is not ensy for the most iropar* 
tially disposed critic to arrive at satisfactory cunclu^ioas conced- 
ing men and manners in » Bocit^ty winch \n; is taught by ntpe- 
rience to regard as a vast niawincrailc, wliere tlte only ehie to 
identificatiau iit the ue^tive certainty that no one will appetr 
in hia real character. l«c spdl which thus han^ over the scene, 
and delies intiuisitivc apccuiation, mi^ht well have been drawa 
from the famous repertory uf the wizard Michael Scott: 

" It had much of Klamour misht, 
Ouuld tnnkc n Itidfc iiecni a Kniffht ) 
The cubwvba oil a dungeuo w«u 
6wm tapestry iu lordlr hall ; 
A niilahell swm a gilded bnrgw } 
A xhcdliiig ^eem n palooc Inrgc ; 
Aud yuiitb NM.-IU age, tuid o^c svuiu yuuth : 
All was delusiou, auuglit wiis trulb." 

Ton leave your western home with honest intentiotut of aaeertan- 
iiig the actual good and evil of this gr^at empire, which exooMi 
80 inereiwing an inHucnce on the destinies of Kuropc. You»p- 
proach the olijcct of your curiosity by the common highway of 
nations ; and the imposing monotony of the world oi vts.en 
leaves your seuiteaopen to the imprcssiona of immediate conirwl 
between country and country. Yon paw through tlic ordeilof 
the island fortress which ha-i lately proved itattilf the tru»tiiortkj 
sentinel over the safety of Peter the Great's "European windw," 
and you find yourself before a stately city, with maRni'"*'* 
qnnys and wide- spreading streets, lined by palaces gUtlffiu? 
with paiut and gilding. Having once escaped from the taloosw 
the custom- bouse officials, whom it woidd be a Ubcl to rcprt 
any where as the representatives of the national character, i*" 
meet with nothing but obliging and eren officions hoftpatali^- 
Every one whom you encounter seems to inscribe himHClf at oof 
as ciceroni' and host to the stranger ; and bis attentions are marW 
by a delicacy and tact which, while pleading for a ^rount^ 
verdict for his country, appear proudly conHcioue that thia i* i" 
natural due. The iiolitcness and generosity of the East «c» ^ 
he blended with the intelligence and civilisation of the Wf i 
and the Russian to act as the gifted interpreter of the best vir- 
tues of ejich into the language of the other. As you walk do*D 
the street, your attention is drawn to an unostcntations carriage, 
the occupant of which does not require the profound dcfcrrnte 
of your comjumion and the other j-n.-«ers-bT to dtstinguish him in 



The C^ar Xicholtu. 



140 



yt* as tbe autucmt from whose wit) crcry tiling around 
said to dorivo it-t impulse. Yon bocoDiu coiiM-ioiiit dial 
Ktrsclf are t)ie mibjctrt of ohK-natioii luid iicrutiii)' ; and 
ly, Diuiccu&tomcd to the lixed gaxe of princes aud potea- 
ecl not a little cnibarraified under the diascctiou which 
hnractn- and disposition ore so quietly undci^oing. Ae 
irii look i« sinking cowed before the jiurtietdar Httenlioti 
hicli you ore being liuiiourct), you feel not u Httlc (-(.-licved 
nvcriiig thiil the expresdou of the im|KTiid countenance, 
rigiilly uvcre, haa paued witlioiit any iuleruediate stage 
>e of ^ntlc and f^raceful politenejM. t^illy prepared to 
iae the approciatioD of your own mcrita as only matter 
, you are ready to set down to the cagle-cycd penetratiuu 
ulter mind this rapidly altered bearing tuwards yon ; mid 
y icinesa of the fintt glance w a gimnintct; to you of the 
irtliinees of tlii^ ultimate judgment. Von hate no sue* 
that to great a prince can be renlly guilty of the idle 
of outAtaring a hewildered foreigner, and tliat had youi' 
cmcanour been more composed under the imperial eye, 
luld have iiiHicted on the Czar of Muscovy n pang of 
JiiuiplHiintnient. Tlii-f, with other fiiets, cornea gradually 
r know lt?d«e ; and »o much i» the firrt favowrable ira- 
n altered l)y aul)»e<tucnt observation, that you run the 
lalliug into the opposite extrvine, and solving every am> 
a characteristic in the scn»e of luimtxed evil. You dis. 
that real firicndship is as remote ax possible Irom the 
g civility of ordlnai'y Russian intercourse; that it is (H)m- 
oaly a hasty demoiutratioii of good^will, put forth with- 
e slightest reference to actual feeling, merely to antiei- 
nd prevent the closer appmiicli and intnisjiection of a 
gradual intimacy. It ia tlie nervouii movement of suspt- 
rktdi apes tlie simplicity' of a|>en-hearte<lncfts. You learn 
ifait^ in times even less pleasing, ^'onr urbane and con- 
OOti clboW'Conipanion at the regtuural pur's has led tlie 
aitial chat to the fiubjeet of UuHiau [wliticRl in.-^lttntiona, 
U suppliol yon with an easy opening to tbe enpressiou of 
«n couviiniou of the »iij«Tiority of Western freedom. You 
B so unguarded as to follow up the hint, feeling &afc in the 
e of that comer of tbe room and in the reciprocal frank- 
Tyour auditor; or it may be that through a conslitutionul 
i, or the self- restraint cbetated by worldly experience, you 
live the diMiusMon, and confine yourself to the unobjec* 
ie remark, tliat your object is to gnthvr iufumiation, and 
on leave to Busnians theni^clvcv, ii» the best judges, the 
'appreciating the value of their own usages. In the latter 
m nay be startled a few days ailenvarils, iu talking with a 



150 



The Czar A j«Ao/a*. 



Buperior offic-ial, whose UHjiiKintancc joa liarc nwiiallr acqiiir 
lutil irhom you know to he. onniiectcd witli llic Impt-rial Police, 
to be congratulated ta a prudent man, and to learn that vour 
tarcm conversation has duly passi^d fipotn Imrcsu to burnn, 
through all the stages of otiicia] docketing, nnd haa perhaps 
gratified thtt etiriosity even, of the impiTriAl pcrsoiiii^' hinuclf 
01) vthosc miildeii pre|HJ!uwx*i»n in your favour you had been 
]>luiniiig yoiimelf. Should indiscretion hare been your foiling 
you may find a monitor liesidca tbat in your own brea.it in the 
persevering attendance of some (gentleman of morbid jmlitcDCSS 
and »trnri;;<; discontinuity of occupation, until you arc fairly 
watched and bowed out of the domiuions of the Csur. Y«it 
arc then made painfnlly aware that tn Rustua the old Saxoo 
system of neighbourly and "tithing" responsibility, m&u fcc 
man, to the State, has been developed in a peculiar manner; 
that the members of the same family arc virtually govcmmnrt 
spies on each other's nioicments and wortls ; and that thv lirsi 
way of xatixfying the i)oliee of your own innocence is to aM m 
the secret denouncer of the guilt of your boMim friend. Sacli 
a state of things may appear at first sight entirely destnicliv . 
of all social enjoyment ; but being applicable to all, it reccins 
its natural raodilicution in the common intcTc»t, and its ctil^ 
feet, beyond the liinil.i which it ini))OMc)i on the objects of life 
and the subjects of iliscoiirse, ic cliicfly cxiicrienccd by those ■fcc 
are bunglers at the orthodox lying and inystifieatiou whti 
ita accompaniments. Skilful consjnratora have a langiL^ 
their own, to which no police-office baa yet succeeded in dii- 
cowrinfT a pcr])ctual glossary. The ordinary effect, however, of 
this Biiciiil system is, thnt the Czar is tacitly tmdei-stood to be 

E resent at, atid a party to, the minutest details of the prirate 
fc of all his nuhjects. It ia, in short, an attempt to cugnJt the 
patriarchal idea, which lies at the root of Sclavonic nationaliiy- 
upon the borrowed civilisation of Western Europe. H«Bk!tian lii*' 
thus divides itself into two outwardly antagonistic, but iatria«i- 
cally similar, phases — the life of the Sclavonic peasant in hi* 
cherished oi^anisation of "communes," and that of the noble o^ 
the capital, with his European tastes and aspirations paralysed bV 
Ills national and traditional characteristics. At the head of eact* 
aystcin stands the pat ri arch a I authority of the Czar — the natu»»* 
complement of the one, and the uneasily accepted neceaiiy (^ 
the other. Is it wonderful that, witli this double upect c* 
Russia, and this conflict of ideas in the minds of intelligent Rus- 
sians themselves, there should iic some lack of appnviatvon nnO 
understanding in Western Kmrijk-- of the national chanwtcr, aad 
of the extraordinary man who for so long a time was identified_ 
by Western politicians with the distiuctivc gcuius of RuMia? 



7^ Cxar Nicliolag. 



151 



Of the Csur Nicholas it would have seemed almost hypocrisr 
fin ail KtiK^li.xlt vtriU'r, n year or two ago, to aiFi-c-t to sinuk with 
limpartiality. The iK>lviiiic cluniour of inaiiiffstocn iiml piulia- 
mcntarv haran^uea, the eIo(|iiciit tiiutiml iiicriniiiiutioii uijiriiicvs 
•ud statesmen, and the popular aud patriotic euUiiisiaain of the 
respective conntrics, had not then subsided into tJie calmness 
esMntiid to any just discri mi nation of couduct and motives. 
Crop« of Crimeiin h<;roM still itproutc-d forth with undiminished 
vigour at u^iciiltural gatherings; and inctropolitiui linn-shuws 
kept alive the rcmemhrani^ of national aniino>siti<^)i, though the 
bniigrrent cahineta had smoothed their hroits a^ain into the 
habitual courtesies of diplomatic intercourse. To ali'cct to say 
any good of the Cxar might then be not uurcasonahly looked upon 
aa a ayniptom of Itikcwarm loyalty to our national cause; and to 
ipeak ill of him, mm merely to follow in the wake of the count- 
lesa acribes whom the din of actual war had nuddcnly aroused to 
1 pcreeption of hia sins. Now, howeier, a new crisis of more 
ftbaorbing iutcrest has- arisen (o divert the overflow nf our fed- 
ings from this channel ; and the Russian war seems alrcajly to 
have paxsfil into the domain of history' as much as the prince 
himself by nhaie fcenius it was provoked and supporlwl. With 
animosities softened and «nbdued by tbi; du-{Hfr %hudow!t of our 
Indian disasters, and with the ailvautagc of a complete i'etroH)>eet 
of (be policy of the late Czar defined in its limits by the di.tMmilar 
character ot his succesaor, we may perhaps approach the subject 
*kb better chances of arrivinst at truth. 

The policy of the house of liomanoff would seem to have been 
dictated Ihr more by natural causes of race and gcugrnpbiud posi- 
lim than by the pcenliiir cbaract^r of its princes. To Peter the 
Qnat the glory may be given of having clearly [lerceived the exact 
Mitioa in which Russia stood relatively to the East and the \\'cst, 
■erpttt and her prospective history, and of having carried out 
*ilh nnwaTcring decision and striking success the policy which he 
ccDceivcd to be tbc beat solution of the problem. To his sucoe»- 
•on tlie |»-aii>e is also to be allotted that, while never losing sight 
('(he general direction in u hirli liin Kigucioiu mind linti [ircdeter- 
■nmed tliat the national life of Rusaia nbould move, they showed 
WDuclves fully alive to the necessity of accommodating this 
Wnth to ibc shifting contingencies of each particular epoch, 
^mpcraddcd their own contributions of experience and ri^Hm- 
^ tH the managrmeiit ami development of the movement. All 
■ore or less sensual, they were none of them the mere slaves of 
dcirsatHuality, hut used it as an instrument of personal ambition 
*nd national aggrandisement. The favourites of Catherine IL 
tR not mere parasitea of the palace, but generals, statesmen, 
nd even wise legislators, whose benc^ts to the uatiun are stJU 



152 



ne Czar Xichoia», 



gratefully rcmemhercd, while their allr^ance to the Mvtrcign 
vas of !i tiflturc which itPCMsarily idcntifici) tliem with her itiUr- 
Cflls. The very niudnm of some of the Kuiniiiioflit hiut its poU- 
ticiil uiiil .-lociiLl Tncaiiing, and wiu Minicthiug very ditferent Irom 
the piirijosplpis fn^iKV of A^iftlio <le!i|iots. nius, allhoiigh the 
oriiii» ami exeessca whtcU political rcfus*** have laid at chc door 
(rf tbia great bouse can few of them be denied or exeuscd, wc ex- 
perience a very differcut fcvling in rending the n-ronlt of thar 
ttranse and vvcntfnl reigns frum that iiiNpin^l by the luonotou- 
oiix diroriielfK of murder and lurt which arc all thai some naUoBs 
can give iim nn a milMtilnte for iintioital biatnrv. Of the ancces- 
•orc of Peter the (ireat, iiioludttij; liia own wife, four bare b«a 
vomen, and a royal trajtcdy has uehered iu and closed the re^ 
of a large pn>|)ortion ; yet the helm of state has never any whov 
beca held eonsectitively by firmer or more niiux-uline hands, nor 
has the coiirw.^ of the vwwl ever deviated Ws materially ftam 
th« points observed at the coinniencement of the voyajfe. W« 
>iavc nometbiiig to connidcr, ihercfore, noi only in tlie nature of 
the problem which the founder of the jpncatness of the empin; 
had ong:inal]y to solve, and the manner in whi(th lie set about iU 
solution, but aleo in the peculiar genius of the family whieh es- 
ftbled them to deal so sueceasfiilly with the task bequcallwd to 
them. In doing tliix, wc shall not (.nperienee any ^jcat diffieoUy 
in arriving at the elements of the diftinotiveclwraclerof theCmr 
NicholuH, or in estimating hin nhare in the reaulla attained. ^1 
A glance at the map of Knrope will explain in a moment tiilH 
geographical ditticuUies with which the C^ar Peter and hU suc- 
OGssors had to contend. On all sides Itussin was landlocked; 
and at the close of the seventeenth ccnturiF- she waa literallr inu 
prisoned within clodcly guanled burricrw. On the norlli, the ken 
were liehl by SwtxU-ti ; a nation flushed with the re.mcmbrance of 
a Kuropean reputaLioii, gained under the auspices of the 30ve> 
reigns of the House of Vasa, and guided and urged onward by 
one of the moat gifted of that royal race, tittle likely to relax 
its hold in any quarter without a determined content. On the 
•outh, the outlet of the Black Sea, and th« road to Constanti- 
nople, were hdd l>y the powerful Khans of the Crimea, — princes 
yielding a nominal suiierionty of only one horse-tail to the Sultan 
of 'l^lrkev Iiinidelf, and treating with the Sublime Porte on a vir- 
tual fooimg of equality. On the west, all access to the cultivated 
plains of Central lilurope was barred by the still unbroken and 
hostile jiower of Poland ; while the n^maitiing frontier, spreading 
away into the Iwundless wastes uf Asia, ncf mod to invite a rctam 
to the nomad habits of the first stage of national life. Within 
the boundaries thus circnmitcribed, Sclaves, Mongols, and Tab- 
tars had long fitruggled for supremacy; and the eventual supe- 



Tie Czar Nkholat. 



1G8 



ridrity of the Gnt-aa.misi race hiul bc«n ec«iircd at tlie prion of j 
protrni'tcil nnil blix»ly TOiitolN, which ha<] iiui'|)k)iic(1 Die formft-l 
tion of a KuMiitn natiuii until Uie ciTiliMktkni of Wt-itteru Eitro[ia1 
had pnMc<l ll) rough umxe ot'itj nxKl iiu))ort:u)l bli4;ea. For a ^ 
time, indec^l, KttMa hud a cliamxt of ciucr^tn}; into the tiy^tcni 
of Kiirupcan uat tonalities as a feudatory of the fulish moDarchy ; 
but her ]Mtriotu; asacrtion uf iixlcitcndtncc broki; the cliain of 
com nni nidation vitli the Wi'vt )N-f<irv its rflt'i-tii hiu) hn'ii at all 
matvnally fi'lt, 'Llic Wnroiif^iui priiKTs, thr <ic»Ci'iulauLi of Ru- 
rik, iM>liiU*<t in their potly luilitiiry ;iriiu'i|ialihnt, had ceased to 
trltcnuh nuy triulit tonal ruetuiiry of thair Nunir ori^ju loDg before 
tht*y wciv reduced by the policy of Ivan to the rauk of a locall 
nobility. Kvcry thing stt^atcd or tended eastward in this" 
■l)apck>M empire of forestland and prairie, when the cocr^ of 
ODe man vcnlurml to dispute the destiny m.-cmriigly allutto<l by 
ilsturr, niid ilrUrniiined that Rwm Hbould join nn rsjiud t<^ms 
tl' mtioii of Kurt>)>raii nations, aod iiiare in the material 

fii I ir more advanced eivikiitation. A fierce auddctipcrate 

atniR^tle with her Scandinavian rival joined for lltissia not merely 
B foiitiiii; on thu shores of the Gulf of Finland, but the prestige 
of ^mtt nud Nturtliiie succcsh among the nations vhich uardi-icd 
on tliOsL- waters. St, Pctersburi; arofic on f^und cutiqucrtrd as 
much from tiatitrti tin from the Swede, anil intiiiitnincd with far 
more ditHmlty against tlm iuHidiixi.* luuaidtx uf riv<'r imd jirimi- 
tivo muraiM than a)taiii8t any mi-rely human t-ucmy. 'rhmu^'h 
lliia new piteway of hiii empire, Peter hod resolved to introduce 
iuuo»|( an Asiatic population the arts and social habits of Wcst- 
cru Europe. He liad, bowc%'cr, to contend with an obataclc even 
more formiihtblc than the pliyMcal one which he had alrcadjTj 
ovcn^orac, in the in-euliariticit uiid pr*jiidice» of the SclarooioJ 
too: Pliant iiiid easily moulded into an oiitYranl confornitiy to 
pmurilit^ )uittt-rus, the ScJaronic tyjw is eaaoutially unyielding 
nud tinaltcrabte in its intnnsie characteristicii. The Ciar Peter 
druiae<l it after the European fitsbion, tau;;ht it to sjM-ak in 
more than one Ettropoui laDguBge, introdticnl it to Eiuropcan 
foahiutiN of vice and Eiiropcao canons of morality. He dnllcd 
itj army atlrr the mont approved Kuro{iran au(lioritic«, and 
citlloil '.imce the gemin of a Kiiroiiciui navy. lie tran»*J 

plaAt'ii Illation into a city which in its extentals rivalled 1 

the mo^rniliniico and lusury of the Western capilids; and ho 
f,-|tM»Ti<.'i .1 vritllin itn palaces and etreeta the semblance of an ad- 
Ti t'l of Enmi>eaii civilisation, itut he was as little able 

tu ixrrr linr'^pr.-kh feelings and habits )x<h>w the snrfncv of the 
DstiiHinl rli::TMrt t, iM he wfls to kccp the Mtitnn pjdnn-H from 
ci ' r ihe influence of an arctic eHtni>t4-, imd the tim- 

tii I < iiU uary from rottiug dur)n(; their pirimlicid tin- 



IM 



The CztiT Nickoloi. 



1| 



pmoniucnt within tlicir icy dockyards. Upon this atubham sub- 
stratum of Sclavonic nationality, neither the varnish of French 
conventionalities spread over the face of sotriety by Catiicriiie II., 
nor thi: German hiireiiiicriiey of subsequent sovereigns, hnve pro- 
duced any senKihk- i-IIi-cta ; utid to thin day tlie inatn oharncteri*- 
ticA of Sclavimi reinikin inichanged amunj^ the peasantry of tlie 
interior, an<l peep forth from b«tnealh the foret^i tn^ak of tlw 
capital itaclf. It has become luorc and more apj)arCQt nith each 
eocccssivc century, that while the territorial aggrandisement of 
finaaia lias been achieved Ihi-ongh tlie niedinm iukI at the expoue 
of Western civiliKatiou, the niitiunitl life mn be developed into a 
corrc!ipondin|^ degree of greiitnetut only through tlte rC(X)guili< 
and ou the basis of Sclavisni. 

Peter the (ireat, therefore, was more successful in secnrii^ 
vidcr field of action for the national life than in forcing it foc^ 
word into a royal rotul of prugrv»:t. His policy, and that of his 
aucccssors, secured a southern gateway in the Criniak, aud csta- 
Mlshal a standing " menace" to tliu rejit of Kuro|)e in thi; acqui- 
aitiou of the I'olinh oul]>OMt. But, on the other hand, the iuler> 
nal policy of the empire in later years has been a retrograde one 
from many of his favourite ideas, aud Russia ia still far froia 
Laving realised his dream of becoming bond-fide European. U«' 
euccctxled in making it a power in Europe, but not u KuropeaO* 
power. Tlir preniatnre aud eupei-ficiid civilisation which faS' 
BOperiiKlnccd ti[)on KuNKiaii society, while it has pnx-nre»i tlie 
admission of the court and cabinet of St. Fetemburg into tliO 
iratemity of Kuropeau princes aud staleiinicii, has bequeathed a 
great and increasing diliiculty to succcsaive rulers, and haa proi'ed 
no small obstacle to the growth of the native and hoQie.spua 
character of the people. 

It would be no uninteresting task to follow iu detail the 
atUaiijits of the HUCccHsive aovereignn of llns.Ma since tl>e time of 
Peter the (ircat to carry out Imlli branches of his scheme; hut 
our present object is a more limited one, and we have perhaps 
said enough to render more iutelligible the position of the C«r 
Niefaolns with respect to his own people and the other uatioitt 
' Europe. The third in Inrth of the four sons of Paid, bo can 

rcely be said to baic b»^cn horn to the purple. CoiiMdcnhly 
younger than his next brother I'onHtiintine, he could not, under 
any eircmnstances, have made his apjteaiance in jiublic life be- 
fore the character and calibre of his elder brothers had alrea^ 
been tolerably well ascertained ; and the remoteness of h« 
diancc of succession, joined to the uutural subordinnticm of 
his position, muxt ha\e given him time to mature his vicwR 
and develop his chiiractcr before he was forced into the onkal 
of public eritieisiD. It ia not Hurprising, then, that the i 



The Csar Nkhotta. 



150 



^ 



ftMOnnts wliioh ire gatlior of Iits pcrEona] appearsnoe and mental 
jM)wrni fur frum cunx-Kpoutl to tlic inipmsion created b)- him 
when I»c emrrgrd into i\w ('lnirtii.-i«r ol' a cnmncil Cixt. Phy- 
sically, the toll, Hlc.iiikr, iiiifi)riiml figure fdl far »liDrt of the 
Mtatcly l>caiily which atnick everr one when it ni)]i|>ortcd tlie 
wei);Iit of imperial dij^uity ; nor did the thin sltarji fcaturca of 
tiio youiit; man siiji^est any anticipation of the same when cx- 
pumtnl iiiitler tho coiisciou«ncwt of autocratic povcr. Thoau 
who knew hiiu in hin pnvntv station (wc are tuld) could ecarcel^ 
rcon{;ui>e him »ft<'rwardi> ; and it ia not nnlikily ilmt the chatige 
vn their mutual relations had no inoonstdcTittile elleet in pro- 
ducing this re«idt. Sach at Ica&t was certainly tbo cane with 
the iiitimatc formed of his intellectual capacity. No one baa 
imputi'd to the countvnancv of the Ciur Nicholas the expieasioti 
of want of mind, nor have evtm hi« urdinar>- actions raised in 
oIuervcTH the nuspicion of merely ordinary mental jtune-n. Yet 
ao late oa the i^trau^p interro'^iium which succeeded tbo death of 
Ale:ianiler, and nhilc speculation was rife as to the comporatiTe 
dtaneea of bapiiiness IbrBunia under Constantinc and Nieholu, 
an intelli);eiit Ocrman prcMOit on the spot, and a clo»c obscnrcr 
of mcu aiul manners, Hpeaks tliiu dispuruginely of tho future 
cmpcrcir. After Ktating bis opinion that the reign oP Constant 
tine, iiotwithsluiidiii); bis eccetttricities, might prow ^alutarm 
to llusain by the cucrey, though irregular, with which he would 
probably pn>be the niscaaod body^politit^ M. SchuiuJer pro- 
ceeds: d 

" Tliia tnii.')it hot [wrhajia hu tlic «»*c. Hbould Nicbolaa aaoend the 
llimne. Still tiMjng und tm-ijx^rii-nM^I, be wduIiI proliaUj honlly 
liava coursgu to tmUt upon ii carc<T uf reform ; he wuuld jKrhflpn Iw 
cwoiijot hi tnad in ihn rXc^pt. of hi* brikthrr nnil prcHcccKHir, whom be 
baa b<*tt neoiutomrd ti> rtganl as a niixUil of ]>rrre<:!(i«ii. Ho bas b««n 
B«inMt«nM)iI to swrnr Uy his brother ; be haow* no otlicr system tbaa 
his ; ba has Iramed to love tbsl which lie loved, t« rat««m that wbicli 
bs estMtmrd, and to ttisrogard all that did not nMiril bis ajvprobatioii. 
No gri'At Ulcnla are rccogattable in Ntdiolas ; his «tudi«a bare noM 
boon uf tiMi most Mrious kind, (bough conducted uiuh-r the dirMiloo^ 
of Ills molbcr, a woiurni uf atrunj; sense and fimi nitl. It was nid st 
UiKcliinn, that Nidi<iUa aa<l bii bmthcr Michael allowed so Hllle dts- 
pOsltioii to inufil by the iiutnicltniis uf lh<?ir tulum, or to yield obedi- 
vnop to (hem, (hut it sonictinits needed all the authority of the mc4be^ 
[O U|iliolit that of the nikstvr." 1 

It in tMt a little creditable to the writer of the shore, tliat he 
aluiold have hud the good sense tn puhliith in later veal's an lu-. 
couni wliii'h rethi^ts so hitle ercdit on his turesight and discri- 
nil "liich pn)l)ubly conveys tin' upininn of almost 

e^ , I ]•( a few who were bruujjht tutu duevr and uiun; 



150 



Tke Csar NickotM. 






coiifi(!ctilml intercourse writh tte fiihirc prince. Nicliolm, ioM 
<Iecd, asrcntleil the throiio wttliont iiny <lcfit)ite feeling respcctiiin 
him in the imblic mind, cxeejit a little doubt as to his eaofj- 
iind capacity. His two elder brothers, so long prcrioady he- 
lore the public eye, had achieved each of them some amount of , 
popularity with dificrent classes of society. Alexander, notvith-' 
standing tliv TseiUation of his policy atid the well-knoviti weak' 
ness ol' tiin will, Ktill retaim-<l, by bis ainiabiUty and fcoodne«»1 
of intention, a eot is ide ruble nninnnt of nfleetion amowp tbc Rus- 
siaus generally; wbile his pi-evious leanings tonards lilx^ratism, 
iilthon^b abandoned during his later years, still n.-ndcred bim 
personally an object of rc^etful hope and respectful sympathy 
Among the more cultivated classes. He was nut, liowever, po- 
pular with the army, nor with some of the more ardent of the 
reformers, who considered his fickle wxpielry with the idea of 
progTcaa as more fatal to the interests of their country than erca 
an avowed and eonjtistent oppoMtion to liberal ideas, ^^'i^h tbc 
army, and to some extent with the "coiistitntionnl party," vbieh 
met in deliberation at clubs and secret political societies, Cod- 
stantine was the greater favourite, and w«» looked upon with 
conKidentblc hoi)e. The type of character presented by that 
singular man was ex'ideiitly very rimilar to that of bis father; 
but with greater capacities both for good and evil. As a child, 
he was tbc especial favourite of his grandmother Catherine, vbo, 
much as she disliked her son, took consi<lcrable pleasure in the droll 
eccentricities of her little grandson; and it was no mere fool who 
could have obtained any such hold on the feelings of the Cxarina. 
Ugly and uncouth beyond the ordinary Kignificatiou nf these 
word* — habituully rough aiul l>oiKte-roiL-<, and oulrageowdy brutal 
when (an was often the oa.><e) entirely suri-eiidei^d to the impulse 
of his ungovernable frcniiies — ('onxtautine bad also altcmanooa 
of the noblest feelings, and even the mo^t tender and dclkats 
aenttibility. He iras tliruugliout his life a savage child, witli a 
kindly franknens in his happier moods which redeemed to Rome 
extent the luirci'tmincd inipul."*^ of h'w " IJerserker" madncw. 
Brought up from a hoy in the ranks of the army, he was eiter- 
natcly adored by them for bis congenial disposition, and dreaded 
almost beyond endurance for his capricious martinctism. Out- 
of tbv aril]}' bis general popularity wiis not great iti Kus^a, aod^ 
some Biimnnt of jcalonsy had bt-eu felt in that empire at the un- 
disguised prefert-nce ttiiich he had displayed for tJie kingdom oC^ 
Poland, which had been coinmitled to his vieeinyalty. For Po- 
land he raised an efficient armv, and drilled it to distraction; 
labouring only under the ungular fear that a war might break, 
out, whii-h wotdd spoil the untlorms of the men and ruin theif 
]>arudc discipline. For Fohuid he had done much in the general- 



nie Czar Nicholas. 



157 



admmutration of the kiug<lom; but in tliU rleparlment sIao, bj 
his constitutional love of mtnutiie, which led him to assume the 
fiuictioua of chief director of the secret political police, he had 
alienated the affcctiooB of the DKtioual party, and cveutually 
j>rD«;ipitnt«l a contort ncnrly as niiiioua to RiisNinii iw to PuUsh 
lilK-rly. Ilu had i-sjMiiiM-d fur liia socoiicl wife a P<ilisli lady ; and 
had thus pWicd in the {luhlic mind a ^eat barrier in the way of 
liis aocestion to the Russian empire — even though it vas only 
imperfectly known that he had made this marriage the occasion, 
or it had been made for him the pretext, of a rcnunciatton on 
ha pari of his succOHtiou to the cmpii'c, 

By the *idc of Alexiiuder and Coustantine, thiiH supported 
and opposed, Nicholas stood alone (for Iiia younger brother 
Michael wna a mere feeble copy of Coiistan tine}— if unopposed 
by any strong party, not able to count beforehand on the 
vann support of any ; but although little regarded by the 
I public, tlic qiuditics for empire which lie proved su)Moc)ueiit1y 
Ito pcHwen must have been npptiri^nt tu at Iciist three pcr«>n3— 
to his brother the Emperor Alexander, who se<^retly (by an atii- 
bigiious stretch of prerogative) desijraatod liim as his Bucccssor, 
to the excUiaioii of Constantinc ; to his mother Maria- Fcodo- 
rowna, who strongly approved of this disposition ; and to the ex- 
ctodcd penson himself. Some sparks of latent ezoiism must have 
been drawn forth tiy the rough wit of Constantinc, even through 
t^ placid non-conducting exterior of Nicholas, to have pro- 
Kiked the fullowini; eomtc drama, the reality of wliich rCHt-n on the 
authority of the tiraiid-Duke Michael atid of Nicholas himself. 
The eourt mcmoriali»t tells the story thus : " After sutterinfi from 
a Wvere illness, the Grand-Duke Michael Paulovitch wa* advised 
t" drink the waters of Carlsbad and Maricnbnd during the sum- 
mer montlw of 1821. On his return to Russia, he visited Wantaw, 
*heooti«tant residence of theCesarcvitch. At that city, and at the 
*^o»c lime, was expected the (irand-Duke Nicliola?i I'aulovitcb, 
W"*!* his grand- duchess, then rctuniinK from the baths of lims. 
■Coring the pre]>arations which were beiii}; made for the latter 
PjfBonages, the Ccsarcvitch one day said to his brother, ' You soc, 
"ichrl'— so he was in the habit of codling him — ' with you wc 
'''*ke our>elroa quite at home, without ceremony ; but when I 
**pect my brother Ntcholaa, 1 always feel as if 1 were preparing 

^'?, <nect tlie IJmperor himself!' " - Aeconlingly, on the arrival of 
"'chpUs at Warsaw, " the ('eaarcvitch received this new guest 
^th his usual kindness and hoapitality, but ot\en reiluced him 
"* the greatest cmtwrrttssmcnt by signs of honour and ceremonial 
'^pWl which did not correipoml to his rank. The grand-duke 
''led every expedient to etca|>c from the«e tentimonies of dcfor- 
I **c^ aad begged to be relieved from a dc^eo of respect which 



somctimea almost took the fonn of extravagance and caricatnrc ; 
but the elder brother pxcuscd himself hv sayinpjestiDglT, 'This 
is nil bcciiuse you arc Tsar of Mirlikii,' — the towu of which St. 
Nioholiw wna bii'hop, — "n itort of nickname which he from th«t 
time forward l)cgiin to employ tVeqiienllv in »peakiitg of NtdioUs 
Paulnviteh." 

The mention of this enrions seenc at Warsaw, as told in the 
recently published oflieial nsrratiTe, leads »h to eoniidcr the com- 
plex eirfum«tnn(wt nttending the rrnuiieijition of Cons (lui tine, and 
the promotion of the "Tuar of Mirlikii" toa greater etarate. The 
facts themKclveK are not very clear or eoiisiateiit in thi« onMunVrf 
account, and the inferences to be drawn therefrom arc still more 
doubtful. It is asserted, that as long ago as this visit of Michsri 
to Wnrsnw, the Ccsareriteh had resolved to waite bi4l-ight ; niicl 
that this rcwjlution was then communientcd by him er)iirid<.-niiiilly 
to hiw youngest brother. In Janiuiry 1822 foUowiiig, the art it- 
self is a.iserted to have taken place, so far as Constantiue bimj«lf 
was concerned ; though the formal document embodying and con- 
firming it was not drawn up by the Kmperor ^Vlcxandcr till tatot 
time nllerwards, Nicholas bimxelf is said to have received, to- 
gether with his wife, an intimntion fnmi the Kniiteror of the 
honour in store for him ; but no formal eo in muni cat ion on the 
subject. On the point of the exact extent of the knowlcd^ rf 
Nicholas at the death of Alexander, there is a contradiction be- 
tween the statements of the memorialist and the written dcclar- 
ution of the former prince himself in the procH-vcrbal of the 
meeting of the senate in which the question who w«« sctiullj' 
empcmr was fully diacussed. Howen-r this may be, it wns under- 
stood that there was some difficulty in deterroining whether the 
will of Peter the Great, fixing definitely the rule of succesnoo, 
could be overridden by a disposition of the reigtiiup sovereign, if 
founded ou a mere comraunicAtiou of the wish of the person rc- 
nouneiTig. The long delay on the jmrt of AU^x«ndc^, the sccpnt 
observed by him in the matter, and the hap-hai^ard maimer in. 
which the eircumstancea of the hour were eventually left lo wort 
out for themselves the destiny of Uussia, if not to be explained, 
by this k^l doubt, have received as yet no satisfactory com- 
mentary. The reiwons for this step — setting aside the decent 
plea of inferior abilities — were understood to be the Polish mar- 
riage of Constaiitine, and the superior guaranteea in the happy 
marriage and large family of Nicholas for an uninterrupted sue- 
fxasion. Theeceentrie character ofConstantine, and the remcm— • 
branceof the reifcn and fate ofPaul, no dunbt weighed considerably 
with Alexander and his advisers. How fur Constantine really 
entered cordially into the idea of abdication will perliaps ne^cr be 
ascertained ; nor, indeed, is it likely that his feelings on the poinC 



J 



Tie Czar Nicholas. 



159 






I 



irere TCry definite or coimtnnt. Thore was no proportion in his 
irbhes and llieir eratiRmtioit. He would uilliiig;t_v atjatidon tliv 
greater object under the imi)ul»e of the present K^atification of 
"iclcas; and ho was quite as likely to have sacrificed a throne to 
affection for his beautiful Polish wife, as to kavL' shrunk ^m 
encountering the risks and labours of kg great a |>o«itiou. Hvpro- 
twbly wiuihi not have n^mnint-d very obntinate in liis refnsal, had 
events tbcm»elrea called hirn to it without emharnuoinient or dif- 
ficolty on bill own ndc, and waM willing; enough that the T#ar of 
Mirlikii should prove his capacity for govcmment by taking upon 
his own shoulders the dangers and responsibility of the first atop 
of assumption ; but he haid become estranged from Russia by 
Umg absence and dttferent tieN, and bo was piThu]» nut too am- 
bitioibi of entering on the task of regi-iit^ rating; Kuhhih, of the 
extent and difficulty of which he mast have long had ocular 
paoof. 

When the time, however, arrived that his resolution was to 
be pat to the test, circumstnncos scorned determined to play into 
his bantU notwilhrtnnding hiti owit inioueiancfi. Tlie Eni^wror 
Alexander, we have naiil, was no threat favourite in tiie array. 
£sseatiaUy a man of the closet, he could not vie with his bro- 
thers Constantinc and Michael in the aficctions of the soldiery. 
AVhatcTcr may have been its exact causes or objects, it is certain 
that at the time of the death of jVlcxandcr, a dangerous and 
widdy-spruul mihtsry revolt was on the point of explosion La the 
NQth of RitNsia. Ultimately this movement took the form of a 
ilemonatjstiou iu favour of » constitution ; but whether tliul wm 
its primary and simple object we cannot, iu the silence of the 
conspirators, and with only the ex-parle statements of the govcra- 
Ueut, pretend to dctermmc. It was even said to hare been di- 
rected against the life of the Emperor Alexander. WHiethcr this 
military conspiracy was connected with, and identical in its direc- 
tion witli, Ute plauH of the necret ftucietieK, which included men of 
tht; biglieiit character and ability aa well aa rank, is al9K> a moot- 
point. M. 'Fourgueiicff, himself one of the principal members of 
'hew clubs, and during the whole reign of Nicholas a proscribed 
exile through |>srticipiitiun in their alleged seditious intentions, 
otMiKs idtogether tlie connection of the two movements ; aiui his 
J*<aU by the present Emperor seems to lend credit to tlie denial, 
»li^ both, however, virtually cooperated to render l]>e position 
** Nicholas a very precarious one at the death of his brother. 
Mid to give to ('onstautinc a chanw, if be chose to avail him- 
'elfof it, of withdrawing from his abdication. The conduct of 
^Miolas when made detiiiitely ^l:^]uainted with the dUjiosition 
'^Alexander iu bis favour, dc[KtKited in the cathedral at Aioscow 
Vkl the senate-bouse at St. Pelenburg, was unexceptionable, 



160 



Tfte Csur Nicholas. 



80 far «B the simple rules of private boiiour were concerned. 
Whether in n broudor and patriotic (Ciuc it did sot exhibit a 
dniin: to shield birnticlf bcbmd the pcrsoual action orConstan- 
tinc at the expeiiite of public order, and with the cliaoou (which 
was unluckily reuliied) uf exgtoKin); tlic commoti Muldiers to the 
dflmonJising (-trect.t of a injulitieiitiou, i» jierbap a fair qucvtioa 
for tlie casuist, ('oimiaiitine, however, declined to take upon 
himaclf the i)art nnsifrned by bia brother in cither alternative. 
lie persisted in nriting from Warsaw to oontirnt his rcnunm- 
tiou ; liv ])ersistcd in refusing to come to St. Fetenburg to lend 
thix abdimtion tbewcif^bt ofbix pt-ntoual attestation to its volnn- 
tury cliaraoter. Michot^l coiitrit-ed to be sent on a miwiion be- 
tween the two brothers, and remained half-way between the two 
capitals, waiting to sec what couwe events would take, and which 
brother would prevail in the cross ^nme of pcrsoual disintcrestcd- 
iiGU and prudent sellishness. At liist Kidioliis had to take the 
step himself, and by liim»c]f ; and now nil iiceonnt^ aigree io 
admirutiun of liis firm, dignified, and aelf-|»0)we«M.'d denicaiioar, 
'Whether he iictually pONxenned inueh physical couri^.iA a disputed 
point between liis detractors and his friends. Ikforal coun^ 
however, he certainly possessed to an citcut quite sufficient tu 
compensate for and cover any want of the less noble qiubty. 
Uc proceeded enluily to take mcaiiire)' for pidjUc order ; ami so 
tkc as these could be looked to by himself, they were effectiit 
The commandant of tbc city, however, was ovcr-confideot of 
trnntpiiUity. The military conKpimtont, half iMttmyed already, 
thou|;ht it their wisest plan to seize the o]>|>ortunitr which events 
hud made for them, and to raise the standard of a legitimate and 
reformiuK cry for "Conataniine and the constitution." The 
troops, already sworn to Coiistantine as their czar, wawred ; aitfl 
many of them, refusing the new oath to Nichola", i>cu!cd tl«-ii* 
arms and flocked to the great square iii front of tlie woate-' 
houKC. Thither came the principal con«piimtor», bringing rein- 
forcements a« fast as they could collect theni ; and tbitlter wtti»- 
a rapid levy of faithful soldiers Nicholas himself |jroeceded, and^ 
face to face with the insurgents, watched the prof^'css of ncgotia— - 
tioDB with them, and the arrival of fresh troops to his own stand-"' 
ard. Michael now appeared on the scene, and at length tool^- 
his side openly with Nicholas. The residt is well known. Sor^ — 
rounded by the trooiw of Nicholas, the insurgent* repelled al^ 
attacks wiUi Iohs ; until the artillery— firxt directed, it is said (Ib^ 
lack of another hutiative},by the hand of Michael himself— svopC 
through their ranks a storm of death before which they snc- 
cumbcd, and Nicholas became master of Russia in fact as well 
as name. 

The troubled days of Di-ccmbcr 1826 had come to an cud. 



T/k Csar Nichoiaa. 



161 



and tlie new Emperor inaugurated his rciga by a strict i-xamiua- 
tion into tliK vicwM and couduct of thv cnptiirtd iii*urtn'Ut», if 
sucli, under the circumsloitoeii of %\w cawc, they could proiMTly 
be calk'd. Juatice or vcnjce&iicie did itit work ou luaiiy of tbein 
•^that is to say, ttey were either shot or sent off to S|ieiid an 
iudi^fiuitc portion, if not the remainder, of their lives in the dis- 
nul diiiuitv of Siberia. The new Csiar nhoMcd much personal 
iuteresi in the examiij«tioii» ; hut ii totid tlisrt^iird to the M^uti- 
mental, ainrl from [Kiliticul, cunniilcrationa mhicb hud distin- 
guished hi!t brother Alexander. I'eriiapn thia waa as well in the 
end, although the immediate consequences were haith and un- 
pleMDg. The mixture of vs^e and feeble sentimcut&lity with 
tbe caprine* of despotism is a doubtful improvement upon the 
eoW formality of avowed polititad expediency. From liie first it 
became apparent that NieholaH wa» a man wlio, without Wing 
natnrally cruel, was devoid of those impulses of fi*Iing, either one 
way or the other, by which the character of bin brother Constan- 
tino had iiwii niiscd to heroism or depressed to brutidity, mid by 
wliich ill a milder wnd mure intellectunl faxhion the niixccjitible 
heart and brain of Alexander had been affected. Kindness wa» 
iwt alien to bis dispodition, and in his own family he gave little 
nason for reproach in that respect. Towards those firicnds wbtHn 
Iw rcwpccted he displayetl lasting and firm attachments. But he 
had little respect (intellectually) for weakness or folly of any kind, 
ItMt of all for that which subordinated the siteminf; necessities of 
State jMliey to the romiiutte and generous iuipuUt^ of the iiidi- 
liduaL Thia hard east of minil — or rather this too well guarded 
Kntibtlity — coloured even his more trilling actioofi, and gave an 
*ppcai«acc of want of delicacy to what would otherwise in them* 
»e]»«* hare been unexceptionable proceedings enough. When 
to thin pecidiur churneter was added tlie known posaeMiion of ab- 
^Inte power, no wonder tliat ptensant je»t« became formidiible 
matters to thoae who had the honour, or misery, of being their 
'Objects. A story ia told in one or two works which cxhibite 
the peculiar sardonic humour of Uie Czar in »o curious a light 
*ith reference to this point, and so broadly dirttuguishes it &um 
'•*«5 pleaMuittT of a miui of mon- genial temperament, that we 
"^Aj perhaps hazard the imputntioti of telling again a thrice-told 
^^lc,aiid repeat it. A certain JakovleH', one of the wealthiest 
^fn in Russia, and proprietor of one of the most productive 
von-works, was suppoeca to have presumed on his neidth, and 
''Kmn too independent a spirit by evading the loud of houount and 
''ffioa which a man in his position was cx[>ected to seek. Among 
Mher alights consequent therefrom, he was refuncd permission 
to travel ; and for consolation, in<hilged himself on tlie Ncwsky 
b FMde at Si Petersburg in the most uutri foreign coetume which 



162 



7»c Ciar tilthiiUu. 



Iii« fnnoT coiil<l tIcvUc. On his licad was • liulc peaked hkX, 
respiiililing a flimiT-pnt TVKcrns\ : ■ hamHirtt'liiitf with a gigantic 
hoir w&H tin) roiiiii) Iiik ixH'k ; a doak mluced to the dimeunonf 
of a cape iras ibrown over his shoulders ; aud on his chin he wore 
a Ixtinl d la Henri Quati'e. An CDonuous oaken cudj^l in his 
hand, a glass sttick iu the corucr of his c}^, aud a bull-do^ tbl- 
loving at his hi^da, made a iotil mtetnhle fit, one wonld siippow^ 
"to set before a king." AikI mi it did Wfall M. Jakmlrirtfaatj 
while sannterinft alon^, he encountered tlie Kni]joror'B cjirri^e. 
The equi|)age was abruptiv Mopped; the Kiuperor him&clDeaiied 
forirard, and boekoning tlic exquisite to approach him, " PraT," 
said Nicholas, c}-eiiig hint with aJTcvtcd cunosi^, " who in God's 
itnnte aru you, and where do yo»i oome from?" "May it plcace 
Tonr majest/, I have the honour to \x your majcMty's faithful 
Bubjcct, Save Saveitch JakoTlctT," " Indeed," re|>liefl the Km- 
pcror, "we are enehantc<l to have the opportunity of niakiaf 
your acfiuaintancr, Sa\-i: Siiveitch. Oblige us hy just stepfHl^ 
up and takiug a scat beside us." JukovlcIT »lily let drop fail 
cudgi-t, and with mMne mis^nng* took bin »<uit. " But stopi" 
said the Kmjieror, wlicn they had driven on a httle way, " whm 
ja your stick. Save Saveitch V" " O, n«-er mind the stick, your 
majesty." " O, wc must have your stick. Save Saveitch. Tun 
back," he said to the coachman. The stick picked up, Iher 
drove on straight to tlic palace. Nicholas alighted, and beekoncn 
to Jnkovk'ff to follow him. "Ono, Save Saveitch, don't take of 
yonr cloak ; we must have yon jiwt as yon are— hat, and stick, 
and cloak, and all." The Emperor led the way straight to tbc 
apartment of the Kmprcsa. " Pray, my dear," he inquiitd o( 
her, "do vou know who this is?" " No," replied the Eaipre«i 
bursting into a fit of laughter. " Then allow mc to inforro you 
that tlii* is our faitliful isubjcct, Save Saveitcli Jakovlcff. Wlai 
do you think of him? Is he not a pretty fellow?" The nntdr- 
tnnate ex<]ui!tite, after ftiniiahiiig food for some minutes' mrrri- 
ment, was dismissed, half-dead with terror and eDDfu&ion. Its* 
before he dc|)artcd, be was admonished that the Empertv did 
not always pnoisli tlni foolcrj- of bis subjects so leniently. Tlf 
man went Imme, took to bin V-d, and fell very dangerotid; iU- 
Wlicther the story be circuuistantially true or not, there >* 
little doubt that it reproduces accurately the teniperaisait <■ 
the Czar. 

In one direction, the Cmr's want of sj'mpatLy for the wpK 
romantic and delicate considerations which other princes li*** 
admitted into tlicir gravest counsel*, had an tinfortunate rf"**- 
Poland hail, in the ejcs of Enroj>e generally, claims of a pecahu 
character to eontiideration, ai>art from mere politiral projects- 
The traditional heroism of the P(^s in past days, and the ikli- 






nt C:ar Nieho!a$. 



IGS 



Tfimnut (*f WcKtcrn Europe from tlie Ottoniiin nrm* «r«>ught W 
tlicir );rr>»t kiii^ Ix-t'unr l)iv vi\\U of VUima, hiiil iin I'sUtl that 
oountry «itli a rDinantlc iiitiTirxt, wluch bad mitifcated to some 
i7Xi£iit her uiitiappv lot in Inter times. Frederick of I'russm irns, 
intln'H, not u man to entertain such fcc)inp[^ ; but CTen tliv culd- 
Itlmxiftl Afiriu 'ilii-ix.-fiii had admitted them in ht-r conwiciioc, 
thoiiitli ah(! Iiiul not ririnncm to net upon it» dictiiti-s. Aleituidcr 
of lliii^ia luiil HiiiiiHi^l liiniHi-lf, c-dilicd the liberal parly iii Ku- 
rojii', and raided the lifiiM^ of the Pole* themselves, with ideas of 
a X\-\ ived niitionajity npnrt from liii&sia, and a perfect mtitulioD 
(if I'nlinh lil)crty itnd indcpcndetiec. That he at otie time itert- 
oiuly riitfrlnitiL-d thi> prujiict, Keoms ccrtaiu ; and be went »o 
Tar m tu include the older ]>rovin«» of Poland in hiH paper ^ne- 
roaitr. Btit the lil>eral outlxintM in Southern Europe ahirmed 
liiro into the extrtniicsl nh-tnliitifita; and with his eutrauec into 
l)u' llnly Allinoee, disappeared his dreanis about Poland. Not 
so vith the Poles themselves. The national a.«pira(iuiu thus 
awnkoiied went on growin)r in sln^iiglh, until at length they im- 
jiarted some deforce of tiir)»de.noe to tlic umall amount of free- 
dom still left iu that eountrj', and rouaed the jealous polioc-fcan 
of Cunstantine. I'hi* tmgrateful people, for whom he had diHie 
aitd Haeriliced so much, seemed to be only desirous of ccttin^ 
rid iif his fatherly sun-cillanCQ. Disti-ust provoked tyranny, and 
tyranny with Connlantine wns another name for ever)' excess of 
brutality ; until at length, gi>iidi.t) to iniKlnc», the studi'iitit aiul 
army rose, w«Te joined by the middle and upper dwctt, and 
hia congi vas quietly ^veii to the Cesareviteh. It ia not ncoea- 
nnry lu n-caU the stniftgle which ensued. Onoc reconquered, 
I^irbolnii was not the man to allow more romantic rccolk-elions 
oftlie (MtKt lo weigh ngninKt pix»cnt sins and future Mceurity. 
Sternly, and with mhUldootk-d cruelty, the n-mainH of the insur- 
reetiun were slainiied out, and tho luitbrtunaU* |>articipat4)r^ in 
it either subjected to the panx dura of Siberia, or scattered 
Qirr the faee of Western Kuropc — noble petitioners for justice 
lu;f(>re every European nation, and dependents on tlicir own tn- 
duvtry or tlu' unpleasingly ovtcutattous charily ofolhem. Wbal- 
ever their faults may have Wen, and however deiidenl their 
national eharaeter may be in the elementH of stability and order, 
the returns of our criminal courts at least oiler a noble testimony 
to the unolfendin); lives which they have led in their adopted 
countriea ; aiul if the interest once professed, if not felt, in their 
cauBe has •omewhat al>nted with tlic maM, it will not hate lart 
/nnr thint; with those who arc cspahlo of estimating; broader po- 
tlitiral CunHderationa, or who do not think the less of noble and 
' I'udunuicc wlien not paraded as a merit before public 
<^H, and celebrated in Uuddhall cbaritable festiviUe* by 



IM 



The C:ar Mcholeg. 



atr magnates. Upon tbe character of Nicholas the fate of Po- 
laiiil fixvd n Htaiii in tliu cye« of free Europe which has ncvO' 
beeu coiiipleti-ly cffiicM;!! ; anil tictir, pvrliapn, tras hi& c&lcolatiif 
policy less wine in its gc^ueraliofi thtm in this iostanoe. Ilcgan^ 
what be should have been moat on bis Ruard against giring, u 
alarm to WL-stcm Europe as to the poasibk fotc of the oountriet 
bonleriug on Russia ) and he brought before them in stioag 
coloiiM tlie aiitooriitic tyranny cougcuial to, and only cxplsitxd 
by, Russian society. 

Tlie same uu^rioking resolution, however, which opcratd 
BO unplcasinglv iu this (juctrter, uppeartxl to great ndvanta^ in 
otlier crises. Upon the heels of tlie Polish war cvne the chokn 
— not merely destroying i» its direct agcnete«, but denwnhin^ 
tlie minds of the jKipulntion, and rou»in)i; their ignorant fean 
into the moat fanatical excesses. The mysterious disease ■« 
attributed to poiaon, distriiiuled by Poles, foreieners, or the •«■ 
thorities themselves, through the apency of tlu" meiiical pFDiH*' 
sioii. Throughout Russia, but at St, Pctcr»btirg espedailT, »s 
indiserimimitc miuwatrre of all eonnect«d with the medical pro- 
fession took place ; tlicy were hurled out of windows, their hitk 
carried on pikes, and their bodies torn to shrcdjs. The poBw 
Bought safety iu eunccolment; and the mob proceeded from oM 
extravagance to another, till llie ICniiieror n>de out aloiic iaw 
the miihtt of the inf'uriatetl ranks of the »oldiery (who had ban 
affected by the general nimliiess}, addresised the holers in tte 
•ternejit tones of hia sonoroun voice, and commanded tliem tB 
kneel in tlic dust, and endeavour to propitiate the wrath of Ar 
Almighty, who had sent this Tisitation for their sins, and not i^ 
crease His anger by their lawless conduct. The crowd, awedl^ 
lus imposing and nmjestic manner, kneeled down as one mBii.fc^ 
lowed him in the prtiyer which he oflered up, and, quite humbw 
by hia sulwequent repriniaifcd, returned to order and obwliew*- 

The indignation of Western iiuropc at his treatment oS V> 
land may have had some efTcet in turning the thwights of ^l' 
chnln.'* more espet^iully to the development of the natiooal,** 
npjiosed to the exotic, European element in hia empire. Birti* 
ifl certain that he had already entered on this task ; and thi* 
from the beginning of his rcign he hatl committed faiiDwlf "^ 
the wine, though to oljservcrs perplesing, plan of working out* 
RuNMBn niitiijnid policj' through the medium of Ocrmon adTiifl*- 
The lawn of Hu.-<sia were, at his oocesrion, in » moat confijscd sw 
helercigcneous Hlate, and eodilieation of some sort aecmed nO' 
peratively called for. Alexander, who had perceived this nctw* 
sity, bad thrown the laboiu' on various commissions, which, wit''* 
out single directing energy, au<l composed of men dettituteffl 
independent energies, lingered ou without resulting in any Ic^ 



J 



Tie Csar Nkhtdtu. 



16S 




live production. Tlte GommiKsioncn had vacillated bctvcri) 
[digest of csiating Uwh and iisug(-«, and u new philusupliinj 
stem of te{i^t»tiiiH, Between tliette there was a wider dixfi- 
dcnce in this country tbMi elsewhere oa the oouliiinit of Kuropc ; 
for Russia, to use the words of a Russian, " had received no part 
of the Roman inheritance" of jurisprudence. "We have been 
obliged," he contiaue*, " to derive our whole legisUtiun from 
national iwurces — from our cu»tom», iraditionii, mid cxpe- 
. CinI lawK, criminal laws, law^of admiiiiHtratiouand in- 
police— every thing had to be erected and coustructed 
_ r, and witli our own materials." Nicholas, guided by hia 
toun.-fldlor S[x'niiiski, did not be*ilate for a moinent between the 
task of thin recunitt ruction from existing inaterinlK wiil u new 

Ke, but dce»le<l for the former, and thu» put himself in liar- 
ay with the real UHagea of liuHsia. lie ga,ve orders for tlie 
immediate completion of a preliminary cotiection of the existing 
■a. Many of these were no doubt eiotic in their ehariicter; 
•ome prutenvd the uiitional i>pirit, and all h;ul giiitied the 
of ^me and euxtom. The ]iriiitiiig of tliia collection 
--^--. on the 1st of May 182S, and was tinidhed (in its first stage) 
b the Ut of April 1830. Uesidca the titles of the code of 1G49, 
Bwas cumpoM.'d of 35,1)1}3 acts, of which 30,U^ were anterior to 
mft aocvssion of NicboUa, whilst no less than 5073 belonged to 
%e teven years from ltt26 to 18:12, the date of it^i publication, 
^li* first lalmur RntHhed, there eniiut^d a second, that of eo- 
(mliitation, which wa» performed with Kunilar <lili^euce. Tlicy 
wee directed to restore with all Speed the primitive tcit, even 
*t the cxDcnM; of eonciscnc:>« ; to curtad the preambles of every 
oklie and act wliiitcixir ; to expunge all the ucb powlively uhro- 
pted by subsequent enactment*; to avoid tautology ; to arrange 
■U Hid laws in tbrce, in order of subjeet-niatter, methodically, and 
>* >« to fbno several codes ; to give separately such as govern 
tvtaia provinces, to the cxclueiou of others, and thus to form 
Mes of a loc«l application apart ; and, la*tly, to submit evety 
. ^ of the wofIl to the rt^visiou of conijieient authoritiei'. ^iirfa 
*H the ooncordauce of the lawtt, called lu RuMtiaii " Svod" which 
uKpniua of Nicholas conceived, and Ids energy alouc carried to 
* nioccsaful and steady comjiletion. As early as February V^, 
'^, nil im|>erijd manifesto solemnly announced that the work 
*» ouupleted. It did not make the Svod immediately uhligx- 
^i hut it prescribed that it should eome into force on the 
l«t uf January 1835. lint the work of legislation did not end 
'ot. Promion was to be made for the codification of future 
lifiitativc acts ; and for this purpose a series of annual lahount 
*M appointed, to bring the neir laws into the itame system of 
<nJeraud uniformity. 



166 



The Csar Xkhola$. 



If the existence of a eystem of positive Uvs could 1>e in it«tf 
k suflicictit protection to tho citin-ti, here Kmiiretll}' w« migbt 
liare rtpct;!^*! to fiml it. Nor w<;re, on the whole, the injunc- 
tiontt of the C/nr hiitt.ielf to hiH judges nnd adinini.itrators Ipm iu 
accordance with a jiisi regard to {ii-ivate rights. But, unronn- 
natcly, the command'^ of an autocrat are least olicywl wherr ihcy 
wotdd tx; attended with most liciiclit to n third party ; itor can 
the most unxioiiM introxpcction of the eye of an imperial master 
aecureany thhiglike themme xuluititiitiiil realisation of tiieble»- 
iiigs he seeks to bestow on hia people, that ia attained by th* 
aubttc working, throuKh continuous years, of the spirit of free ia- 
Btitiitioi!" among a sclf-ftoverning community. We hare alreidr 
alltideil to the fulse siirf:u:c of refinement which hail Iweuspww 
over Mu.ieovite i)urljiiri«m. Nurtiin-d hy this, and increased b* 
the perpetual pressure of imperial authority, oorrupcion had siiak 
too deeply into the very crain ofotHcia] minds to be cradicaUnll^ 
an imperial ukase to deal justly between man and man, in niiaplc 
accordance with the new Srod. Quh ctutodM ipnnt ciuiodrt' 
The Emjicror might romninnd and threaten, and, when be biwi 
the mean.-( of di.-'etiverinj; the culprit, i#verelv puuiih ; but hu" 
futile and how few woulil these conriclions bo, in the liwc of* 
community of adminifitraturs bound together br the sure tie of 
commou profits in rop^ery ! A story in one of the volomes tie- 
fore us will illustrate the working of this system : A pooc nobl^ 
man had l)ccu carrjitig on u lawsuit for several years, whea lie 
received an intimation frunv the secretary of the tribunal, tbit 
unless he paid over 10,000 roubles (150/.) to the prcrident, ib* 
case would be decided a^inst him. Tbo unfortunate littgiDti 
who eoidd not raise as many pence, bethought him of n)i{iJTiu$ 
to Count Benkcndorff, the chief of the secrvt-scrvice, who Iw 
had been led to heliet'C was jtersonally ansioua to make an o- 
amptc of some of the delinijuents, and who was one ofthcfijuT 
or five men holding office in the empire who were deemed inrof* 
nipliblc by tliu common rumour. The jiarty referred to ofc™ 
the Count to f'urniKh bim with an unquestionable proof of '''^ 
venality of the president of llie court of apiKiil ; nnd for il** 
purpose, proposed that he should be intrusted with the amonul 
of the bribe demanded in notes privately marked. He tmdirtwk 
that the.itr luittw should be found on the president's person. V^ 
(^ount consented. Since the good ohl times of jVlesandcr I., tl"^ 
oBicials never make their bargains, or receive any money, befcff* 
third party. Their dread of the anger of Nicholas ever oocaooiK^ 
them to resort to many precautions formerly not dreamed rf» 
and in this instance thw president declined receiving tbemon^ 
in his hou.te, but pro[iosed that the litt^rnrit shoidd invite hio "*■ 
dinner at a tavern which he indicated, and there payo«»^l 



TAe Czar Nichola$. 



167 



Binoimt to him. The proposition wan sr^i^ded la j and his ho«t 
caoocd an officer oi gendamterie to be stationed in an ac^jaoent 
do«H. The president made liis appearance; he sigiiific'd by 
th« nctioQ of his fiDi;ei-s that iheir peeuiiian- traiisaetioa had 
better pnt-wlv the gaxtroDoiiiic cntciiaiomfut i tlic ho^l oceord- 
ingly haiiddd him ii Hinnll roll uf hiLtilt-notoit; the prt^-iident 
counted tlicni over in a vt^ry liiiKiiies-t-Uke nay, and tossed them 
into bis hat. As thia was not yet quite satisfactory, in the hope 
that his guest vould finally transfer ihc money to his person, his 
Amphitryon deferred gi\ing the signal fur thi; nppcaruucu of the 
flec>^]>olice agent, iu»l they siit down to dintn-r. At. thi# mo- 
ment M>nie one kiioekod ; it vow the president 'n nephew, come 
to him with some trifling nieasajje from his lady. The judge gave 
him a brief answer, and bowed him out. At the coucliiston of 
their dinner, he was preparing to depart; he hiid pulled on 
his over-coat, and put his hat on his head, when, on the preeoii- 
certed .nignal, the oIlletT oi gtndarmerle ruxhed into t)ie apartment 
vith au order from the (^uiit llenlieudorfi' to scai'eb his ]>erson. 
" Do not give yourself the trouble to search him," said the cx- 
dtcd nobleman, "you will find the hank-notes in bis bat." The 
peaideut smilt^ blandly, aud took hi* hat oiTut oiilv; it wax 
empty : when his nephew went outj he hud taken up hix unde'H 
hat instead of his owa TIic judg« thus not only avoided the 
trap laid for hini, but neenred the buit ; and doubly punished the 
informer, — firstly, by (h-cidiug the ca-Hc avaiimt him ; aud aeeondly, 
because, not liaving suliataaliatcd bis charge, he was obliged to 
Tcfutid the 10,OIX) roubles advanced by the police. Can any ouc 
doubt, says the writer wijo supplit^s the aiieedote, that this worthy 
minister of pubUe justice hiwl ix-eeived a private hint from Count 
Bcnkeodorfl''!! offioc? In any ease, what a state of things must 
We existed, when such a story could bo currently told, ajid gene- 
nH; accepted as true ! 

Some of the blame of interference witti the U^gitimate eunso- 
Wnces of his own legislative eifurtti niiL-tt hit >harijd hy the Cxar 
Miclu^ himself with his corrupt oflicialn. In calling into ex- 
■ttace a fixed rule of justice, the Kmpcror had given new au- 
tiority to a power inconsistent with pure autocracy. Nicholas, 
■>«nL-r, was not vcrj- much troubled at this; and leaving the 
pacial operation of justice to be guided by law, never scrupled 
"VBKlf to interpose hin nwn will, in utter defiance of taw, wheii- 
*• it raited his purposes or wishes. He might have i-emem- 
'''nd, and prubuhly did remember, that such an evil examjile in 
"* hi^icst quarter would not be lust on the lower gT7kde» of 
"■dwrittca ; but he was eonscioiis that tliis wnst one of live limi- 
'"'wiut which the preservation of his deniiotic authority imposed 
tti iiis better plans for the welfare of lii» country, 'ilic same was 



108 



TSe Czar Xtcholat. 



the case elscwlicTc; — in tbo militsiy and commissariat departments 
of tliv State he was eotiecioiLS of the gorcmment beiiif; gtoatlj 
johl)^ and chrntcd, b\it found it necctsuy to iriak at & lar|{« 
Bunouut of peciiliitiaii aitd <iect;]>tioii, rather than hiuani an cnlira 
refbnii whicli miifht rntail ii[)oii liiin the diniiimtinn of his ]Kr- 
sonal authority by the inter|K>»itioii of othf^r tribunaU of acronnt. 
Alexander, more amiable, hat less sa|^cious, played with libcnl 
ideii:<, and tampered with the fltnietune of ocspotism, witbont 
ha> ing tbe courage to remove it eiibrely, aiid evoke a new orga- 
niflatiau from the riHiiig spirit of the nation. Nidiola* saw dearly 
how much ^ood he eould et!'eet nitUout injuir to his autooaqr; 
and was not ovfrjiowcrcd with anxious regret because he also saw 
tlie great imi>erfi.'ctioii» which he must ncecassarily allow to re- 
main. In considering the itienxui-cK whieh he initiated or earrird 
out, tliOHe facts tibould be remenib<fred, or we may faU inlolbe 
mintftke of considering him much less far>si)!;hted and well-inU*- 
tioued than he really was. He endeavoured to the utmost of hii 
physical and mental powers to supply the want of other su|)c^ 
vision over the iuiminirtratiiin of the empire; and by laptd and 
»<uddcn journeys from iK>iiit to point, tried to ini)>art a mauBtt 
that uljic|uity in the censorship over abuses which it is tlie bosl 
of popidar systems of gorvriiment to be able to suppty. 

It is {^:nerally allowed that the system and poUey of Kkhc^ 
were much more Muscovite than that of any of his predecc^on. 
Thin miwt l>c understood alwavK, however, with refen-ucc to tit 
doubU objeet whicti I'etcr the Oreal had iu view, and which bit 
succes»ora still try to carry out, of civihsing Kiuaia Mxncwbsl 
after the standard of Western Europe, and of giving her a EO" 
rojx^'an territorial and moral preponderance. The leading Hm 
of Sclavism — the pntriarehal authority — had been already iutJth 
diiced by the Csurs into tht* modern nVKteni of p>vemment. lO 
rival, the ecclesiastical authority, had been effectually crushed by 
Peter, and has since become a pliant tool in the promulgatio 
among the ])eople of the Sclavuuic notion of the sacTod ckincta 
uttitehiug to tlie |jer»on of the great fatlier of the State. The 
nobility, originally mihtury chiefs, had pamed into the «tBp <^ 
l>roprietora of land — not landed proprietoKi in our r-um oifdc 
term— ciw residents either at Moscow or St. Peter^buigi ^ 
pendent for their revenue on land in the country, but not ««' 
dent on their estates, and having no territorial luiinence in tli''' 
neighbourhood)! cx)rrt-»jKiniiiug to tliat of an English landed ^' 
tlemaii. 'llieir laiidv are cultivuted by the meuberx of the coP' 
muncs, their serfs, whoMC allegiance easily naaam from one pi** 
{iriclor of the soil and of themselves to another, without anyftv' 
iug of attachment or fealty to their landlord's family.* Mai^ '^ 
* It It uiJ, biywHvor, tlinl achs.'ngv Is beginning lo take pUca in Ifcr hild>*' 



?5e Csar Michoiaf. 



icg 



' the nobility have become tlie heatlft of maiiufactorie* in the cities, 
and in tliat capacity bmi-e gathered around tfaem bodies of work- 
men, often their own aarfs ; for the spirit of agBTeKBtiou hold* 
good ta well in the citj iw in the country, and a Itus^ian citizen 
of the upper middte-eliutN, in our iiense of the term, ha* been 
hitherto found to bo an iinpofmihility. The nutive ('riviite mer- 
chant dcgeiicnteft rapidly into tJie mere liucluter. Nii^lmlaa en- 
couraged the nuuiu&ctorics, which seem more akin to the gcniua 
of the countiy ; oltlioiigh they arc still very deficient in internal 
o^:am!tation, and in giving that Kiliility and value to the articles 
manufactured which lionenty and indlviduiil pride in the work- 
man can alone liecure. He aJito fostered, by every ineans in his 
power, the aettlciacnt of foreign merchants in St, I'etersburjr, 
cither hoping lliat their spirit woul<l become in time eoutagioua, 
or wishing thert-by to bind more firmly to llussia the commercial 
intemtaof thcWcNt. He hu been accused, indeed, of iiftcrifioing 
much of the We&tcm trade to hi^ jealousy of Kiiglaiid; and iu 
the same point of view, he is said to iiave endeavoured to estabUsb 
an eastward trade, which mi-^ht iu time realise t)ie fuvourit<^' idea 
of Peter tiw (.iiwit, of a trade with India. Still there ciin be no 
doubt, that during lii» reign, and uniU-r the luispiccH of hi--' generul 
policy, the eoniineieial iuterexta of Ru!i»i:i and tlic West were 
mocli more closely intertwined, and that the tluctuatioua of the 
Mercantiie community in either were much more sensibly felt in 
the other than was wout to be the case. If projects of i-ailways 
leroaa Rumin, a(k-r the English fashion, have been somewhat fal- 
laciotw and double-iucetl iu the mure recent seheiii<.-!>, there can 
\k little doubt tliat the Czur Nicholas luul a uioi« Htircnd idea 
Abd most of hia predeoessoni as to tiie l>eat manuer iu which the 
«• and invcotiouB of the West might have become acclimated 
<a the soil of his empire. 

The position of the vcrfs throughout the empire, with the 
*iCt|ition of the BaJtic provinces, in nhich the exjiennient of 
ihttthiaement bad been already tried, could not but arrest the 
itttution of such a prince as Nicholas, and seems to have touched 
■■ (ympalhies more closely thnu moi«t questions. He even 
wopped unguarded hints at one time of an eii franc hiM-nicnt, 
*Ueb led to melanctioly con»e()ueuc«i. Vague report* spread 
Bong the Mrfa that their great father wished to enfi-aucbise 
l^"*!, nay, bad even given the orders, hut that the nobles with- 
■U ita execution. In several quarter* the pcii«aiitit Bcw to arms. 
■miacTed all of their miL'ter* whom tlii-y could wnie aei'oss, and 
l^^kcd for support and reward, iimtuail of punish incut and eocr- 
WQi from the government of tiie Ciar. Uf course they were 

IttMbilitj-in this NsnMI. snd that mtny of thcio hsrc ntablitfaed Uifmsrlv** tu 
" W i S l j , sfttt 111* i::n){iitll fstbiOD. 



170 



TAe Czar MehoUu. 



gricvoufljr disappuinti'd ; nad ofU'r tliut time the Cnr tuuutnneil 
ft prudent ri-strrc lu to his inU-iitiou!* in tht» respect. He, how- 
ever, niaih- A conKi(lenil)le ulvntioe tovanla the enfranohiaement of 
tlic serfs from aUverr to individual masters, by increasing latfeh 
the uumlwr of iitatc-pouftnts, who bad espcdal privileges, tbongh 
of cotirsv tliry ftlsu were utTcctt'd by the despotic cbanctcr of the 
8 tntV' govern tiiciit. Tbe cx>mmiiitt«tio principU^ is w strong ifl 
HtiKHia, ihiit inilividii.tl cnfraiiehiM-ineiit hecom«« a leeu easy mat- 
ter thnii el!^e^'here; and it is chiefly bv moiing the peasautsfo^ 
ward into more privileged communes that the process of a ^nntcnl 
remoral of serfdom can be satisfactorily achiei'cd. Their pcrsoDsI 
alarery to Uidr masters vspi-cially is being dcstroj'ed little hj 
little ; and one of the Ini-t aiinoimcements of the new rei^rn i^ 
tbftt serts are lo be allowed to marry vilbout tbe conaeat of Iheff 
kurda. 

We have left ourselves little space to speak adequately of tJie 
inereasc and reorgntilsatioii of the mibtory and nuval strength of 
Russia under the late Cnr, and of the fumgn policy wliiditbr 
Court uf St. Petersburg liaa pursued during the last quarter o(> 
century. So far as the mind and eye of the Emperor eoiiLd cBmI 
any thing, the army has been jircaUy improved. There has b«il 
(after the fasliioii uf military autocrats) too much stress IomI on 
the frettlom of siildier*' coats from crcnses ujion tbe iwrado- 
ground, and too little attention paid (from causes we have already 
nlluiU^l to) to the regulation uf the oommisi*anat. But on the 
whole, the experience of the last war, considering the nature rf 
the materials from which the army was drawn, cannot be.ssiil W 
derogate from the reputation of the Russian army. jVlthon^ 
they have found Ihcniselvej* unequal to tbe picked troops "> 
AVesteni ]^nn)|ie, they liave not altogetber failed in maintainijf 
the boiicuir of their country ; and the forced tna]x--he.t and it*- 
Iterate aggressive movements, both so aUen to the physical A*- 
racter ot tiic Russian soldier, by which the struggle was marWi 
prove that the energy of the Csar had succeeded in enlliog inf 
play new ijunlities in bin army. It must be remembered, tliattte 
Hua^iau army has Ix'eii suUiivided into Hcveral distinct portioivi 
and that liesides tbe army of resene, there are distinct mtvsf* 
for the frontiers of Western Euroijc, and for the soutbem jn** 
vinces of the empire. The victories of Piisltcnlch in UuDiaT 
and in Persia were gained with quite distinct dirixions of ^ 
service; and it wait not until tbe last war that any tiling tikctl>^ 
vhole of the military force of Russia was called into service t^ 
tlie aame time. The navy has made leas jirogrcss, aldiOtt^ t^* 
exploits of one or two Russian captains would seem to imply dia^ 
there also a new spirit has been called into existeuec. 

The foreign policy of Russia requires lesa careful clucidatioo 



J 



Tke Czar Nicholas. 



171 



•on the present occasion, aa it lias of late yeara jinressan!}- been 
the Buhject of much careful examination and comment. That 
Nicholas acted in the spirit of ttie fatnouti will of Peter, there con 
be liltle doubt ; hut he was not luwty or indisoritninate in bis 
plans of a^res^on. He wa-i conlent to awuil the natural nnirse 
of evcnta; and if he assisted their progresji lowardK the desired 
point where direct action l>cnamc possible on his part, be seldom 
furcihly precipitated them towards it. His most witnton and 
least excitsahle aggresnoos ou Tiykcy hud generally Kome more 
or less plnuftible pretext in the ill-reflated coundl^ of the Divan, 
or in t!ie ambijtuoua movement* of other "protecting^' powera. 
In his (Jrcck policy, he was eminently siieeessful against some of 
the cleverest of European diplomatir<t#. In the Ef^ptian affair he 
wa» lc«s fortunate, owiiij^ probtibly ratlicrto the snWcquent turn 
of event*, which displaced Ltmis Thiiippe from tlie throne of 
Prauoe, than to any other caiitce. Hia alliaiire witli England on 
that occasion was rather a preliminary step towards the medi- 
tated attack on Turkey, by cffcctiiii; a decided breach between 
the two Wc*tcrn powen. thttii a distinct policy in \Uw[t. In the 
MenKchikotT d<-:naiid.-<, which piTcipilatwl the liuit Eurojwaii con- 
test, there were vond ^round.t for hopiri)^ that no tirni alliance 
tould he formed between England and tVancc, and that Frossia 
lould he neutralised by her family alliance, and AiiBtria by the 
Rccnt service in Ilnnt;ary and the recollection of her still nnsct- 
lltd position in that country and iu Italy. It is very doubtful 
■hetJier, after all, the Czur was not right in hin conjwttire re- 
ipectiiig Ihe Western alliiince ; nor is it easy to dw-iile the (Miint 
wlitther, had bis Ufe been prolonged, and the genius which prc- 
nded over the destinies of Russia had not been removed in the 
TOt crisis of the contest, the alUauec betwu-n England and 
Fimce — nlraidy growing lukctviirm tbrongh mutnid jenloiufie*-^ 
*0ald have outlasted the siislaiix-d di-termiiiation of 1S~ ieholaa. 
Wemnat remember, in eatimiilin); the late Char's nieribt as a 
Ardgn statesman, that he bad throughout his entire Eastern 
pllicylo contend Kgain^t the excess and h&sty fervour of Musco- 
vite leal, and yet to retiiiu this enthusinitm ^^» n liltiug agent in 
In* vltimate tlesign. Looked at in this point of view, his long 
^^•ocnamand will probably seem a« rema^ahle as hiserentiial 
'•wbicss of action. Persia in a great degree provoked the con- 
te^ithich lost her some valuable provinces. The war in IIuu- 
P<^*as a politic step and a politic degradation to Austria; and, 
*■ it aeemcd, at the same time a very eonveuient nuHle of getting 
*^ sort of footing in the Sdavonic provinees along the Aus- 
•"■n portion of the l>a]mbe. The politic conduct of the Russian 
(ficen in the campaign did as much to weaken the res|>eet of 
^ pojiulatioD for their Austriiui masters as it eidianced vitti 



:r2 



Tht Czar Sichoiat. 



them Uie reiwtatkm of the northern invaders. This Unot' 
onlr iustanc« in which Nichnlu eoutriicd to iDtcrmis political 
dipionucf witli the aetua) o|>cr«tion& of war. 

The private lite of Nicliolas msT be treated of in m few 
wonU; uid then our sketch, hovcvcr inipericct, may be brought 
to a oooeliisiou. llin hantbionic pentoa and statelr demeaoonr 
have bc«ii fpoketi of. Vi'e beltere that the );cncnl i^xRt of 
writers and travellen, that these peraonal adviiDtaf^ vere not 
unattended by some of the acsisuai habits of his nice, i* not nn- 
foaudcd. There may he cxaf^nttiou iti the htorics tuhi ; but 
tlic Diet of the infidelity of Nicbola« to his mairiage^voTs fati 
been frc()uentty commented on, aud wiiDetimea palUated by the 
infirm state of liealth of the Empreas. It is agreed, hovrvcr, 
that if not a faittiful husband, theCtar was a kind one; anil tfat 
he consulted the oriiial decencies of society out of ref;Hrd lo \*t 
feeling*, ooneealing the extent, though not the bet, of his im- 
gularilies. 

Hia sona had no reason to complain of a vant ofpatcnia) 
a&etioQ ; and if State consideratioDs to some extent dinxtetl tie 
choice of his daughters' consorts, they did sot do ao in em; 
case. The imi>enul circle — so fur a» the tyranny of court rt>- 
quettc would allow — was a hapjiy one, and there were fewer san- 
dals within its precincts than in many othcre. The same ptr- 
haps cannot be said of tbe wilier circle of the court ; but it mat 
})c bomc ill mind, that the corruptions of Western Etuoyc to 
ccivud in tluH i>oiut a strengthening rather than a weakenif 
influence in the niitiiml tempcrument of the Sclave. 

An an administrator uf that race, and the races assooaM 
with tliem on the extensive noil of Kus^a, the Czar Nii'lio^ 
may, on the whole, challen^ comparison with any roiaajfl 
placed in circumstniiees of «milnr ditlicidty. It wrould be mj 
to portray him tut either a very mild or entirely just reltr. 
He has eomniittod many crimes, in a position where the bi^ 
majority of men would probably have committed many moK- 
His crimes, as well as hia errors, have been those of polity f^ 
a naturally (!oid tem])eniment. I^ oD this account, his actKoA 
strike ns oceaaionally with horror and indignation, they are do* 
incouGietcni with a lar^u amount of lit-neBoenl and disiuicml^ 
policy in other directions. His littlenesses sprang rather fc** 
the uiilowjtrd position of autocrat than from his own paiticrit^ 
ebunutter. He wua certainly a worthy successor of reicr ibo 
Oreat, and the most unccww'ful of thow who have cudeavoaK* 
to perlcct that monarch 'a ideas of empire. With the foundtf i^ 
St. Pclcrsbiirg, and with Catherine [ I., he will be hereafter looW 
Qpon ux one of the greatest, though not exactly one of the b(»(| 
m Russia's sovereigns. 




i 173 1 



r.VII.— TnE WORLD OF MIND BY ISAAC TAYLOa ' 

J'/if Woriit of Mind : an BlmetOuniBook, By I«iucT»vlor. 
Luotloii : JiickMn lUKi Wnlford, \^7. 

deMTiptU>n which Mr. Taylor gives of his own book oo it* 
;i(li>-)>iv|;ii in cx|>n;«iiv<i ratlicr of bi^ sim in iiroducing it than of 
iK-tual c)uirai:ter Mid coiit«uU. It is nut no elemrjitary trea- 
uit psj'chology, if we are to tinderstaivd br tlioee temiB a 
iptilur vxpueitioa of t]ie leading priDciplra ana RCticral rvsults 
' ihuc Kctc-ticc, HO fur u thuy bitvc been yet discovcrcil, — an xa- 
tnnlui-tioo to it» ]>r<>fuim(kT aiiil niuru vy^tmiatic Miuly. It is 
ui iinuiiittl di«iu Initio II, pMuiinr iit it? |ibiik uiid nrnuigetacut. 
kit ciiiliraccs more thau in ordinarily cximpriKd in works on roon- 
kl •civiioc. They for the most part concern themselves only 
rith tbn philosophy of the bumtui mind; Mr. Tay'or taluw in 
lite lowi-r oniiuail riu;>.'H alw. This inclusion, indeed, is iiib^nded 
be ntuveynl tii the tille of his Ixxtlc, whicli is suniewhat atn> 
1 " The \\orl(i of M iiid" may cither nifaii, as it u geoerally 

■i(\, tbc iiiiiiu- uiiiii-Rie, wbicb is revi-alcd to ei'cry man 
ibf sclt-cunsciousncas, iu the senitc of Uic old ))oet, " My mind to 
a kingdom is;" or it may \k taken more objwtively, u wo 
tbc |wraMa> " mineral kinpdom," " rentable kingdom," to 
3te die tcrcrU ordi^rs of being cudowed irith lh« qualitie* in 
Virtue of whicU Uvnse naui<-» are Wtttowed. It is in this second 
CUM* tbat it is usc<l by our author. 

Tbe iicsi;;n of his work is tbus espresscd : "Much of that 
rhich is In invite iiltention in this elementary book will oonxist 
' an cxhibititm — firat, of what i^ common to all ordcra of living 
uitigp ; and then a setting forth of what is peculiar to Uie human 
liitd, and which u th« ground of iu immea«urable Huperiority." 
"\i« subjivt tbuH staled aflunls the materials for a vnluable and 
tiv« work; and with sucli a one Mr. Taylor has nro- 
lu. But we Tcry mndi doobt whether the procoiluro 
he has adopted is likely to pro<liic» a volume titled to occupy 
Ibc fint " place in a (»>urt«; of elemcntuy rcadinj; in Dicntol 
bhilonoiihy.*' Mr. Tayhir teems to have dccti mi^kd by tbe 
bnalosv of the i>hysi«il Mtoncoi. In pliysjolog}-, for example, 
It would tw worse than usoleaB to coiillur oumelves to the study 
ii:iii, with its or,'iiiw and functions, ami to ex- 
lun llir ri'bt<;(l li>rms of lower animids. Little 
iic leuniLil iu thin way. It niny be [inu-tieiiblc and ron- 
iit here to commence witli thu study of the laws ami ooo- 
liliumi of life us tlicy luuDifcst tbetnaclvca iu tbe lowest soopbyto; 



The VTorld of Mind. 



and to trace them np, ia their wideoiDg ran^ and 
coiuple\it_v, to ibcir development in inaii. The higher and the 
lower stnictiircs miitiially pre and rcveivc light. And if mind 
rxhibiti^ itself, in dilTeniit onlew of Iwiii^, in a nimiliirly as««od- 
ing iiciLle, why nliould not the tAtae {iroci^urc be applicable hen?? 
miy should we not have a eomjjoratiiv ptychohgy ? The diffcr- 
enee, tliouf-h often overlooked in the interest* of thcoriw, in per- 
fectly ob\-ious. External objects arc known to as by onlwHrd 
otwervatioii nnd experiment ; they am l>e dinx'tly roni[Mir«I bbJ 
oliuwitii-d. The hnniiin body is lui orgnntwtlioii as foreign to tiic 
euiminin)^ mind as that of the ape or the tiger. It is not bis own 
Iwdy tliat the anatomist dissecta, or the physiol<^st Epcculnltt 
upon. On the other hand, no man has direct knowledge of anr 
other mind than his own. The ptiiloeopliy of the hnniiin laind^ 
is, in every owe, neither more nor Kw than the philosophy i4H 
t!ie particular mind then specnlatin^. Nothing here can bt^ 
taken on tcatimony. The expcrienoc and results of othcrR »te 
of no avad to us until they bcconie our own ; and wc rqect or 
accept them, accordiug a« they recommend or fail to recoaiinnni 
thcni«clvcs to our individual eonmotisaeM. Srlf, h» coiitrastnl 
with what IK not oneself, — the facta made knouii to the miiicl, 
" turned Inward on its own mysteries," as opposed to thwe wliitli i 
the senses teach \is to apprehend, — are the proper object* of psy- 
cbi^Ogy. It is an ct^tistie science. In its owu barbarrw Ian- , 
guagc, it deals with "the mc;" all that belongs to the "iw' 
me" is beyond its* range In proposing, then, to conimeuce the 
study of it on any lower level than tliat of the human conKtoo^ 
ness, to work a jiath upwards from the inferior animals to ww. 
Mr. Taylor is ignoring the fundamental distinetion on which liif 
science depends, and without which it conid not exist. Slrooglj 
and even vehemently opposed to all matcnalixing tendeQCtA 
jcalou.ily gitmnlitifi the frontier- territory of phj-siology and piT- 
ehology B^atiiBt the encroach in eniH and u»nrpHtions of the fom^ 
scicnec, protesting wisely and well against the confusion of thf^ 
rics of organisation and theories of mind, he is yet, hy the pi"- 
ecdurc we have criticised, all the wliilc playing into the haiiw*" 
the enemy, against whom on other points lie docs »uch »«vicc 

" Wieu wc nttcrnpt to mark off the world of Mind," says Mt.Ttf- 
W, " on the side bordering towards the lower orders of Hfc, niOH/> 
the TCgctnlivc, Kotnc nmbigtiity attaches to many of the inrfinf** 
which pmcnt thrmselves on that margin. But the question vViA 
often perplexes the physiologist, when he ia^juires concerning this ^ 
that species whether it should K' accounted aniiuul or ve;;elatik^ 
wholly unimportant in relation to uur present sobjeel. "We do n*^ 
concern ourselves with Mind until it cornea to manifiMt itstif A»^ 
1>y its own distincUve characteriHticM ; and thcM, if wc mccmI • ^ 



Tht World qf Miad. 



173 



stops only oa Ui« ttt\t of animat«(I idng, bcootnft •■> ttronglf inuknl 
M topncliiile all uiic«ttatnt>. 

Then, ns wv uoi'Uil eiep by clcp hiiod tbii scale, we Rnil our* 
seJirw Id Ui« oomiwoy uf tit-tng* wImim ndiung kDiJ wbcoe modu ur 
■dnMin); tbrnmcIrM tu IIk^ iDl)ucnc4:« aad tlir nuciili-nU of lli« i-xtemol] 
world «rp reailil,v tuUq)^!!!!)!!: b}r iupuiib of our own cDiucioimu 
»■!■' I iJvi <>f action. 'Thn criUTioii, if thcru wcrv do 

V ;, Mrrt! Uic pnrjhoBR of »Migniiig aoj' [■oiticuUr cIom i 

liuui^jk lu lU line jilncr, M Wloiiging to the upper or to tliv 1o« 
onk-nt. [t in l>y itilii rule of aoalo)^' tliat wc %Am\l aaj »[\tcit» ist 
tlir nrnununity «f mind, or diullow \\» ciaiitiH t« liiat (lialiitutioti." 

If tlic actiflUfl and (liAjxintioiiR nfiiniinAiN nrr only hu far to 
bo audervtood by u» a» they " are rriulily iuteq)rria)ite iiy tnenui J 
of Hur own roiunousDeaa," it certainly ttccma a inUlake, an in* 
Vcniifin "f the j.rojicT ordw, to conimcnrc ttic studr of Ota own 
r-' '>v <:xaminatioii into tlic habite and dispo«itiona of 

tl . >.: :uls: 

"Yaa,dre,andl8lttkiuf 
Tbi« u iffmlan ftr tynrtitu.' 

It u to attempt to illiixtrate tlie less by the idoic obscure topic ; 
" to liotd 11 fiirlhin;; ruitbli^ht" (as yet niikiiidlcd) " to the Ban." 
Tbe »;iraix- of the human rautd must have attained a certain 
dngrce at contpli-tcniiw and ccriaioty, before wc can use it to 
explain ibr more dillictilt, ItccauM to u« Icm accessible, mbjcct 
of nnininl ibtclb^-ncc It ia, in fact, the application of a cnide'| 
axM) tll-cooHideroiI biimati [Mvi'hology to the cspbcatioti of the 
luenLal phenomena diaplavod by the lower orders of bciiiR that 
bus involved the latter in more than tbcir ori^nal ohticurity. 

lloviiig llni« cUitt^ our dissent from the mmceplion of men- 
tal aeieiiee which forn»« the ground-plan of Mr. Taylor'* book, 
we priioecd to conxider in such rlctail an otir s|)acc will admit the 
uioiii <ioctrincs and geiieral spirit of hif Tolume. 

Our author declines auy detiuitiou of hia subject, because 
" a dHinilioii cuube i^trietly npplieuble only when the subject to 
which it relates ut thoroughly known to us -" and offers in itj» 
place " a deacriptive statement," which " Riuot not be re^rdcd 
a» if it were dependent, in any rigid manner, upon the precise 
wonU that may Iw; employed to conTcy it." Without criti- 
ekbg tlii^ somewhat cxtraoTdinarf condition, or stopping to in- 
tpOK bow far nuch " a descriptive statement" ia likely " at least ^ 
(o aenre lo mark otl' our proixT [>ubji>ct, ainl to keep it apart fromj 
(,f" '\-irta to which it »tiiud.-< riliitwl, and with which it iaj 

111 lo be eonfonuded;" or, a^ain, if it does this, in wbat^ 

it dtlJ'erH from a drjinUion properly so adlcd, — wc give Mr, Tay- 
lor'a (iwu cx]M)»itiun : 

" Kjsd, so br OS we are eouniaant of it by our iodiridual eon- 



176 



Thf tVorld of Mind. 



•douitn«ui, and bj our intcrcountc witii tboM Hk* oureelvefl, uid 
obttrvntioti «f tlio vnriuiw nrdcn of noitiMtcd beiDgs around ui^ 
tbougb it b cunjoituTfl witli nn nnimnl orpinisation, is always deut; 
distiilgutshaMo thcnrfrnm ns tbv mibject of iD(«llectu&l aoMiM. B« 
iriim we atirmpt to describe it, wo can do ao only aii if it wrre one 
with tbftt nnim&l friLDicvrork, a|>art from which we have no direct kaov- 
ledgo of it in &i\y way or in an}' single iuBtanM." 

We do not know how to Baai>nt to thiv »t«teiiiviit, which wew 
to us splf-contradictory. If mind is " clearly diatinj^iilihnblc" turn 
the animal ori;ani§atioD in thought, it is surely capable ofbeni; 
distingiiisiu^l from it in word*. Our author, however, hmag 
mock the upp<.)«itc msii nipt ion, goes on with it as follows : 

. "Mind, »■ cuiijoiutHl with tui anunu) orgniiiiuition, is that which Sr( 
not nimbly iia vpt^tulile ntruuLuriM livo, but more than tbia, for U i> 
rulat<i<l U> the (iiitcr world by urgims of (cniuicinii ) it nioTcs and mcmi 
from place to place by ad impnlM originating within itself : and itla 
alw a con«cinuRn«M more or 1cm diRtinct. ofiU own cmbIcum; tlutn 
to say, it posaCMcn, in n grcntnr or less ilC'grM), a rcfleetire lift^ audit 
ia capable of enjoyment and nuffcring. 

Tub Wohi.i> or Mini> comprehends all ordcra of beings tbi( u- 
hilut those conditions of life which wo here specify.'* 

In a 1at<.T part of hiH work, Mr. Taylor eudcavoim to aNXTtttn 
vhot is the "prime characteristic of Mind, anil it> ri)i»T imi- 
Mknt;"* and detenniue*i what it ia "in its e»»ci»cc,"t "itsowL 
nature — it8e(f."X We shall have occasion aflerwanls to rmuoi 
on this portion of his speculations. We refer to it now only be- 
cause wc arc unable to reconcile it with the langnaec c^ the de- 
scriptive stntcuiciit already (]uot«d, and with Mr.l^ylor'B apoIagT 
for the uhsi-nce of a <letinition. 

Hin Niibject is distributed under the three heads of pnveholop, 
Metaphyiiics, and Lope, of which only the first two are trcAtoi of 
in the volume before u« ; Fsycholopy, as it appears to tw, wtk 
much greater success than Mflapliysicn, A reader whose coWfg- 
tion of metaphysical science should be gathered rscluatvely frm 
Mr. Taylor's book, would scarcely attain a more accurate notioDaf 
its real character and object than that it deals with ahstractiaif 
aiul leads to scepticism. Mr. Taylor diistinguishes it from pB- 
chology by the remark, that " the term* .fpaci; time, emut, iw 
ffff-ct, belong to this department" (inetnphysiies). But they If 
long just as much to psychology. It is not in their sut^cct-millVi 
but in their mode of viewing the same subject- matter, that Ikf* 
sciences differ. Let us take, for example, the notiooa to whi^ 
Mr. Taylor refers as exclusively metnphyEicol. 

They are facts of conBciousncss. Like all other phctu>nff)i 



.* ^ i*>- 



tf.»S. 



tp-i^i. 



The TVorld of Mind. 



177 



r 



rati !»• (nil)fiiitled to tlir prowsB*"*, and treated arcordiiis; to 

Inwii, nf iiidiictivn iiKiiiiiy. And it U the busiiicfis nfpev- 

bUolo|^y, lu rlic [Kisitivc bcil-mcc ol' voii8nui»ac»s, to do thi»— to 

out their cotilcnis, to traci; tlii'ir urigiii Kiid ilcvcJupiticiit, to 

ngn them their {irugwr ^\wx in tlie vclivniv of mini]. But 

'thott^li in the tnitid they refer, a» wc lire countruiiied to bclit\'e, 

to n^iJitics cxistins without it. Is then this belief trust worthy, 

t' ■ ■ Tiioc rcttl ( Are the coaccpttons which the words >pact, 

t- <<1 fubHuHce suggest to us mere tigim-ntB uf iIh; uodiT- 

UiiiiiiiKi or do Utey com-^]»>nd to, aiid rvpreocnt, iiulepoudcnt 

istfiiocs? To nituwer thf:w> (iiwstioiwH, to hridgti over U» diMm 

hieh atpamte* thoughta from tAia^a. tlie nibjectire fnin the ob- 

Jcctira, is the ba&iiicHS of nietaphjnita. 

Fmoi tlM«e considerations, it is ubrioiu that the proper place 
of QwtaphyBicnl science, as dependent on the rc^tuItK of psycbologj, 
iapoateriorto the latter. The goal of the one 1:1 thootlier's start- 
tog-poiat. In tireatiiig of it, fimt, Mr. Taylor sacrifkes Io|pcid flt- 
nom to considerations of oonvciiieuce. lie is evidently auxious 
jlo get rid as soon aa poasible of au unconjicnial topic, to hurry 
pant " abysNoa" into which it Is diiuincss to look. Metaphysica 
uid " Diystificatiou" soem to liim one and the same tliiu;;. Uis 
footing u not suro, nor bia eye vicar, till lie gets lairly to the 
region of concrete phenomena. \Vv puM over mme reniurks, 
which aenm lo ua far from xoniul, on the relatwo which phrsicnl, 

■natheuiatical, and metaithysical acienee bear roapectively to the 
ptuloBophy of niiud, aa having been already parlly aoawcred in 
abticipalion. Mvtaphytica being defined a« tne science of " ab- 
•tnetHniA," the abvtnetions with nhich it 4h-«ls arc cliiMiiGed ns 

|cither"n!tiriiate," "mix«l," or "cnncreiive." rndertbefirrt 
head, the n>itioiis of iipacf, timt, and subttoHce, arc discussed. 
We will briedjr consider the conception of space; tlic origiu 
and nature of which are thus set lorth. On the pmcutatioti 
nfa «|)hcrD to the observer, he learns by the sense of touch that 
it in stdtd and hard. By the cxcnnM; of abdtraetiun, its srnsiblo 
properties, — ita colotir, tiislc, and to on, — are one by one dJs. 
miunl, till there reuiiiin only \ln solidity and its spherical kbape. 
Ita Ibrai, la*t iif till, is discanled from thought. AU that is now 
lull ia a va^ue notion ; which wc fail to realite to the mind, hot 
wliiob we seek to hold fast by means of tbc phrase aotid extauion. 
Having got safely thus far, our atitlior piooecda : 

.:i— lut us Bsy tlinl or tlifsplirrr — may b« conceived 
I ■« u < I iirt)i«r uiiil further, until il fills a planotary orbit, or 

^ft vntil It cmtirscM tli« utarry universe ; atiO it may go oven beyond this 
^VVmlt. ...... At siiy one xUge of iu progreas, what should forbid 

Its adv*Bi-iu|; ^n•^ mIkt nuiae ; and tlteu why anq' il not do tli« likn 
again T This sti|>jMHttiuu of an cndlma progreai or DuiTemcnl onward, 

K 



178 



The trorld of Mind. 



though wo fikil to follow it concepttTeljr, eomiiMOts itwlT into va kbMnct 
nv iou for which we rci^ture a name ; — uiO we call H the Infiule, 
luti aituilc. 

But oil «veut of another kiuJ titiiy bv Sniai^ioed nft poHKiblp. 
truth, it in kncvi-nt nhlcli ohtnideti ituclf ujion our tli«ughta ; andwiud 
when once it htui ni^curreO, irt- finil it inipusxilile to (lUaniiw mtirdj. 
Tilt! K0II1I $p!ici« which jutt now 1 had before ni«, and which I frll ud 
■aw, mny not only liiMippatr, or ocunt! to Iw fctt iiii<I >ocn, but it maj 
hum centtd to hr. Wn mity imagine thin, nt Itsit ; not tUtU it hiu> Rown 
off, and »o might he ovwtalccn mrnicwhcw, htit wc mny mpt>o»e tlut 
it w not. What is there, then, whorr it wm, but where now it ia not t 
'I'he answer niny be. Nothing ; for 1 may imagine the atmosphciv and 
ei'cry gaa removed from where it was. Hot tlie word ' nothin;;.* if it l« 
taken in ita simple sense, docs not quite sntisfy the mind. The anni- 
hilated sph«r« iias left a sort of PMidual iDeaning in its p\aeo, or > 
Hhwiuw of reality, wliicb auks m name. This retaaind^ of uieaniDg i< 
Hymbuli^ed or re[ir«^iitod by the word bp.^ce; aud when w« haTea^ 
ccjited it. we feel tie if an intellectual ueei^ily had beMi iuji|i)iTi]. 

To the bare notiou which the word ' H|)uoe' eoalrlL-B ui to tetaiu *om^ 
Kort of hold of, we render baek n (jorliou of the |iro]iertic» at »olid M- 
t^niion ; nnd on thin fuiiudatioii butld ihc inoxt certiiin of the *cieiim 
Thiw wn allow ourselves to ihilik (or to sjienk.if not to think) a! tftf 
im diviiihlc into jiiirls, nnd iin icii.Hceptilile of ineiLiiircmmt ; and aboH 
cnpiibld of endlrss jirogn'-ssion outwurili from a ceiilre, la thiiwat** 
come to speak of iNcrsim xpavk Here. th«i. is an abstract noliuiv 
from which I have remoTcd all sensible profwrtits, — iiMy. all propertin 
whether sensible or only eonceiTable, — audyet I ant Dot eouteut tootU 
it — DotbinK ; nor eau 1 rid myaclf ol it : it is like to nottuiij; ; it eliw 
to Diy coii!iciouanea» ; it is or has become lu nie a hiw of luy intelleclwl 
existence. I enniiot think of uyaelfor of any o^ier existence otIwraiN 
lliuu an uueiipyiiiK K]>aoe. 

Beyond thin limit, und iu this direction, no htiniun mind baa hilli<^ 
miide liny progrew, or hiu shown uh bow we tuny analyse the uuli'>* 
n.'preM!nt<Ml by the word 'spiie«.' The analytic facility has at kiigtii 
fully done ita ofiiuc; and the remit is an ultimate absusctioo' (fF- 
Sl-S;!). 

Those who admit tlip justice of Mr. Taylor's pnrrioiis nwoii' 
iug, may pfl'liapx oa giKid grounds donnir to thin last asscrlioo: 
and allowiiitr space to be an abittracliiin, deny tliat it is bd ■•''>' 
nuUe al)stractioa. We do iiot conorive it as simple, but u /«*•' 
^tcRsion, — cxtonnon, tkat is, in the three coc^xihtcnt mod(«of 
length, breadth, ami thickness, any txua of which we mar abiirtct 
»D<1 cotisidcr apart from thv rtwt. Thix, in fa«:t, is done in '^'^ 
tlifTorcnt branclKw of geometrv, when; n line i» defined W t* 
lonicth without breadth; aau|>ertidea, length and breadth witliu<^ 
depth, and so oa. We lutve no intention of allowing onRd»«» 
to Iw betrayed into any di'-eussiou of the aueiiding queMi(«*< 
whether space is au a-priori form of thought, ox ad d-fotienti* 



n« fForld (if Mind. 



179 



of Mi>cripiice, or liotli the one bikI the other; our present 
iiiiii'ks is tt> criticise Mr. Tiiylor'M Ixiok) uirl ve cuutiiic our- 
|m;1vc« to the examicuUioii of tiis doctritip, irbich appears o|)«n 
fto inuiy iiiiaDRWcrable objcctiorts. lu iiluost cvcrv wuid of liU 
•Uli-inrut Ihc yrtviatu esutence of tlio notion, wlne]i he stnvcs 
I to fliow iiH in the proci'v» of formation, is impU«d. M'c begin 
jwith itiiBsiiiiiif; a milii] bod;-. Dnt wtiot do wc mciui hv " a »otid 
What U a imlidily I>iit tlie j>ro])crty ofocmpying tpace? 
We con gi»c no other ddiiiition; we hare no oUirr idea of it 
than tht». AVi.- xuv told to fancy solid extension apreadiiit; itself 
^ out beyond tlic- limits of the stellar luiiversc, "without end ami 
for ever ;" and that then, hy alKttraction of the soliditj- from this 
[concpption, we *>\in\\ eoim- to the idea of h|wcc nx infinite. But in- 
fltnile eifMutioH eainiot lake place, or be thought ofasoceurrinf;, 
J^TKcepl in ijiliiiitf sjiace. The one idea, so far from Wiuf! derived 
tnun the other, is lo)^eidly prior to it, its iici'cf^^-arv condition. 
" Ur. Taylor dorsi not attempt to explain how it ia that an 
ract notion, without " prupertira setuiihle or couccivahle," 
(hicli ifl " like to nothing," and which he yet cannot make up 
bin mind to "call nothing," should "clin)^ to Lis couseiousiicss," 
and )M-como a " law of his intelleetuat existeJioe." He ia lost in 
wonder at the fact; but he makes no effurt to account for it. If 
Rpaoc ))e an ntwtruction, it ou^ht to resemble other abstractions. 
VWo can alKttraet from red bodies, for example, their pnj|)er1y of 
edueiM ; hut if we imagine all red bodies to be destroyed, we do 
bol altnbute to the (juality of rcdnes» cx'cn any retnniuing " sha- 
dow of reality," any independent exiatencc. If all weN die, Au- 
Monitj/ dies with them, llow is it, then, that af^er hating anni- 
iiilatnl in thought all extended mnttrr, extension remains behind? 
Vo have nnpUfil sjjace. and not Jcslrui/itl it j we cannot think 
it away. Why tlie character of" intellectual neecwity" which, 
Mr, Taylor adniita, altaehes to thia notion, and to those of time 
and kubstaucc, ehonid not be found in the caac of all other ab- 
itmctious, neither his nor any other mertfy empirical theory 
makcii any appruueh to explaining, 

1m the section on "Mixed Abstractions," onr author dia> 
the notion n.>prcsented by the won) jKwrr, which he refer* 
the mind'a eoniteioiiNneHS of a mdr-detern)iiiing force uithin 
t«eif, and from which he traces the oHjnn of onr ideas of cawa- 
Vm, librriy, necea»iiy, Jrrtdom o/ the will, &e. I f wc tiiid lilllc 
Jiat is sthclly sjicaking new here, we lind much that is true, and 
itcd with remarkable diM'rimination and clo«)ncnee, and with 
ini;i-iiiiity of illustration. The author, in KiA vindication of 
n freedom, throws himself coufidenlly on those primal in- 
BuH wliii'li, if they do not admit of logical proof, are yet 
rior to I'>^ir4l disproof, and can oe^cr be pcnnaueutly kcj|l 



180 



The trorld of Mind. 



in aherancc. Of tliU jwrt of his work we baw only assent xnd 
admiration to ex[irejw, wliirli we rerret that the siuicc «t our dis- 
posal Aoe* not eiiablft us to justify By copioos extract. Wr inftkA— 
room iiiKtend for a passage wliicb brines us oa a »tep fimbe^^ 
introducing ns to the field of what Mr. Taylor calls coKcaerivi 

.tHSTRACTlOSS : 



" In tb« exercise of lliis min« EhcuI^ of sbslraetioo, we may eitba, 
as in the vanuus inst&uccH already Dieutioueil, euptuj uurMlvtM in Ul- 
tiaj; off from «ora« niiiiples iioliuu, uuu by uuc, \U acvcvul ciiUEtituenl^ 
until wc nrrivu nt llmt wliich uduiits uf uo furtbcr HL-jianLtioa ; a 
otbcrwisc, wc may take up au ubHtract idea or a princi[i!c, whctlicril 
be of thp siin|ilcKt order or uut, nnd tlicn luok about for tbc unK iii» 
or principle na it iw to be mut with t-ltewlirrv, cmbo<licd tmdet Ytrydi^ 
ferenl condition*!, ajid oombint^d with other etmu-nts. 

Instances oftliis kind meet ug at crrry step thrwighout th« cmle 
of tlie phyaical acicnccs : in trtith, such inslaoocB constitute the itfk 
of these scienctrs ; and they aro so nbundnnt, thai tbey need iwt kc 
TOi'iitioned otherwise than briefly in illustratioa of what we aow iatiod 
Tlie ' law« of nature,' as they are called, are, aa to our mode of om- 
ceiviiig tbuiii. uertuin abstract notioiw. which we revuK"i*<: as wo hJ 
them luktuj; eifcct iu a multitude of divenii&ed iostatices. 

NrwIod 11 fuUiu^i u|r|>le tiUKCeeted to hiai a ' law,' which he fH- 
Ceivt^l to take «lft.>ut iii tletvninDiiig the revoluliuu of the mnoa ia tut 
orbit, aixl thcu again to prevail tliroi^bout the planetary ^tlem. 
Whe^ till' ascent of viUr under a vacuom came to be tnily Oiitt- 
stood, tho rise of mercury in a tul>e, under the same Cundiuuua. <n( 
aeeu to be an instance explicable by means of the same taw ; and lltn 
llitT beigbts respectively to wbicb the two fluids will liie in mmi 
were found to correspond to the speciflc gravity of tlie two as wtt^wd 
siKainit the terrestrial atmoapliire, thus rtnifirmtug the princijile M 
hull bfCH lusunied. Those ioHunierable HnaloKua which are found to 
prcvitil lietwcen vegetable and auiiiiul orpuiiiutioRii, arc instancM U 
tbc «ume kind ; as, fur example, tlie acvcrul prucu»«a of nntritua. tf' 
oretioii, retpimtion, secretion, ore found to \te, la a ocriam cdml. 
identical in principle ; that is to Kay, a law which, as we apfx fc tad il- 
ia not a reality any where existing, but is a pure sbstFftction. is r*of- 
niacl in tiiis, in tbai, in many instiuiocs, which at tbe first view of tbcn 
di^er in ninny respects ; and tlicy so differ, that it ia with an enuliA 
firit of surprise, and then of pleasure, tliat we catch the identjly vIdA 
has been concealed, as we might say, hitherto within the fohk of ■>■>; 
exterior diforsities. 

AbstracLioQB of this kind may properly he called coscatrnvi, be- 
cauKe tlu-ir teiidcuey is to );ather around tlicmsclves ntlwr adjunetn ihu 
tliiiitc! with wbidi they may at finit have presented thonisclTes to wt 
view 

In tliaa<^ depurtmeutd of science which arc obscrvstiuua) sad ofe- 
rimental, we/)i/f what wc are seeking for. In those wbieb are iaTenli" 
and constructiye, we make what we are seeking for. In cbemttfiT, fm 



The World of Mind. 



181 



taiB[>l4, wcJEm/ th* Ittw* of ddiniti; girnporlJonH in the combiiicUan of 
•leiiicntit. In nircKnnics, whi^n iu principles ore ttpprcboDdeil, wo 
seate the npplicBtions of tlicra in such forma as mar suit oor purpaao" 
Kp. W-5T). 

■ The Buhatauce of th«»c ronwrks uiiplic-t «iil}i no lexn furce to 
^e rcco^itiou and dtwniniiiatioii of /nr/ca/qu&liti^!!, under their 
rtriotw mani fee tat ions and (lisjruises in actual life, and to their 
ver»iitil« cmbodimi-nt in the geveral poetic art", than to the in- 
stances juRt cited. Whon the fiindamcnta) i<Ien whieh nainiatea 
any work is once apprehtudt-d, the vnlnc of its sercm.! pnrld is 
tested by their l)earin^ upon thiN idea, by tlie degree in uliioh 
they contribute to earry out and convey it. In tliis criticism of 
means in their relation to an end, of single coDceptions in rc< 
Kpect of a larger design that includes tlicni, " the sense of fitness 
uid order" takes it« risM.-. It is satUfied by simple sufTn-ieuey ; 
mk is wounded alike by defeat and reilundance. Excrtioiw wliich 
^O beyoiid, and exertioua wliich fail to reaeli, their aim equally 
shock it. It ia in it that our autlior finds au escape from the 
perplexitica utd sceptictsnifl which follow on too much metaphy- 
sics, and attains "grounds of certainty," — a sure puthwity of 
toumition to the highest nud most guidinf; truths of murul» and 
Beli^ion. " The very atructure of the mind," he maintaiiia, ooir> 
pcla it " to arcept m Inie and real thai which hears ujwn itself 
the characteristics of oohereuee, ooiiff niity, fitness, order." Tltia 

Sincijtle, which in another work — The Restoration of Belief — 
r. Taylor bad ingcniouslv applied to the coulirmation of the his- 
torical endcnnv of Christianity, is here made the bii»ii< of a pure 
Boral thi^ilogj". In barest outline, Ins nrgwnieiit niuy be .itated 
thuK We shall use, where nc car incorporate tbeni, the auiLor'a 
own words. " The sense of fitiieia and order may be disturbed 
as well by a redundancy in any oi^^aniun as by a deficiency. If 
there be a wheel in a machine which has no duty to pcrlbnn, 
or if a wheel be wanting at any point on the pathway of motion, 
we diKiillow the unity of the whole" (p. 91). On the »up[>oi>ition 
that man ia not a free agent, — the ma.-<ter of bin own sentinienla 
attd conduct, bnt ou the contrary- Mibjecl to those lawa of phy- 
sical causation which rule in tbe materia) world, — conscience, 
the m<M^ scuac, thou};h an essential part of his nature, baa no 
fonctioD in it. It bids him do this, attd re&aiu firam that ; though 
he baa no {wwer to determine what be shall do, betn^ liimetelf 
abwilutrly dispo«ed of by laws as inviiJuhle as those which keep 
the earth in her orbit, and provide that summer and winter, seed- 
time and harvest, shall not tail. .\ny theory which fails to re- 
cognise man's moral freedom converts bis nature into an inco- 
twircnt delusion, to which wo find nothing analogou.« in tbe other 
cmngemeuta of tbe universe. Admit, liowever, buuiaa free 



183 



The World a/ Mind. 



agency, and thin incongruity Tanishm. Conwience ceue* to1» 
" a retlniKlaiil cii<)o«innit." fl 

" Nuw," eaji our author, " the moral wane \fAs iw dirodly B* 
the cotice]>tiuii, liowerer v*ku«< of *" ArTHORiTj tu wliicli we »re ffr 

lat«d Tli« idea or on nntboritj' bvjmtd aud abov* na codjoio* 

iUelf irith \hi! cuiiMpliun of n Power, uiid of a jniriKiae too. to ra- 
dtcnU' ilitelf, wbctlior immc<liut<:ly or at cumd future time. It it thii 
not of iKiiioiH whicli give* coherrniu to the tnotal scniw. Wilbout 
tbeiii, no aspect of litncwi prafnita iljwlf nn lliix lide of buman naltm. 

Tbe i<lca of iiHlJtnrUi/ or of a mlaliontliiti bctWMB tvo 

being* — CAcb eiiiiowtid with inlelligcDee and moml feeling — tupoon 
that tli« will of Ibc one who is the more powerful of tbe tint bai dms 
in soni« wny docliirt'ii. It alNo demands an iudepcndenee of *»ni«kiBd 
in the other nature, tntervi^niug beCwwn tbe one will and the «dur 
will. Where the rolalionghip of lav. not as a pbyncal prioeiplr. Iiuli 
tut a roll and motive \s brou^4it in, there we must find a hreak — an in-J 
terval, — and a reeiptooal ctianteraetion. .... A •ohem* of goi'«ninr«t 
taking tta bpariuK upon the moral aente is not a chain along iriiicbl 
«t;<]ueiic'iT!i fc)H(iw in a eouiftaiit order ; liut it iji — ■■ ntaDdinj; on tW om 
Ride ancl a Btnndine ou tli« other niUu, wttli a dotr diatuwe inlerpoxd. 
If wc take frwer clenients than these as tli« ground uf moral ffytrt- 
ni«4il, the entire vocabulary of ntoralii — popular and tctcntifio— 1«*<* 
itn *igiiilicance." 

From nil this tlic conclusion w drawn, that 
"a Hj-stcm of government has no completeness or reason, it eiWii*] 
no fituMs or order, until wo recognise its source in tbe sovXRCaVJ 

BKCTITODB — the DIVIKE FEBSOKAL WLSDOM and OOODXBSS." 

This brief alwtmct convey* no ndeqnatv idea of the tel! _ 
imminent uf which it is a nuniinari-. The two Hcclionit in wbidi 
it is developed, ou " the Sense of t^tne&a and Oi'der," and "ihf 
Orounda of Certainty," arc models of moral reftaoning; aadll* 
thoughtful and sober eloquence of the style is in perfect keepinB 
with tlm character of tlic subjects. At the same time, we «« 
not able to assent without qiiidi6cntion to all Ui3t is adnooed, 
even in the passage we have qnoted, if we are alrictly to inw* 
pret its every word. If we are to understand hy the Moral SCM* 
■ conviction of the inefl'accabte distinction between right B*^ 
wroii(j, and of the intrinsic obligation of rectitude, we must df- 
mnr to the a-wertion that — if taken alxsohitely alone, and k\»' 
rated from the framework of actual human experience — iln«s»* 
aarily " indicates that which ia above itself and beyond itself, 
or " leads directly to the conception of an avtbobity," to wbitJ* 
the mind expcriciieiug it is subject. For such a moral sensv *C 
must attribute to God hinivclf. And this Mr. Taylor, wc jw 
snmc, intend.* to do when he s[>cnks of the Divine Being and 
man aa " each endowed with intelligence and mural feeling,"— 
or eUe he ia using the same phrase in tlie same coQiicetioa in a 



Tke K^orM of Maul. 



183 




lifltrmt si^licalinn in llie two i^ascM. Tlicn, on his pnii^])le, 
lit n-nri'li ,if^cT a paramount ihoral (iovenior of tbo Vinivcnic 
(■»<)'' n: as futile us the (|ucHt ofnntiiril thcolopy after a 

i^» — Uie "tnoral fi-ciiii{^' of each being iiuticjitji)}; aii 

authoniy aiwre it, niid w on for i-vw; jujrt iw in the panJId in- 
maiicr, * hat we rail tlic " First <'aiiw>" loffically demaDtls a prior, 
i)uite oa uiiieh ob any of those earlier in tlie aer>ea. It n not (we 
may i-enlurc to Hti-j-jcst) the mere ducriminatiou of ngbt nnd 
wrong, and of tlio i^iipreine claim orcr \a of the former, uhieh 
Icnda ns to ooiiRtder oiipk'Ivcb »ui>j*ctB of a higher ijoirer. For 
— if wtt attribute moral ijuiilitiea to God at all, and without them 
\\f am scarcely bo a moral nilcr — that disicrimt nation mtut exist 
in Hnn far more perfectly thaji in ourselves. By the special ei- 
paiener of bunion tiatnrc, wc ehould nthcr thick, and not by 
intellectual u«.x-Mity, this feeling of subjection to a divine 
ily coiucH in witli the roiiKciotuinciw of (/r/wr/iw moml 
|>6wer, and violated obligation, and exiiressea itself lu truftt, re- 
mor»c, and the instiuctive fear of retribution. A^n, if rather 
jan with the lofty and ethical tone of the rest of the arsomcut, 
read tiiat " the idea of AtiTnoKiTv, or of a rchttionship be- 
two Iwtngs, each endowed with intelligcun: and moral 
0|*, 5up|W!ffis that the toiU of /Ac one who ii the more rowKiu 
UL o/ Iht Iko has Wen in some way declared. " Moral niitlio- 
fity iti the ascendency of the better, at mirh : and not of lltc 
"more Jionerful ." It docs not dcjiend on relative degrees of 
atreiiKth. It is not as the All-mighty, but as the All-good, that 
Uivine Ueiiig him imtliority over the free »ouU of Ifi« chD- 
Indeed, "thi« inde]Mruilcneo," which Mr. Taylor iniUKls 
as " intcr^cniiiK between one will and the other will," of 
implies this. The points to which wc hai-c taken exception 
be nere over^ghts, simply flans of statement. Their rc- 
d wotild atreugthai, us their prc:>eiicc tcnd» to invnlidntc, an 
Htttument in which they have plaev, by concradictiug it« csscu- 
liij uiirit. 

HnvinK led us to this crowning truth, in which metaphysiea 
into llicolo^, Mr. Taylor brings to a close the first divi- 
of hi* work, and enters upon the sricuce of mind properly 
'«o ealted. In a few pilhy and poiiiti.-<l po^es, he diislinguishes 
it* s;ihcre from that of uniniid plivMiilo^y. and illiistratcn the 
ility of etili iuK mcTital prtililems by reference to phyaieul 
I MiH. The (animated) '' world, as known to the aneicnts," 
!■ Uierf eloqiientty coutrai^tcd with the conception of it whic]) 
the ruvulalioua of the niicro<»eope on the one hand, and the dia- 
ericJi of coolotiy upon the oilier, force on the ctiltivated nio- 
1 ""■ (um|M'l ns to take into aeconnt, and 

) with, Ihe crcaturu around us. Wc 



Imen 



yr 



Llbc 



ipon 



184 



The H'orld of 34mi. 



do not ftliiire in that feeling of uiDoyaiice vbich the contenpt*-] 
tion of human affinity with other orders of wiimai being, kti 
to avakcu in many minds that wc should bun; thought riipi-Tiiirl 
to such cmotioD. Wc cnttrelj i>yin[tathi>« with ^Ir. Taylot'ai 
rebuke and cxpo»nre of it. It \» *\xu\Ay oa the xround of iri» 
Icvaitce to tlie toiiic lie ia diHRUMiug, wh«n correctly viewed, rad 
of ^ledal uufitiieas for the pnrpo«» f^ an elcmcntarv tnat«^ 
tbat ire have felt constrained to protest Of^iust the ineluxioo tt 
matters remote from consnousueM irithin the limits of u diMer> 
tatioti on » subject known to h» esclusivi^ly Ihnnigh eonvctosfr 
avjM, We therefore decline to be delayed by the kaxy ni 
eloauent paaaage, in which he aima to " look abroad upon At 
fiela of animal life away from tbat point c^new from which ft if 
only aeon in contnmt with the more highly dctrelopetl (acultiea rf 
the human species ; — to think of it in its nbfuliite qiulUy, a 
Hiieli as it i» ; or siurh a» it would swin to be, if we could lake • 
ponitive fenr out of humanity." All that ia said in this coa- 
Dertion may be very true ; but it cannot be proved to be so. 
Alike in what is aSirmcd ajtd what is denied of the pruopatim 
of the lower animal nccs, wc feel tltc wont of verificatioa. Ii » 
simple conjeeturtT, more or k*«if |>laiii>ihlc. Tlic decree in wbick 
the difiereiit iirderx of animiiterl t>eiiig are ftiiaceptible of plaawe 
from colour and Houiid, — whether tbia plcaanre ever auoontiM 
a perception of l>euuly mill an e^r for muuc, — kow far tbcit 
moral aiTd affeetional emotions rise above the level otiattiKi, 
and fall below that characteristic of human natnre, — the foaitt) 
and extent of the happiness they enjoy, aud ita disturbancn,-^ 
these ore questions wliieh wc are never likely to have any difa 
for 9M>lTiiig RiititifaetoriiT. They resemble the apeculatioiH- if 
iavtrna tut to the plurality of worlds. ITiey are interestinp mJ 
iiigcuioua, but they settle uotliiug. At any rate, tbej are onlrf 
pliicc where we find them. 

More lct;itimatc urc our author's speculations ne to the phiul 
rudiment of mind, which he determines to be Power; or, at it 
otidly pbrasca it, Mhid-ia-art toward mailer. He is led to tbi» 
conelueion by two separate, hut, aa he thinks, eonver^ng lints of 
nrgumcnt. Takinj( the chronological path, he borrow* fr<Rn tli* 
Buinial physiuloift^t the fact, tbat nuiscidar moTemenl takes pbfc 
in the emltryo " long before tlie animal hiis conrcrwd wiih ili^ 
outer world, by the eye, or tlic ear, or other senses;" th»t '' 
therefore " precedes KeuKatiun, uuIcir it be some luidefined aA- 
scioiumexa that in earlier dated than partuntinn." 

From tlie nature of the case, however, the ext«nial ohsentt 
con have no eojtDisancc of sensation in the embryo before paita- 
rition. Wc attribute sensation to other bcin^ than onrsrhtf 
only by noting in them muscular mutious which suggcat it, iml i 



Tim World of Mind. 



185 



jch, M vrc remember, have followed upon a particalar feeling 
in ourw;lvt». Action mmt be the first phenomenon observed Iff 
tu t» an orgniiiiMtiun foreign to ounm^Ives ; but that it is the tiret 
phenomenon occurring in tlint organiMition, it ix altogethpr gix- 
tuitoua to assume. Mr. Taylor's pby biological fact m worth no- 
thing. In admitting the possibility of "some undefined con- 
iciousiicss" earlier than the first movement of the embrjo, IiC 
deprives it of nil it« siipiiliejince. Indeed, we can hardly con* 
oeive |>ower, i.e. miod in net towiinls matter, cxeept as the 
reault of some prior condition, lut llie ontcomcs of feeling, or 
M the deliberate aim at a preconceived end, vithont falling into 
sheer oasualism. In the one case we assign jiren-dence in time 
to iMoKghl, in the other to atntation. It is not diflieull to make 
Ovr choice between the«e two in the instances under examina- 
tion. Mr. Taylor's anxiety to rindiemtc a real causative powtT 
LD man baa led him into aii»nm|)tions which cannot t>e main- 
tained, and which moreover are not essential for liis inirjKMC. 
Luked, wo cannot reconcile the doctrine on which we are re- 
narking with his admission towards the end of the voliime, that 
the " inherent force," which he attribntca to mind, require* to 
"be put in movement /rowf tPtliotit. An admirable mechanism 
it before v» ; but it in m nat, and will for ever remain at rest, 
I nkss a finger — a force foreign to it*olf — give tlic start to the 
pnkaum" ip. 3&1). 

The aeooikd method of arriving at the " mdimental in the eon* 
riibUioD of things," — 1>. power, — is hv the path of analysis, in 
which case the simplest clement must be considered as primal. 
Ueiewe are led to the same coneltinion as iKforc. "Sensation," 
it it alleged, "is comgtoHitO: it is llie jnvtlnct of two or more (?) 
I from without, ai-tiiig U{H>n aii organisation that in corapli- 
in ita atrncture." The complication, however, of the or- 
pttic frame is quite irrelevant to the matter in hand. Volition, 
*• icU as sensation, takes eScct through a complex structure <^ 
iKnei and miioclcs ; and if ibis fact does not deprive it otitt 
*<nplicity, neither does it interfere with tliat of seiiKstkin. In 
tbt tame way, the number of forces which act u]iou the urgani- 
Htioa from without is quite bcoide the (iue*lion. I'lie Kuh* 
}*ttiTe character, and not the external conditiona of seuaation, 
•twliat wc have to deal with. "There are five, six, or nwHre 
■44 of seaaatioo," wc are told ; " and when these are compared, 
•"fOD* of them with any other, or when, in turn, wc compare 
*^v)th all tlio others, we find mom for di-itinrtinnn and dcM-rip- 
Bie Matemcnts." There arc of course disliiietionii which we 
Mtli but which in many ca»cs do not admit of beint; put into 
Ink, It would be impo«sible to erplain to the bbnd man 
BatioDed by Locke, who thought that the colour of scarlet was 



like the sonnd of m trumpet, or to m neeing man either, 
mftket no Rtich mistake, in nhat thej- ilitrt^r. Seusation », it n 
true, of many kimli); but iurlivitliial seuoatioaa maj be, andoden 
uee, uncompoundwl, We arc not able to assent, thfixfore, l« 
otir aatlior's coucliision, from the prvmues which «c hare gi>ai, 
tbiU " in f>cni>ation more is implied than a nnglc lUid »ini)Je m- 
ilimcnt," ScnHihilil)' to imprcwioiin frmn without, and an ori- 
ginating power within, are rndnwinciiU m^itlicr of which can tc 
aiuJjncd into any thin^ more elementary, and wliich mnoifet 
themseltrs tof;cthcr. In graniiiig an independent and undcnwl 
power to the will, all is eoncrdcd that au accurutv pjscholog^ 
will allow, or that — though this is a consideration not sdeiili- 
lically u(tiiii»»ibl<:— the inomlist can rr<)uirc In this sectin^ 
the nitthor ilix('ii.'»«'M, in tlie hriete.it form, the origin of our idei 
of externality, the process bv wliiclt ftenastions arc transforriwd 
into perceptions, the ^adiiai fievclopmcnt of the pcraotial tm- 
gciouane^s, and other moot-points of pyechologieal inquiry. H' 
paasea over these snhjects with so light and quiek m haiH), llul s 
IS not easy always to say precisely what liiit tloctrine is ; but, if it 
make alluwuiice for an oocaMonal want of preciaion in Unguig^ 
it seems to coincide in ita main features with the xicwa laiddoW 
ill their clearest form in Sir U'lUiam Hamilton's writings. 

The point at which the human mind iK-gins to divrntw fl™ 
the bnite, i" the entrance of a distinct feeling of iiidiTidualily— 
a consciouMiess of {x^rMonal identity, and with this of moral faC" 
dom. In childhood, " the mind itself, or, if we choo»« to «■;>■>> 
its active rudiment, is much in advance," Mr. Taylor nitres,"''' 
the appetites, wants, desires, of the animal nature, Man, »• 
this spring-time, has Tcry much more of a tagtie impuhc toKt 
than of any dcfiuile motive for acting. .... It is now thai ^ 
IB learning to take his ponitiun as postfCMor of a freedom apu^ 
from which tlierc could neither be intellectual expanson ■" 
moral progress." 

Again : 

*' Iq the abwnce, or Jnring the abflynuee. of powerful snimal 'm9a- 
ences,and while tliere ha large niggi'stiri; fimil of ever-shiftier imip' 
natioDB — aa tlie iiieitenieiits of mtiiion. aud an rkubenincc of a>'^ 
which must be epenl — thi-hamnn mini! is c<>ini»g into the nseof ■■si"' 
ber«nt liberty: it ih tasting ihc <Mij(>vtncnt of its birth rig ht~4ta I**'" 
r«i^aty in ivlatiuu to motives of all kiuds. Among these ntti**^ 
wiielher tliey he *lroiiK«- or weaker in themselves, it takes its tff^ 
rufiising to be entbrallcd by any, and fuming every despotian : '** 
learning to be frco.' ** 

It is impossible to sound the depths of the prohlerai bo* 
started. But »e confess that the presence " of a vague infpul* 
to act," and the absence, or faint urgcn(7, " of the appctiM 



ITte World of Mind. 



1B7 



jrt- 



^w«nt*, drnim, nf the animal nature," do not seem to us tlii> con- 

itioti* (if fnwilom. uiil<-«8 nc arc to say that tlic fcutlicr, blown 

ig)itl,v liillitrr aiic) thither by cvt'ry stirring of tbc air, w freer 

' .ail X\u< Ktoiie wliich full*, nt once and witltutit iIcRection, eart)i> 

«nU. IIh; ?taw wliicli Mr. Taylor (b^'ribea i* one of anarchy 

.tbcr tliMi) of inoi{iient lil>erty. It in only in tbc ))rc'!icncc of 

ik-tinilc uiniivM for acting,"-^in the choice l>ct'>Tcn two or 

on* (k-ti:riiiiii9tc courses, — that wc become conscious of a si'If- 

dinvtin^ l»ower sngwriur to the Milicilatiouvi of ciivnni"tiincc«, 

»im! li- ii-fi 1(1 (titiei)iliu» oujwlvcs to its cxertW. In<h-cd, it ia 

^ It that wtr idwavM think and jifwak of tlic freedom of the 

>iti ii- "loral hbcrty. Until con^Jdcrntions of right and wrong 

niter, wo are not conaciouH of its possession ; till then, the most 

I ' ' iiMtion or the most powerful in)|kiihchasnndii'pitt«d 

li tin. There is no (|U(^«tion of an idtenxitive. When, 

liowcvcr. t/ii» in dixnenirrl to lie rti/M, and Ihat wrong, — when 

hat tA pleitunndile 10 forbiddiM), utd that from which we »l)nnk 

:1 n|ioo iiH, hy a myAtf^rioua voice, which yet on/y enjoins 

lid docs not constrain, — wc become aware that it is id our power 

ol>fy or to diftobcy. In the lir»t conflict IxTtwccn natural de- 

and the moral hcdm.', human natnrt: at once Iconis and via- 

icatc* it* fn-rdom. It is nuHcd from tbc \cie\ eX % eoruicious 

fling to tint of n ifmon, and enter* upon tlic prerogatives which, 

far as vre know, mark it oH' frum nil oihtrr orders of animal 

bciog. We regret thnt we cannot follow Mr. Taylor as he tmcee 

rorions feittttres and achievements of human nature, in ita 

i|*hc«t development, to its possesion of the «potitaneuni>, nitde- 

'<\ wlf-direetinj; power of the will, aeting u[K>n the im- 

ji ciinuniiiiic»te<l from the outer worUL It woidd require 

an nwuy an long a* Im own to disousH them worthily: and to re- 

iroduee tbc idea^ of anotlier in any other words than thoM in 

liidt he bsM thought out and emtmdicd them, and deprived of 

iv illitiitrntions which give tbcm vitality, is to do them injiulive. 

: |»()it 11 lilies, wc may brieflv stutc, on which he Ixwcs hiH plii- 

'o^tpiiy iif mind, arc (1), the mdcixnident and real exbtcnce of 

ihf oii'ir world; (2} tltc genuine cauiativc nowfr of tbc will; 

lie aMumptiou. "that in the originuJ structure of the 

< jfc is tiolbing rnllodous, nothing contrary to tlie reality 

things, nothing thai is spurious or factitious, and which, when 

V- nmu- to Ih' better informed, we ahall reject or denounce an 

di>tfuiiu; of which the human race, or tlic nniniitrueted many, 

'ways (he dupe and victim." The-e principle* 

• -hi acceptance. To the first of them Mr, T»y- 

luitliful. at least in sonic of liis ctprci»ionw. His 

iL „ -.1 alidc-' into tbnt of " owmutbetie idealism." He 

of our " DOtioua," our " oonocptiuna," of an oatcr world. 





188 



Mr. Coventry Patmorti't Poemi. 



■ u if we had not k direct apprefaenuon, but oiil^ a ntental rtpre* 
sentatiun of it : and libi dodrine of space as an abetraofion im- 
pluw tlie same thing. It ts Mranf^f, that after ibc rese&n>hcs 
and cnticiania of Sir Willialn lluniltun, this ambiiroitr should 
rhankcterisc the laugui^ of v HI -in formed wiitcTS, wIm certain)} 
in inih<itance and in spirit adhm to th« dodrinm of "natum' 
realiam." Tli« use vhkh ia tdmV: of the socoiid [Mwtnliite aa 
basi* of mondft and theology, so fkr aa their apecu^utit^e foiioda- 
tion is oonoemed, has alreadv been seen. The tliird (which, 
propcrlv speaking;, include* tW former two) is applied to tfce 
reAitation of the selfish and utilitaiian theories of the social too- 
tionB, and to the detiTmi nation of man's rdationx to the on- 
knmrD and infinite. Thia enumeration preaentn but a few of tbr 
toiHca di«citMed. In dwellinf: as we have done on the anialt 
pmniA of differenoB which divide us firom the author, we haw 
prindipnlljr had regard to the claims of hi« work as " an elemen- 
tary book." Wc ha\-(.', thfreforc, animadverted prinripallj <a 
those portiona of it which teemed to lu Ukdy to U»d to mjacan- 
ecptitHi ou the part of ihoae imng it aa an introduction to noi- 
taf science. But in quitting it, we desire to eitprem our ronric- 
tion thai, if not preeisely fitted to answer the purpose inteniM, 
it will disohai^e a function vet mure important. Within Ike 
same bidk, wc VnowofnoworK on thehiglier philosophy abonnd- 
ing more in rcraeious, subtle, and suggestive thousht, clotbnl in 
a style which, if occasionally somewhat too elaborate and '»■ 
TOlv«l, wanting in simplicity and direetue**, yet well refleelsdie 
finer and mcmt <lelicate Hhadea of the meaning it oonreya. 



\ 



Art. Vni.— MR. COTRXTnY PATMORB'S POBm 

7%t Angrl in the Uoute-. Itook I The BetMthaL Book IT. The 
EapuuNids. Bt Coveutrv Paimora. Secintd Edition. laAta- i- 
W. Pta-ker ana Son, 1«67. 

Slmtrton Church-ttnttv, and other Pmim. By Coventry Patm**- 
Londun: J. W. Parker and Son, 18d7. 

It is impossible to imagine any works, admitting of compuixi'i 
at nil, more remarkably contraated than those of Mr. Alaundef 
Smith, reviewed in oor last Number, and those of Mr, CoTtatfJ 
Patiaore, which wc propose briefly to notic*' in this. ThwifiS^ 
not only in merit, but in all those qualities which Icsre tk* 
quMtion of merit utidctc-rminu). They are each the oltaf'* 
nntithesia. Wliat Mr. Smith ist, that Mr. Patmoie empfaaliaBf 
):t not. Inferior in command of words, in ridinesa of imsgeiyij 



Mr, Coventry Pafmon'a Poema. 



18U 




I Tinl 



ft 



in Um mme of liU rhjthnui. in all, in fact, that oon«titut«a Uio 

("JT vcitun? of ["H'lry, U> tin- iiutbor of the /-»/<■ Orama »nd the 

Uif Poem*, Mr. I'ntitiort' U iiifmitcljr miiKrior to tiirii in ull lliut 

emential. HU tiiittrics arc tkot, 'like Mr. Smith's, and tbo 

trth, "u|x>n aotbiog hung." lie has thoughts to etmta, a 

~nitc nu-aning to conrcj, o(U-q subUa aad 8U|^(c«tiTe, and 

•nictime^ deep and true., Atid hi* lansiuigc is tnuisparcnt to 

hiA t)M>n«lit. It liUi it chiscly, likr hanu aiul gWc, It U tree 

'mm all acretricioiiit oroameitt. Simjilidty in it.t oharadcmtio. 

lis miiMe ia not cUd in a co«t of many coluunij but " white* 

robod an«t pure." 

Nor docfl he diScr more from Kfr. Smith, and the spasmodic 

:hool ^nerull,f, in the ohanu.'tcristics iro have named than in 

vidWH of art and of human life. With gniuine poetic gifts, 

lio hiw improved tlwm tty Aedulous culture and 1(1111;. He ia 

not oatcu up with an ambition to produce a poem which ■hall 

*' make pale the hrasfj^art ch<.-ck of the world, nor a victim of 

h(' deliiMon that ku^ a puom can be produecd "at a daab." 

aim is rattier to "instruct iiud warn." He feids that a 

irtliy muae should be emptoyed upon lome worthy sulyeet. 

poeta of the spasmodic school appear to think that the 

tness of their iMwcnt will be Wst tOkown in contrast with t)ie 

ineaa of the topic ou which thev employ them ; Junt as tlie 

mist's triumph would be the ffrcatcr, the baser the metal 

wliiiili \ie ounverted into gold. And if »elf-dii^plsy w their object, 

tliey may l>o right. Mr. I'atmure huxexpreMod a dilferent doc- 

lina in the following liaeo, which «tand near the oouin«»ceiDent 

if lua but poem, and embody ita distiuKuishing tone and spirit : 

" How vilely twcr« t*i miRdcatrre 

Hilt poof* K>ft of perfKt ^Moli, 
Id «oor U> try, with trenUiuw »an% 

The limit of its utmost itaaif 
Only Ut (ound Ihv wretohed pcaiss 

Of whst to-marTOw shall ivot be, 
So motking witli laiai«nal bays 

Tbt crow-bows of nwrtaJity I 
1 do not tltiu. Uy tulh is but 

That all the toveUnem I hd£ 
£i made to bear the mortal Uw, 

And blowoiB In a 1wu«r Sfriajt 
My ctasd dodatss tba co ai shi s paet 

Of body and MiirU, aoul and taiiM; 
Nor eui luy Utti aectfl the Act, 

And disavow iho eooteqaeooe. 

We havn Miid that his views of huouui life arc in contrast 
those of tlw spuMmodic school. In Mr. Dobell's Balder, 
Fbcro, — who, K> br as serious intention can be ascribed to tlte 
sttlhur at all, ia evidently doaigaod to be the type of poetic 




190 



Mr. Cotenirif Palmort'a Poenu. 



gcoios, — a anxious to enrich himself with ■ raricd wmJ Goe(bf- 
like experience of human nature, lie u di»irou« of tastiiig 

" Alt Ihouglita, all p3iaion«, all <lnir««, 
WAaleeer thHlts this iBortsl franw." 

But to do this, it i* nit'cssary that he chouW inow what rmof/ 
is. Thcrofore, to gmtify hiiiiwlf with that sensation, he kill* hit 
innocent wife and (we believe) her tnfaat child. And all tw 
in the inl^rcsls of hi;;h art. Mr, Patmorc's conccptioul ofths 
moral discipline of the poet axe very different. He skiaU ' 
" f[irt with thought and prayer " for hi* task. To him "riawj 
pasuoiu mtMm itoak will ;" while 

^^H " He safest walks in Hnrbv'it irnrt 

^^V Whotc youth u lighted frum aboTQ.** 

I Like those of most yonng pocte, his earlier prodiietions «W 

I of a somewhat dolorous ca«t. lli» heroes were sadly unfa-' 

I tiuiatr, mi>!<tly iu tlidr lutv nflaint. But there is nothing of tl* 

I "enrse (iod and die" style of sentiment, which fcina* lo te 

I considered natural and impresai^'e under such circumsttBCM 

i On the contrary, the one lesson is vmriouriy enforced : 



' Bi'st fruits ftuno not of Btinnleiit ;«an ; 

Quod use liavn ([rii'ftij they tiy 
Th« Mcrcd faculty of twr*. 
And mui with laca ally." 



Wc are aware that it ih asserted hy many that the poe* ta 
nothiue to do with moral comndcrations ; that art cannnt hw* 
an ethical purpose without forfi'iting its own proper cJuncW 
And example* enough can be qnotwl of great poems — tbon^ 
the greate"t — which necm to show that the two are not M 
sarily connected; that views of life tittJe pure and ei 
arc compatihlc with the loftiest imaginative genius, 
other liand, the proof ii> yet more uhundant that the most 
lent morality may he embodied in very wretched verse. ," 
course, if the essence of poetry is truth, the more and the 
the truth it teaches, the higher, other things being n|ual, 
the poetry. The moralist starts from eerlnin principW and 
victioiis, and hwUs alwiit him for the means of most powerfu 
etifiireing them. The poet is (jossiessod with a ooneeption, ibfl 
ideal of a character, the picture of a scene, the grouping 
mutual arlion of rarious connected cireumstanccs and p 
He will he ahle to embody them wilIi moct cflTeet in piW 
aa he sees all the relatioii!> that are involved in them, a 
make the \-isiblc symbolise the invisible. And as there air 
things which do not involve ethical considerations, or considi 
tiotu still his:her, so there are few topics to which such ooi 
deration* will be foreign. Oidy they should appear aa a part 




Mr. Coveniry I'ataion's PottM. 



191 



|)h> vnrk. iiiTolvvd in its comjiletotti-M, nnd not nii &ti infcrencu 

■■'•ally dcduriWo from it. Tin-y sWiild «h!i|»<' and infonn 

I pcTTiuling spirit, niilicr limn cuter any wjnuatc apjjcar- 

uicu fur tluntuvlvvs. Iklr. ratm(»« is far front hcinf; a didoclic 

Bt,-wi pliTVKc U'tiich involvt-s a combinalion of iilcas that ve 

liid iltfljtTult U) rcali>>« at all ; but ptirc and higli aims aiul con- 

ic(iotui hrcatho tliroiif(b all lie wntc*. 

Tlif " apasiiKKlic school " i« »o widely and deeply intlueiiciiig 

Jiir ' rary literature. tJiat Mr. Pat more'* fiwdoni from its 

rliiii I' rions is worthy of distinct record and commciida- 

lioD. C)t living tirit^TK, if ve except Carlylc, none has impressed 

iself HO [lowerfully on the age a» TL-nuyran. lli» genius and 

Ipirit, if they bare not yet aunk donti into the lower Htmta of 

cicty, have Ucon absorbed into, and have thoroughly inter. 

IjH-ttctnitcil — or, perliupB, rather hare expressed and consctoudy 

mind (if all cliisses purtakin;; even the least tinc- 

< 11. Not only nrL- his minutcKt pc<-u linn tics of 

jthouKJit una phnwe n<rhoed back upon a» from ulnio»t everj* 

Ivohtnie of verse that issne* from the prcas, but worka of the 

|]iii;lieft &chuhir»hip and pliiloHoplir find in his nobler lines 

Ithe Htting illustrntion and cmltodimcnt of their views. Yet 

iTi'iinvMniV latnt poem must be pronounced sitasinodie. That be 

ahonid hiivc intlticncfd tho school »o named, is not to he wondered 

at: we may " tmre the noble <liwt wf AU-xandcr till we find it 

Mtoppiiig a Ixing-liole." But that lie should bt: inH»enei-d liy 

, tlieni )u rotum. or even ttcera to have been jk>, is a phenomenon 

Iworthv (if brief considcTation, and not ao remote as it may ap* 

Ipear Iruni the criticism of Mr. Patmore's writings. The origin 

jd piifinliirity of the ripnumoilic whool have had their euuMW, and 

may be diHcovi^n-d. I'licy are the iialurul rcnult of 

rI < iig working in tlic Knglisli mind. Paradox as it may 

liip{ie&r, that Bcbool is t)»e direct though degeocrateoBftpringof the 

mtrdilativc and pliilosophieal poetry of the last generation; it doca 

tiot triee its lineage through Byron and Shelley, with whom it 

'baK ohvioiiH attinitief, but thrimgU WonlsivMrth and Coleiidgc, 

with whom it m-*!tn^ to have nothing in eoniuiun. A few word* 

liiii oli^ar. 

< jxtpnlar, and, in their screral waya, not \c^s itlortri- 
Qna nnit4'inporaries oi these great poets, — Seott and Crabbe and 
M»o<rc, and the others we have named,— deal with ronnintic lul- 
Kciiturc, with vigorouH and putht^tic <lelinent)on of hunum action and 
' i"i "he (tronic uileruncr» of nidividnal |i.-uK>ton or the 
111^. 'ni*re iH M^iuvely a Irsiv in ilieir writings 
^l• I'.ally so eidlcd. The uiiiver^c ami its mysterious 

li' ' li press on them an iif\>tjlt,'Ri? iKYiling and dr- 

didiuu Mlatwn. They aru not " full of the riddle of Uic p*iu- 



102 



Mr. Covmtnf Palmore'a Poeau. 




fill cfcrth." Shelley may seem an exception to tliis mnajli. Bi4] 
he is so only in nppcaraitcc. He did not donbt. Tlicrcis notncti 
of pCTpU'Xixi hcHitsmcy in him. Di-finitc, and e%'en fkrcc, cooW 
tious (De-^alivti though th«y vrf-re) undi-rlie all thai !ie wrote. Hei» 
eftscutially dogmatic, — tlie pronaguidiat of a creed into which u 
impulaive nature and uutoward dnitimfttanoes drove him, ntbir 
than the meditative and open-minded student of ttttorc and rf 
life Almost equally vith those whom wc hAvo named witb \aBi, 
he vrwt a stronger to 

" thni^ al»tiimt« ausfUoninga 
Of iKatrt nud outward lliingB, 
Fatlitig* frcini tn^ vaiiisbingt. 
Blank misgtvioitii of n crcntiirv 
Moving about in wurlilii Dot realiiwd,'' 

wliicb baant the poetry of Wordsworth and Colend)te. 

From the couseientious nud reverent meditation of these 1 
ccndctit thL'mr«, n certain aD:iount, at bi»t a pwing and 
eihade, of itcvptieisni »» warci^ly sipparablc. And grocrally tlwy 
bring with thtm a gtenod of debating doubt of all tbnl it ismoat 
sacred and eeseiitial to believe, under the shadow of which nalnrr 
and life lose all their glory and peace. It was Hamlof* aoejiD- 
cism which coloured the uniri-rse witb the melanelioly bncs n 
which to bis eyes it was ulythwl. TJtcrc are few minds whidi 
haw not at stmie time or other scvii the cxprension of Uw-ir oini 
K;tddv«t moodfi i» ihvfc wcU-knuwii nunls, — '"This goodly fruu^ 
the earth, seemK to me a itertl proniuntorf ; tfai« mowt cxrelinil 
canopy, the air, look you, — Lhia brave o'erfaangiiig, — this mijrt- 
tical roof fretted witli t^olden tire, why, it appears no otiier ihinf 
to me than a foul and pestilent congrc^tion of raponra. \^)>ii 
a piMC of work is man I How noble in reason ! bow infinite w 
fikcultyl in form and moving, bow express and admirable! Is 
action, bow like an angel ! in appreheuxiou, how like a fpod I ikc 
beauty of the world 1 the para^u of animaU ! And yet, to ntt. 
«b»t is this quinteasence of doit? Man dcbghta roe not; n» 
nor woman neither." In closest oonnoction with thi* frame nf 
niiuil are the bursts of passion which urge Hamlet (like a (fa** 
inodic poet) to 

" napsck hit hairt in wnrds, 
Aud fall s-cumug like a very drab, 
A acuUioii;" 

and the pra^^tiiul iireaolutiun *' whieh debara him from wf" 
priocM of great pith and moment," ami i^vpn from the single ^f* 
duty, to which a voice front tiae dead ban summoned him. 

J ust in the same way, tlic feverish esa«p:-ration» and petrfw' 
romplaiuts that make up »o large a portion of Air. Tennnnn' 
Maud are a not unnatural (though by no means the iikenliUcl 



Mr. Coetntry Palmore'it Pomui. 



198 



wme of llio lofty tni] imiui*ircred qtK>iit>oning» of fa Mfmoriam. 
tUcrv ia a lo^-al ns vrelt lui ii (tlirmiologM-n) cuniioction iM-twetti the 
twii workfl. Tti^ra was, liowevor, an alteniatin^, whirh we Iiopc 
niiV Iw y«t rudiicd. It uiaj- yet be giwn to Mr. TcimTson to teach 
UJt Iidw n uliolliT nmy be found from " tlie doubts, dispute*, <1m- 
tntrtioiui, frar*" to which he hns gireu such im|>rcsaivc uttcraucc, 

" [n tho tootliias tli«iij;hts Uiat ipiring 
Out uf buimn tufluritig : 
In the bllh tli&t louk* thnnigh dcntli. 
In fMn dial bring ibe phUotw^lilc mind." 

If Mr. Patmorc docs uot solve tliU pntbl^m Tor tiii, he alMtaiiui 
at Icsit from setting it, Manr jKijiitlar writers, in whom them 
u no tnux- of any real csi>criencc of tUc i>criilexitics and sorrows 
•jmkcn of, i><reni to nseumc them as a prcvxlent lilcrarr fashioiK— 
UK hcifif; (what u cMvA in thi-atrical parlance) " t;ood busini.-9ffi," 
ntid ufTtmling oj)jw>rtunity for m»ny telling poinU. I'rom thi« 
atfectatiiin he is alto^'t^thor free- 
It is a remark of Coleridge's, that all men of genius hare what 
he calls nfeminitif flc-ment in their eharaetcra. If we have any ; 
romplaint to make of Mr. Palmorc, it is that this feminine rlo- 
Dietit h Nomewhat in cxct-ss in him; or, at any rate, that it ia 
not siiffivi^'iitly bftlancod by more mnseuliac qualities. He pro- 
*cribe« war, — "luwly, Uome-<lcwtniying war," — n» a subject of 
poetry ; and aees in Inkermann and Bidaelaira otJy . 

" The oounwc oorpomte tliat l«>ids | 

The oowara to bcrvic duatli," 

Although it in imposfthlc for any one of refined and eultim-d 
Uute 111 rrsid 7'A<^ Ant/rl ia the H'liitr without sincere admiraiioii, 
without reco^niBiii)^ in it the hand of a true poet, a correct in- 
■tiiwt tdla the author where he will find tlie fullest echo of bis 
otni tiu)aght»: 

*' PnJM t}i«n my Song wtiereV ll com**, 
Laditw. whcM iiuiocoDc* niaJcM brigK 
Enalniid, tiie land of courtlv hoioM, 
Tin: wucM'b excnijiLu- uid duliglit." | 

We do iH>t aay thi» nt nil in the way of disparage tDcnt. IndnHl 

Mr. I'ntinurc, with Iva dclicjito ittsight into the relative cxecl- 

leiMfl of the scxea, mtixt conNtder it as tliv higheKt oompliment 

' ' 'j" [laiil him, Uiit [ierhii{i!t hi" fi-miniiie reiutiTs are 

:« >if liiM non-intcJleclual extimate of tltem to accord 

|lii< 'Tiiae he asks. 

I I.' love itaings, is ewcntiallythc "minding of 

[ciwUiiy." 'flic gnKH.1t aud cinirtcsivn of a rHiiwI Kii;;lUh homo, 

' which are not tltii hwa nwtiii'al in tluit tliey ore towditd by a deli- 

ootv art, — fcTiecd round by dccomiu ot-reinonial, — are the thcmca 



V>i 



Mr. Coveatry Patmore'a Poeau. 



on which he <)c)ight> to dwell. It is one whirh povtry has been 
Romewliat »hy of toucbiit^, — wlitcb slie has rather {iruxn-ibed ss 
common. Oeucrally, when she has diadt vritii it. she hw heetniK 
sophisticated aod convcotional, ^nvinp tm nothing belter than 
lijlht vera de tocifti, or the briUiant, satiric, Btirtact^-dehneatKnu 
of Pope and hi« school. As Crnbbc pJctorL-d the life of the 
poor, sbovriiig ii« tittle more Ihiui it» linrd and degrading aocir<> 
Koriev, tlie tnigedy of the outer lot ; fo trriteiY of thii> iliuui \xa\t 
never j>eiietrated below the exterior lil'e of t}»e rich, and ttitvc sliuwii 
only tltc follies and affectations, the phariaaiams and stifling for- 
msiities, which mark it. It was a part of Wordaworth's niiicb 
largt-T miNUoii to n»TaI to us the real pocxr\- of feeling, vhid 
may inspire ervn " the iKX>rest poor," un<l to bind thi-m to us w 
liy thv convictiuU lltiit "we have all of iia one coiniiiuii Ixvrl-'' 
Mr. I'atmorc has aimed at something of the smne Aurt fur c«t- 
taiii as{»ects of life amoit^ the rich aikd n cU-endowed. I'ew vil) 
deny that the qualities indicated in the fullowio^ graceful lini* 
arc litting subjects of pootrf. They p06«c«« an intrinsic bMuir 
aud fascination, \t'lueh «iinply requires tu be burly wt Ibrth: 

IK nausii nnHi. 

" . ■ . . •uTiielliiug iliat abude eudu«d 

With teiDplB-like Topow, an air 
Of lift! Idnd [iurT<o««8 pat«a«d 

With OT^end frvviloni nrcet tml fkir. 
A tcut picoii'd in n world not right 

It iwm'il. whtMW iuiaittvi^ evety cmis. 
On ttitnqii]! fnc«a bore tha li^bt 

Of diitiiTB h<.RiitifiillT done, 
And hiiniMy, thuugli thcj' hnd few wen, 

K«<t tlivtr own luwii, which •««(» d to ba 
T}i« litir »tiai of six ihuotuod y«u>' 

Tiaditioiis of civilitj'." 

ffliere there in this etuential dipiity and purity of ehnnrt^il 
It ^veu grace to all the modia, oommoiqilace and artificial Uicb^*'] 
they be, lhroiif;h which it expresses itself 

The Angel in the House is the hiHiory of a kn-e-suit, fro** 
its commencement to the wedding. The progress of the p***^ 
whieh the anthor depicta in relatcil with dclicw^ and spini, i^'' 
with a Ktihllc inaight into the mttodx and oenttmenta, the Urfi** 
and slindoo A, of that most Bensitive and oapricion* of hnniRn >f' 
fectiona. Mr. Patmore has, what verj' few of hia eoiitemporen" 
appear to pos6e»a, a kcem eye fonndividnaliiies of character, op^ 
cialiy of feminine ehameter. liis women, though sketehed in the 
merest outline, s'ligse^ted nithcr than delineated, are li>ing \*'- 
aonalitics. In tbtx rt-mpecl im dilTcrx from, and has the advantaiy' 
over, TcnnyMon. The Adelines, and Madelines, and ClaribeU oij 
tliat great pocfs earlier etiUsiona arc ecarcelj more real and I 




Mr. CovttUrjf Patmor^t Pomt. 



I<J& 




»' 



than the morvroiDan Trhom he cctcbrntcfl In not diuimQsr 

ins. The Amy ol "Loekslcy Hull" has uo di-tiniti.- punoniil 

iwiotio). Bwt in " Tumtrlou Chwrch-TowtT," m th« " Ycw- 

"TIms Falcon," atiil tliu '• VVoo«iinwi'« DaiighU-r," of our 

r's earlier roliiiiK', mid itk llic thr«c jiislcrit of Th^ Anget ia 

^ou**'; WR f»;] that wo Iia^c (h^itiuct and individual porCnuta, 

hiis4- imffiiialft we caii shajx! images to ourselves. They live 

ltd inoTc : tiioy arc not mere abstmctiotu. 

lutvni|iLTScu l>ctu-uvn the several portions of narrative rerte, 

bioli ti.-IJ tlie story of the wooing of Tht Angrl in the Hwat, 

— Iin-Hxrtl to oadi svctiun of it, — are »hort [io«ni« which the au- 

If dlylrji " jirelmif't," Tlmy are iudinputably thvfiiiefii portions 

the work. Tliev hear much the same relation to their more 

liupfiy theme as the mournful lays in In Memoriam do to sor- 

w uad the sense of bereavement, paiuting it in all its changing 

anil aspects, — at least lu all the gentler ones. The «n- 

r tuudicui often a deep truth with a delicacy of touch and 

uty which tt would uot be eu»y to excel. The brief passages 

folloir u'iii pitrtly, and only in jxart, illuHtrale lliis; though 

lOtc them rather for tlidr brevity than for their su|icriority 

over many others that might bare been cbooco : 

" An idlu Poet, hcru mid there, , 

Looks rcfinid him, liui, for lU tli« r«st, 
Tbo world, iiuGithoinabtj fair, 

Is dallM thau a witlins's j«tt. 
Love waktB men, odw a lifi-tiine each ; 

They lift their bMTjr lids, and look : 
And, io, whst oii« swoot psg« can t4acb 

Tli«; rosd with jor. thtti shut tli< book. 
And son« give tiiauks, and Mtae blaspheme. 

And matt [atg«l ; bat. eltliet- wa^ , 
Tlial and th* Cliild'* imao«d«d draam 

U all til* light of all th«r day." 




" Till Era was brougiit to Adam, bo 

.< solitary desurt trod, 
TliQiidl) ill Llie gnat aociety 

Of Nature, ang«ls, sod of Ood. 
ir one sli^t coliirai) oMuiltr weighs 

Tbo ooMD, 'ti* ill* Maktf'^s law, 
Who dvcini oboili«iKC bctUir pnitv 

TlauMariGoe of erring awa." 

lilr. Patmoro has probably seen in too uiany homea the tm- 
ppy efTcots of a itcglect of the wi»c couumJ thus giveu : 

LOTE cKaiatoators. 
" Keep f«UT undrcsl, bin illnr style 

y-' ■■-"T'-iK, but n^p««t vour frisnd, 
i< I 'laM nukthnioiiial smtiie 

-.. : _-^ hunMT witlioillcud. 



196 



Jtfr. Coventry Palmon^t Poemt. 



Tb fouiul. Mill DMd' ft mnM «ib«, 

Tbu Ufa ftooi IcnrV atlryiuico Stei^ 
Wbsn lova Corgcto liio iDajcrty 

la (loth'a iu>oercmuDi<uj.s ni^ 
Let kn« nuke hviov > gracloas Cont; 

Tbet« I«t t^ irorid's nid», luw^ wtjt 
B* fi^oo'd to K toftUr pott. 

And bam to bow mnd aland at pae; 
Aod Jut the tvtcct raapectin nbvra 

Of pvrvoual worship tbera oliUio 
drcnnfcrwiM fmtnftvinK ol«nr, 

Noiw ttttdiog on BBouicr'* vniu. 
Tlui makta that pIcMima do nut elo^. 

And digiufica our motUi slrifu 
With calniws* tnd oanAd«tato joy, 

BsfltliiV <"*' hBtnortnl life." 

.1 It WM Bcccssaiy, iu order to proscn-c the unity of hi* wtki 
ttiat ^tr. I'atinoro should (.■oiifiiu! hitiiM-lf to tlm ooc aftKtion 
whose rise. gn>«rtii, niiii jm^px^s* lie set hi:n.'H;lf to dcliDeste, OWl 
vho»c piinty luid north ht- iiohlr vimlicatc*. But the effect ef 
tLr cxcUi.'tioii of all reference to tlie inddenta aud iutercstf if 
otl»er kinds which must always coexist cTen with the inot; lb- 
aorhiii^ passiou, (^vgs a somewhat eflcmiaatc tone to at Iw* 
parts of the poem. !Ic seems to take a too " fond" ^-icw of hu- 
man life. Tliia imprci^viou i» aidt^ by the mutrt^, which, thongli 
correct and smooth, is monotonous. Reading coDsiderafale por* 
tionsof it, it Ss impdcMibh'^ to avoid fulliii)^ into a kind offiDj* 
Bong, which, howe\'er aiipnjpriato to such plottages as Uiis,— •■^ 
there are many like,— oocb injustice to otbera: 

"'Dew Felix!' 'D«arnt Honor! Then 

Was Aunt Maud't noUy knod; and ring 1* 
' SUf , Pdii ! ^ou havo caiuht mj* hair. 

Thuok*. I* it miooth I ti'oir will tou bring 
Mt work t Good inominn, Aont.* ' "by. Vast, 

You look uiaf^ifiomt to-day.' 
'Hvi«'a Firlix, Aunt. 'Viz. lud green gooM t 

Who Imnibiomc ffitf, sitould bandsomo paj-* 
' You 'rR (ricndj;, dear Aunt !' ' 0, to bo Hire 1 

Good inoniing I <.fO on flattering Sir ; 
A wouian's likp the Koh-i-uolir, 

Juet worth ibe price that 's put on h«r.' " 

Indeed, master^,' of metrical forms ia not one of Mr, Patmor* 
exei'lleucps. lie has no ejir apparently for the finer cadencw.t'?* 
"dying falls," "the link<-<lKwertneaccs1oi))r drawn out," whicfc>^ 
some jHictji make the fouttil a subtle echo of the »ciiae, and f|>** 
ritualiAc the mere mechanism of verae. Some of his poem* *^ 
written in long lines, and some in short ones, some with altcTM^ 
and others in immediately recurring rhymes ; but this is ill tk* 
diffiTencc, There is scarcely s variation of the accent throogliooi 
the two Tolumea. " Tamcrton Churcli-Towcr" is a talc wcU toM. 



Mr. Coventry Patmore'a Poemt. 



197 



DDtainiiij; many finu putsogcs. But it is impowiiblc to read it 
riUwut prufkiiv nx.-ullccti<iii» of " Jubii Oiljiiu," whidi do mucb 
mluco it to u burluwiui^ Take one verec: 

" Qooth Vrvnk, ' I do t Rtid theDOC foKMO 
And all too i)t>iiilr »caa 
6aBi« MutiniititAl bocuilr 
On VvXy, Iianth, or Man.'" 

■Kor ha* Mr. Fatmore the pownr, oo reninrkAble in TcnnyKOo, of 
^Bnlimriii^ tbc wuiim- )u> dpwrilH-K with the nioo<l of itiiud to 
^■I'luch lie wutfaett to make it sit)>ordiiiatc ; of eroujiing external 
H^frbjccta as socpsAorica to his nmiu idra. This iaoa, iiidcK^, Ti-o* 
ii}-K>ii often Ki'ics nicrcly tiirough the aoccc^orics; it is the rcsul- 
^^uit of their several forcM, a kind of exlioUttion or elUorcsocnce 
^Hum tlu:in, without any Kcparntu ttiibttlantivc cxpivssioa of its own. 
^■kve ara many illuMtration* of this in la Memoriam. Whco 
^I^HpuiMlmil uiteraiicv i» uiveu to txtth, it Li of tUi: briffeat kiiul, 
i^^^l flanh, as it were; aa in an otttburat lu " L<ocksIq' Hall :" 

m; Am;', «baDow-h«Art«d I O my An;, inin« no nont 1 
tlic AiKuy, drcaijr bowIaikI ! O the bomii, banco ihan I" 

liis inxUiHtaneUy i» needful to vffi-ctivc couipariwD. If the 

^'juImjI in dwtilt on too long, it loses its tuyDibuUc character, 

dintracta the attention fi-ooi its own puqiort. Mr. I'ot- 

bos not HiitHcicDtly guarded agoiuAt llii» toror. In "Tfe- 

9U Church •Ti>wor, and, to a less extent, in other of his 

WIS have the stale of miud of the hero descrilied at con- 

rIiIc leuj^h, and then the sccnciy minutely painttxl to oor- 

jiitl. Tlicne rapid and fruinent traiuitiouH from the " sub- 

tivc " to the " ohjcctive " are occiMiouaUy a little bewildering. 

It is only on re]ieated {leruaal that ve tee their aignificanee, and 

the eflix't they were intended to produee. The name of tlie 

I to which these remarks are principallv appbcable is a 

in puiuL Tlie pieoe, we shoidd premise, extends over 

f-threw )iugea. At the (XjiameQcemcat tbc nomtur leaves 

... the Cburcli at TsiocrtoD 
In gloomy «e*t«ni air." 

Tc (In mil ]irar of it again till the lost Terse, when 

■■ O'erli^u) the perfect moon kept fucc, 

'■ '^likiil (H)«cr, 




A« 



lu uastvni hco 
1 -mrdi-Towor." 



chureh synils'li-i-^ iii^ own fortaoca; bat it has been w 
^ight of in the euurse of the etorj', that its rcAppcanmcc 
_ .ily sen'cs any purpuev of illustration or deeper impresuon, 
lot iro ilo nut wish to [art with Air. Pataiorc iu a ciirjiing or 



198 



ChilualioM ad Faith. 



drti»ctln« sprit. In Tkt Amgtt m lie Hbvte lie luw writtei 
a irork «hicli, if not mariud by tb^ attributes of the liigliot 
genius, is yxA, in its *%j, a genuine poen. He baa been bappr 
in the choice of « aobject vibch la inmiiJting to all men st least 
oooc in tbetr liTe», aria to most voBtii dnrins tlic nhulc of ihctr 
Una; and wbidi, wbatenr otber A a mgw tbc worid mav rtt, 
is not Ukclf to grow obooletc. And his gifts arc jtut ibme 
which fit him Iot the appropriate trratncnt of his theme. If 
wc can scaitrlT Tcntorc to propbor with him that he wiJI rinl 
the fame of Petrarch and Daate, — will Uxe, in his own wradi^ 

"To be delight to htoicAT*, 

And into nleac* vaij oeue H 

With ihow who Ivrad and tfaand Ihtirbqs V 

With taaia mud with Bmuw*,"— 

we think that he has a fair tikdihood of a more modest !■■ 
mortality. For the pemanawe of a work does not allo^tdMr 
depend on the magaitnde of the power» whifh have bca a- 
pcudcil upon it; but ou the correspondeiice of tbc powers to tlior 
tank, and their faithfitl and conscientious derotion to it. Aa 
umuatuming rigucttc, minuiclT finished in its every detail, iii»r 
outlast gi;;antic historic pictuies, which exhibit only great soil 
unreaUsed designs. TV .-ingei ia the Htmae will, in any catf, 
carry purifying and elevating inftucncca into manr eimtiiK 
homes, and help to impart a healthier tone to the poetic tilo*- 
tun: of the liar. This surelj shonld be to the autl»or a suffida^ 
if there be no fmther, recompense. 



Art. IX.— CIVILISATION a:<D FAITIT. 

Sitiory of CitUi*atieit i» England. By Hbott Thomas BKilft 
Vol. I. J. W. Parker. 1S&?. 

The author of thb very learned and remarkable Tolnme hisd»* 
boratcd and defended in his introdnctorr chapters a very slarfi>8 
theory ofdrilisation. The civilisation of tropica] and arctic cW' 
tries, he remarks, has been retarded by tbc dominating inflttW* 
physical nature over man ; in the former ca*e throngh the «K^ 
of her proilnctivencw, in the l«tt*T caae through the exa» ^ 
her stenlity. In Europe alone has there been a fair eqiiipoit<l>^ 
twccn human and natural forces; and in Europe alone bascitili' 
sation been proRressivc and permanent. Turning then to t^- 
rojie, Mr. Buckle finds that mental laws hare rapidly cuM" 
upon the physical ; so that the history of European ciribsttJoi^ 



I 



Citiiisalion and Faith. 



199 



wfai 

■ and 



Incomes a liutory of the progrow of the human mim). Further, 
when, looking into the iiiiittl ibtelf, ne ilintinguiali between tliosc 
elements wbicti have been stationary and ud important, and tbo»e 
faich have been camulaCive and proKrca»ivo, he &ndB that the 
■noim) anil reli^ous nature of man may be cliuuiiatc-d from this 
niry. Tho rulif^on of a nation is a symptom of its Ktatcnot an 
infiueiiLV changiii); tliut ■tatw. Evim CUristiaiiity was too " mJld 
and nliilo»0|>bic" for the world ; and it quiclily aiipouretl, aftor it 
" bad rcc«ifeil the homage of the bent i>art of Europe, aixl xeeined 
to have caTTtcd all l>efore it," that " notning had been done." The 
,only motUdiHff iotlucncc which chaa^ man, Mr. Buckle asserts, 
and which n.-fuBe-4 to be changed by man, is intellectual knowledge. 
The history of KuroiJC isa history of the Euro[ieau intellect. If, 
startled by thiM a3c«t;rtion, yon {Miiiit out th:it rivili»iiliiin is to 
tome extent a matter of iiidividiul <-\|K:neiioe; that every man 
Bell kj]ows what it i» within him that makes bim a better mem- 
ber of society, more of a true ri(i2e«, and what it is which resist^ 
die true laws of social nnil^' ; and that the result of such expcri- 
euce in by no means favourable to the supposition that the btud- 
ins force in purely ititellcetual, nay, tlml wwial oblijpition is iu- 
lelle<1ual at ail, — be uill Kiniply reply, licit you are on a com- 
pLetclv wrou^ track ; that it is a complete and f'uiidamcutal mis- 
take tor a man to imagine that individual experience can throw 
any but a misleading lieht on the greater movements of human 
society ; that history ana statistics are your only safe guide. The 
f^TOund of tilts stran<:e refusal to look within the nature of man 
for any key to the problems of his history we niu»t brielly iitiite 
•ad criticise. It setiimn to tu to Ix^ »o direp atid xn pn'jfiiiuit willi 
Uk concluaioiiR, that it vitiate^ Mr. Hueklc'n whole conception 
offaiatory; and if logically carried out, will compel bim to distort 
Ae history of cavUisation into a history of the merest surface of 
cnilisation. lie deliberately mainuuna, first, that the deeper you 
^inap: into tlie individual life of man, the farther yon are from 
uif iJiiiig that alTeclit hia wx^iai history; and next, that it ia a 
iurtunalc circmnKtanco tlint this Khouhl he ao, inasmuch -aa 
^ooly kind of observation which is Kcientifically worthless and 
litlfM of all result is individual self-observatioa. These ai-c 
Itr. Bucklc'e deliberate convictions ; — that what most people call 
'^ irtfirr part of man, his aScctioos, moral natiuv, fitilh, are 
<^tiatcd as mere "disturbing influences" by any n>niprcbpnaive 
■Wey of his history ; while the only part- of human life which i« 
■■■naittly affecting the hJttoiy of the race (in temperate cli- 
Aua) more and more, is the intelletrtual (uirt. More thiin or- 
~ ily good dcaircs iii one section of wwicty cancel more ihan 
uily bad desires in another section ; temporary impulsca 
<f ^naticisra in one age cancel temporair impulses of doubt in 



200 



(Sviiisaiion and Faith. 



luioUicr. Take EuK^nn KwiiHjr u a whole, and nliile other 
eleitientit iluntuate, ouly oii« cli?nieiit rhnngvn iivonrdiiit; to auv 
law of progreasive increase, and that is tlie intellet'tunl lile and 
acquiNtiouB (rf tnan. " Wt- are all sensible," he concedes, " that 
moral principW do afloct nearly the irhuh> of our actions: 
hut we Iiave incontroiTrlihlc [irouf that they do not produee the 
Ivoxt ettbct upon miinktnd in tbv iij^srvgatc, or wen on incn : 
verj- lai^e mawett, i»n»i<ied that we take tlie prcwiution ufstiidi 
ii)^ social plimomcna for a )>erind fttiftii'iciitly lon^, and on 
suflicieiitly great, to cnahle the siiijci-ior laws to come into unc 
trolled operation." And again, he argiieA, " In reference to our 
moral conduct, Iticrx; is not a nnglv principle now known to tin' 
most ciiltivntrd Kiiropi-jnw which was not likewise known to the 
andcntK." " Now," he adds, "xince oivilixation i«the product of 
moral and iulellectual aKcnojeA, and f\ucc- thut prrnluct i* oon* 
atsntly changing, it evidently cannot be regiilaled hy the «•• 
tionary agent ; hecansc, when Burrounding eircumstancce are ua- 
dianged, a stationary a<^':it can only produce a etationary cflivt 
The only other agent i» the intclletitial unu." And on this me 
argument uloiie he h».irH tho ver}' fitarlling propotMil to eliminate 
all moral and religious influence!* from liix eutniieratinn and hi»- 
torv of" the determining causes of civUinalioii. " I plwl^ mt- 
scli," he adds, — surely ^oniewhat rashly, — '" to S'how that the in^ 
gress Kurope has ma<)e from barbarism to civilisation is entiniy 
due to it« intclketual activity." That a thinker so able » )ir- 
Buckle nhould no com{>letcly be imbued with the notion tlut 
knowledge, in some Kliu|)e or other, is the only power that can 
introthice tuty wt fnrt^c! into human life, as to overlook qaitD 
uucnnncioiiflly the very trau»]iareiil emifuNion in the Aolitary u^ 
ment we have quoted between the xLationary character of man'* 
knowledgf of moral principles and the stationary character of 
man's obedience to morid priuciplea, and of their liring iafiw*" 
over him, in one of the most surprising testimouics we have ntf 
seeu to the narrowing {hiwit of a Nchool of lliooght. The wliote 
qncxtiou at issue Mr. Buckle paiisf^ hy wilhmtt a sign of ntogai- 
tion; the ()ne(ition, we mean, whether or mrt ci>iliiRitioti fJeiieid*- 
not on the "discover;/" of moral tniih, but on the fidelity lo inoi«» 
truth, and on tiic indux of new aud powerful spiritual iiitlBeDOt* 
into human history, which, while adding uothnig to the diKO- 
veries of trntb, add inlinit<-)y to men's fidelity, and the wiUiiigaM^ 
of their iillegi.inee to truth. Uuietly anniiming that if tlwt* 
could be any new moral Influence on Hooiety at all, it could ^ 
given-ofl' only hy new moral disco^'eries, he of course exdudcA »* 
once tlie possibility of admitting volition, or seutimeut, or tmti^ 
which can only add new force to old feehnga, into hb i 
ciii-ilisatiou. 



CivUUalion and FaUA. 



!»r 




He (nuih- kacU nn, tliorefore, to tlm foitclusion that the "to> 
lity of hamaii artioiiH" (IcikikIii entirely from age to age on tbc 
< 'itie« uf homaD kiiunWcir," — action, Mt far an 
■ ■ Ijy kiiuwWgv, HUL'ix-t^liiig in I'Aiicvlliiit; ilcull'. 

" TIh' ^gkiitio irrinifg of AtfxnniliTr or Nujiolton l«crmic. •ftcr '• 

Void of fifrcl, «od thp aflaire of tlm wortd rotorn to tJieir fonner 

IliU i< tbc el>l> Bt)<) flow of hietnrj', tlto prr^>«tiMil Huk to wliicd 

' tho luws of our uattiiv we are m1>J«oL Above all this, tUrre la a 

br litifliff iiu>v««iii!nt : uud m t)>e tide rolls oo, now adtttirinK, now 

rennliii)], tbum ia, nmid i(a vodlaaa AuGUations, uuu thing, and on« 

altfDo, wbich «ndiiriis fi>r erer. Tti« actioiu of bad racu |<rvdiice onty 

irary vfH, th« BUttuiu v( uuvd uou only tumjiurar)- Kmul : and 

J)y cli' i*0"d noil tli« «vil ulliiKctlMT KutniOu. urv iirutrnliKd by 

tiui"' itl>turlK^ liy ttio iDocMBut muveiitciit of fuUurC 

.IS »r great mca iivver Ivavo ua , tltoy are iui- 

^iitnict thoao otcnial triitlts wbioh aiirvivo Ibu sliock ut 

>i! tho «triiggl«a of rival nvcds, and witiioM cIm d(«ay of 

sivr nili^iutia. All Iheao Iiavc Uii'ir diflt'iviit iinM^urea uimI thnt 

rot slamlariltii ou« aet of opiiiiiiiid for oui- n;;i>, aiiutb«r set for 

Jicr. TItey poaa away like a drt-am ; they arc m* the fubrie of a 

liiua, which learea not a rock behind. The diwcovcrie* of ];^)tu 

Jaiiv rctnaiii ; it in to tbctn wi^ oir<' iJI that wt> now liavr, tlioy are Ibr 

^all ^M attd all tjtnta ; n«ver yotmg, aixl nerer old, they bear tko aooda 

of their owti llfn ; tli«j- flow on in a perennial and unilying stmam ; 

^tboy ujv Manrtialiy ctunitlalire, aod, giviaic Urtb to tli« additiOBS 

iriiioli th«y aiUiaeqaatilly receive, Ibey thua iiillu«DC« tlie tnoat diMaot 

rity, and after Uio lu]mL- of o^nlunM pmilui-i.' more vfTnittJiai) ibey 

I'uUe III do evmi »t llii.- mumcut of tJicir iiruiuul^jniiuii." 

But Mr. Buckle's moat cliarsu-tcriHtic appliratiuu of lliia 
^_i)(>Ctniie in to bin coaccptioD of what history ia and attoiik) Iw. 
^btttviiiu; laid tbc roiiudatioti by t-liin iiiating tnonl ctenieuts — not, 
^nff' iiiiut ciirrlully rcrtiifmbcr, from human aodcty itself, hut 
^UiTitu till- law of Mx-uA r/ianffe-^\e |C'>ca mi to nr|cuc, that bi«<tary 
^hn|bl to reconi tbii^ii- furiti only whtcli liriii^ with thrm aorial 
^HifiBtioiiM } aitil qlioiild paiia by as iiu)iniiiti<Miit those which mfri'ly 
liel|t ua to realise tbe essential uiiity of the human race, and to 
pMB iti Uio juMt tlie same hopes and fi-tin, the rnnie ctirioaity, 
nil till* aanio |n.t.iioiM, a»<l olicn tuo tlu.' »anie tluctiintin|^ faith, 
ittiie tliir e.-cHinilial jMirbi nf human lil'«>. The historian 
■•I ir tliv mninf day.H (rxiieby in [heir e!L->cntiul ideittily 
iUid ihrir c'baritettfiiitic ditlercntf* I'mm. the livinff; it is 
Tbiaiu duty to iieconl these fuels nhieh arc chaiipng tlic 
u-iol (■onditiou of natious, mid to |)aM by all life and iticideait 
. in iliHif^niticant of piugrmuiiTli itiomiK-nt, a« the mcnt aitec- 
anil [i(Hwip of the piut. " In tho study of tbe history of 
," be mvK, " till '.lilt facta have bi-on ueffUx-tcd, 
the uuiiiipi)rt:uit li Tbc vaat mi^ohty 




20S 



ChUitatiom and Faith. 



of hUtorians fill that voriw vitb tlte most triflicg and mi- 
aenUe (letaib ; penntal anecdote* of kin^ and couru : inter, 
minable relatiotn of what waa said by ouc iuiiiut«r and tcli. 
'was tboucbt by another; and, wone thau all, hmg accounts 
carapeigos, battks, aod et^cs, vor iDU-rwhiig to thow ni^agod 
ia tli«a, bat lo tu aiterly laetcst, becatuc Uity neilher furnith 
new tnUha, nor da tkey tu/jptu ihe tatvns bjf tr/iicft nao Imlh 
ntag ^ diiooverfd." The last cciiL-tut; jioe* lo tbe root of Mr. 
Uuckle"* |)lulonupIi5 of lii»Iurir ; «!iai li£ priucipally values w 
tbe diacovoy of intellectual irutli, itot a deqicr bold of »H 
tmth. He evidently conceiTea of iDan as an object of inlVKM. 
because ius bislorr is capable of " successive giciicralisiilioB)," 
instead of bolditi^ tb&t tb€sc f^encralnattom (if irae) dtfin 
their interest matnlr fnmt tbnr moote nonneiction with una- 
He doe* not care to know what a man vra-t, what he felt, vhal 
be thought, liow the world lixiknl to him, bov far he iookol 
through the world to a divine life bcvond it. Art, and wr be- 
lieve alao literature, be expressly states to be " lower" Uum «i' 
cnoc.* Uistoi^- he indi^autty hopes to rescue from the liand* 
of " biosraphcrs." He wama us how apt i» the hiitorixa to 
" sink into the annalist." and instead of nolving a juohlcta, 
merely to "paint a. picture." Surely it dei>eud« aometbiiig «i 
tbe kind of ])rablem aolvea). and tbe kind of picture paiaiei 
vliieh is tbe higher work. Mr. Buckle eaunot too deeply ex|BW 
his digiii5nd xaliNfaction in the disrorery of any of those " wc«- 
cesMW eeneraltsationM," by which it is, for ioatance, asecrtiincd 
that " the number of roarria^ies bean a fixed and ddinite rds- 
tion to the priee of com ;" or that the numlx-r of suicides in !/)■■■ 
don attains a maximnm in the hottest montb:t uf the year. But 
a historian who only tises for the fatuie the Hying ci>loun of tic 
past, though ljrK-4illung into it ue<rcrthele»» the living spirit itf 
the present. — -who only telln u*, for innlaitce, liov, at iheThebaD 
banquet before the battle of Platieee, the Pcniau othecr, ovO" 
powered by strong forebodings, predicted with streamiDg ejcs 
to him who sat nest him at the feast tbe inevitable fate of 
liOKtx of his countrvmen. and his own helpUi^nesa to atett 
or who merely O-v-ords how each of the (iracchi, in his own 
racteristie fiLihiun, won tlie ear and heart of the Kuuiun nv 
titude, — the elder by hi* quiet aiitliority and self-restraint, th^ 
younger by hiii reatleaii and eloquent pasaion ; or who dJ^ 
paints for us how Cromwell " tunwd the tide of battle on M»r- 
ston Moor ;" how Cli^'e hesitated on the cro of Plaasey ; LoVf. 
in the opening of the French ittnulution, tJie moody and mi' 
fterablc wointii of Paris burst in njwu the palace of Vcrsaillia; 
bow KoWnpierre ruled, and bow desperately be struggled bc^£ 

•pLS4t. 



ejes 
rtha^ 



Cmlifaliou and Fitith. 

he fell ; — historians who do this for mt, imd notliing more, are 
coDtcmptuouslj- claaaed by Mr. Huckk tat " luo^nyiher*, gene- 
alogUts, collectors of anecdotes, chronielers of courts," or as 
men: compilers, who "trespass on a province far abote their 
OWTi." Wc arc not sure but that any painting which liclps 
na to rculiKc vividly one Kring crisis of past history is n clwpcr 
lesson in hi.^loric wisdom than to niiu»tcr the whole tniin of 
"sncce^iive g^Pfaliiiatiiin*," winch can be got e-x«i«*ively by 
■Dmpaiing tbc dilferent " totalitit'.t of Inimaii km>vrl«(lge" at 
TOficrent a^^en of the world. In fact, history does not its work 
for lis at, all unless it teaches us to di^tin^ish between the va- 
riable and the essential in hnman existence; and thio it cannot 
adeqnatcly do iinh-w it makc« ii» rcaliw- bow the iWpcr life of the 
past hani iM vivid a ripple of temporary intcn-rt on it« surface 
as onr own. We art- apt to lose lialf the wisdom that hiittory 
might give us, by disconnecting the dim bistorie fornir> that flit 
before as firom the detail and characteristic " anecdote" of out- 
ward and dailv life. Perhaps Plutarch baa taught the world foil 
as mtich as Thucydidcs. \Ve do not realise e\'en wliat ancient 
\'ioc» and ancient virtues mean, — wc do not sec the nipnificancc of 
faith, or idolatry, or law, — initil the minute biogriiphic toucbc*, 
rhieh Mr. Bnekle seems so much to despise, are aclded to tho«o 
[general i»nt ions" concerning the "totabti^ of human know- 
Igc" which be appcjirs to consider the escliwiw work of the hia- 
an. Even, thcrefonr, if the intellect were (which wcdo not in 
; least believe) the dynamic or moving prmcipte in bumnn hi*- 
_ y, we should utterly deny that a historian wlto sbouiil csclu- 
litvuly narrate those events which " fiimisb new truths, or the 
^TOfans by which new truths could be discovered," had performed 
I the most csMintial portion of \iw Uak. We re«d history to 
I what man «>ttt, not only to sec what he berame. 
But though this be true of history, vf it equally true of the 
of civilisation? Is not civilisation a state af becoming, 
a state of being V ITionerh our author does not lake the 
Aiaclion for hiniBcif, wc may fairly take it for him. He mi<;ht 
aly enough that the historian of a nation's civilisation is 
ad to give the picture of its whole life ; but of the modi> 
. only that arise from time to time in that life, «» its m>- 
7 became more and more (or leas and leas) eiriliaed. And 
I i> tnic enotigh ; but still these changes, as tbey arise, most 
\tomuxted with the deeper workings of the national Ufe, other- 
it is certain that they will not l)c truly rccordwl at all. 
ling to Mr. Buckle's theoryof ci\'ilisation, thisisnoi in the 
ceHaarr ; for the moral life of nation* is eliminated wlieii 
at tVcm on a 9cale suffieiently lai^. llie good and 
) justice aud the injustice, the humility and the ambition. 



301 



CmlUatioN and Faith. 



are, oit tlic whole, in cquilibnum ; »iul to write ttie histucy of a 
nation's civiltmitioii U to write tlie Imtorjr of itit intellect, which 
aUiiie oiui iiiliirrit tht; cxiK^rieiioe of lUe piiat, and aloiie, tltiovfiue, 
sirays tlie social changes of the prcKnt. Ilio intellect uf post 
ages raises tlio platform on which the intellect of this age staudt; 
but it is not so with conscience and emotion. Wc do not di»- 
tiiignixh rtglit and wroii); mure vividly ; we do not love and hate 
more inlctMuly ; wc do not )x-licvo with increasing and more uii> 
queittiouing trunt, — because our fiitben have weighed right and 
wrong, have lored and hated ai>d trusted, befon^ »». Wc an 
distance tliein more and more in knowledge ; but the moral ieid 
of age aAcr age Huctuatea between nearly the same limits. 

This ID Mr. Buckle's argument ; and we will wilhuj|;ly eoncole 
tJiat the intellect is becoming a more and more powerful itutrU' 
ruettt in human civilimtiuu. But tJie instrument uf eivdisatiun 
is one ttung, and civili.iation it.->elf <iuite another. It is not ta 
tlie least true, hut the revenie of true, tliat the intelleetwd lawt 
aie the "superior" laws, which gain more and more upon the 
phjraical, moral, and spiritual laws. It is not in the least tnu 
that the iutcllcx't is the superior faculty, — tlie faculty that b capa- 
ble ofthi; most indefinite expansion, and which a»uuics therefore 
ooustaiitly iiu-reii»ing proportions to the physical, mural, and ff«- 
ritual £iculticu. The intellect ha« not more csjianKive force iba 
many other fuenltiea of human naliur*. anil not so much as «aae> 
When Mr. ititckle di^tiuguialira between tlic iulellectual ualot 
of man and his moral and spiritual nature in this, tlut iIk finri 
is more " essentially cumulative" in its influence oo bumau hi*- 
tory than the l.tttcr, no doubt he meant to cxprcsa an obsrtwd 
fact. But «lint it the fitet whidi lie hod obM-rrod? No dgtbl 
this, — that idl Tuond and M)intu:i] truths need, as we marMf. 
perpctuul vuritication and rc-dixcurery, in order to esert an iu- 
duence at all; while intellectual truths exert a lar^ inJlueacf » 
mere machinery, — as lixod data which the piacticjU man tunu 
into practical convenience. Embody the discovery of the aUDv 
sphere's weight in a banHneter ; and even if the truth on ^^^ 
it reata sliould ever be forgotten, the invention which wa» t>>e <iJ^ 
spring of that truth misht iitill survive to aeoumnMxlnte muuki&il- 
But embody the truth that " the more familiar we are with oioi*' 
evil, the 1«S8 we know of it;" or that " tbe word of Uo<l is quii^ 
and powerful as any two-cdgcd sword," — in any form von will.*"* 
they convey no meaning at all, i^xccpt so far as tbe spirit in «hid 
tiiey were first reeordi-d l-> still alive ; and if they are er^'staUu'" 
into moral or religioua iniililiili(iu:(, those in^ttitutious must beoo"' 
•beer deiid weights on society in pri>{K)r1iun as tlietr sjuritusltif' 
nificaiioe dies away. Tliis in clearly Mr. Buckle's meaning, sul 
uo doubt it is correct; but it is very ill expressed by saying ih*' 



Civilwation and Faith. 



505 



intcllertoal power is cninnliitiv«, ntid moral or spiritual power 
not to. I'\>r it is exaetly in projiortion aa iiitpllerrttuil [lower ii 
capable of yicl<tm>; firaits wluch an< non-intellnctua), that it i« 
more cumulative than moral or spiritual pow^r. I n olhpr words, 
BO far as the intellect etui tic made the effcetive instrument of 
other finmnti desires nnd cnpneitJes bi^iile the inlt^'Uixt, so iar 
i« it more eiinuiliitive than faeiitticji which have no ciwl out of 
theuuiclveA. Hut thi» t^ only ».nying that i>it«llnctual iigcndes 
are au)»i<liary and instrumental to moral and apiritiia) ajceneies, 
while the latter are not aubsidiarj- and instrumental to the 
former. Suppose for a moment that it verc ncccssarv for all the 
intcUeetual proccwira wliieh lead to scieutific results, — to the 
telcgni{ih, or to the inauiifiicture of cotton, or to the eure of 
diseaae,-— to be more or lexft adefjniitcly roiili.->cd liy all who bene- 
fit by them, — aa it is i» the ease of moral and spiritual tnitb,— 
and we should soon liud that intellectual truth was far leaa 
cnmulatiTC than moral or spiritual truth. It is not so with the 
renttt» of ititt^llcetiuil disteovt-rj', simply becauec these result* be- 
come Milwniinjitc agcncir* to other and more active [wrtion* of 
hiimun iintiire. The intclWtiinl laws arc, in faet, immetbately 
uihordiiiated to tlie phv«ieal, mora), and jtpiriliial desires. I'te 
result.') of intellectual macovcry in the streets of I/iudon are ae- 
cumulated, duitrihaled, eonsumed, far less in aecordanee with 
intelleotnal laws than with those primitive wants and desires of 
hnmau nature which they arc the mere iiistrumenta of satisfying. 
For example. Mr. Buckle has formed (he manellous and, for a 
man of hiK intellectual attainment, nlmo»t incredible connction, 
that Adam Smith's tt'r-altA of Satiata is "pmbahly the moxt 
importiuit book that baa ever been written." Now, supposing it 
vnre «o, liow much could that book have effected throngt purely 
intellectual agency, if its coneluBions had not been directly sufo- 
mdiary to some of the 8troii(^«t pa.<sions of human nature — the 
deain! for subsistence and wenith, and all to which wealth is 
atOR or lew xubordimite ? Much, no doubt, of the commercial 
frealneM of ihiN country ta c^uHcd by the dearer vitton which, 
thtDo^h Adam Smith, these de&ires hare attained, lint what 
«ndd the theory have done without the dcsirts? Which was 
tW eunulatiTc, and which the merely subordinate, n^>nt? The 
l(|idatDr learned of Adam Smitli, and set commerce frrc. But 
vat might hnre la-cn done and not a step gained, had not tlw 
(ipr forees nf [ihrHii-jd and moral desire puriied in to till at once 
tbe giround thus gained. The intellect ia eumulntivc in Mr. 
Bodde's aenae onlv because its results arc fitly instrumental to 
I dcHrca that are other than inlcllcctoal ; while the hi|[hcr cajia- 
• Mies of human nature have their fittest cndu only in theTOseivea, 
ud ore utterly distorted and defaced by being made the inatm* 



20G 



jObMba/i&n and Faith. 



menu of lower cajncitie*. The tranait iufttntiueut, the dio: 

tlie Mitiool, tbe nliop, the lomiuotitc, tlic or^aii, are all more 

lesA reotilts of iutcUectual |)Ovcr ; but all, eiceptiu^ onl^ the & 

of iJic sema, exhibit the iutcUectual power in service to oi ' 

tbau iutcllectiutl dcsirrs ; and it may he affimiLtl without ' 

tation, that it is rather the wcakiiuM or »lrcugth of thtwc di>, 

ithau any intellectual considcnitiou wlilch (Ivtermiiie* tlic ci 

tion of « natiuit. Why ham Ituliii ntood lilill for ages? Xot 

waul of intellectual faculty, but for want of spiritual, moral, 

uhyaical eucr^', — from lau^^uor of niah, and languor of wilt, 

ua^^orofoonscieucc, andlanifuoroftriui, — bccatue the iutttOo^ 

ttial fiu-ulty has found no active employers, — because the "slaiL- 

of the lamp" has never In.'cil summoned to his wgrk. Why, too, 

ditl Mr. Itni^ltle take uo note of tlu^ de«ay uf Oreeoc and Koine, 

where the inlellecltukl conditionii wane all unaent, aud were noC 

" cumulativt" because the uioral forces which uacd them weraali 

in anarchy and selfish discord? It is worth noting, again, thu 

there is uo trace of any tendency iu the intcUcctual faculties tn 

gain way oo the other elements of human nature. Ho doobi 

they aru dcvetopL-d iu a lai^er proportion of Uie {leoplc of mudetn 

days; bnl tlinr intrinsic ca|»city fur rtlutive expaiiKtou i> v 

limited by tliti pii^anure of oClter wanta and desires att ever. Kc 

mtellcct of later days has ever equalled that of Plato, VvJoilAi 

iin tho intellectual cla&scs of Greece the relative power of the ia- 

.tellect in proportion to the remainder of human nature attained 

^bi climas, because it was then duproporiionvteiy strong. 

_i Mr. lincklc's deeply-rooted impression that the intcDceU)' 

ilaw!< ofMJciety arc the "su|)erior laws," that they exhibit tk 

i"dyuiLDiie»" of sociid exi»tcuce, the muviuj; forcu*, instead of tl^ 

m^^y racilitatiuji oondiliotis for other and dee|>er furec» \a TO^ 

upon, is fostered by hia extraordinary prefcrenee fur »tatiitic* 

OTcr psychology as an index to the real laws of tho human niad. 

,|Ie tells us that self<obsemitioo can nciur lead to any aoconl^ 

I jrenult, that it misleads metttpbysiciaDS into all sorts of Mschuoil,-' 

that tlie observation ia made through a disturbing mcdiuia, b^ 

cause tlio watching oonaciuttsness ia subject to tlie very flucta- 

ationa of tcinficr it necdx to wacdi, — tliul, in shiirt, the if 

that statistics lercid are certaiu because tbey are lun> iwkrpei^ 

cnt of the accidents of individual character, while the iudividw 

observer must be in danger of generalising what ia peculiar to 

nhimsclf. Thus he proves frce-wUl to be a chimera by tbettui^ 

tics of crime and suicide, which show an UDcbanged arcra^ tf 

suit for nncliiingcd physical and social conditioiu ; ami he e&piaiio 

to UN (hat ' ' p;u:a]lel chains of evidence" " force u.t to the eonclnaeo 

that the oirences of men result nut so much from the vice* of tik 

individual oSeuder as from the state of socic^ iuto wludi thl^ 



I 



CivUisalifm and Faith. 



207 



individual is thmwn." W« mitflt devote a fe.w words to this ata- 
tistical aspect of civitbin^e causc«, because wc bolim'e it to be one 
of the most tellin<; fallacies which sustain Mr. Uuckic aud hia 
Bchool in the rcfiiiMil to look ttUhin t\ia laiud, at the courocs of 
vnliiiim, for the Kourctit of nntiomd dccu}- and aatioiial ercataen; 
while it n-iilly isoiicofthcvcrrithaiiowcst fitUitcics bv iTliicli acole 
iDtella«!tH c«ii be deceiviHi. Tin- hiIvochIcs of tiiis ilieorv do not 
that stJitistics could not rei'C^ the real bu^ of any |)heuo- 
caa at all unless the phenoineiia studied wera subject only to 
IB simple lair of causation. No doubt statiKtica mi^bt and did 
il the law that fallin-; bodies pass throiiish spaces dnc to the 
thV attrnvlion in the sncccssivc sreouds; but tliis ia only 
beeauae thv nltractiuTi of the curth is the cue fuix;c. totally over- 
powering all (xiinplioittiri^ mid diNtiirtiiti); forcm. Bui w applied 
to a comnlirattori of ciuisis, all tlmt MittiHticn 0»ti ponibly show 
ift the residual force, — ihR feather that turns tlie scale. Statis- 
ticii can iudicatc by no sort of sif;u the pnwi^rfid forees wluch arc 
counteracted byotJier powerful fore«s. If the opposite scales arc 
wn-;''**^' "''b powcr^thftt.uncounteracted, would more the world, 
the ]>uttin<; in of tbc fciither will «till be followed by tliw de»oeiit 
of the M-iile, jiu-il ai ifthcv bail both been empty; and tlie statia- 
tictaii wriu-H tlown the feather iu the mle canw of the event. Now 
bnw sueh a proccu, which neneiuarily cliotinatea all the tctnpo> 
rarily oouitterpoisin^ forces of hunum natuni! fk>m ita eonaidor- 
atiofl alto-;»iber, can be mipposed to reveid the [iroper laws of the 
human mind seems marreiloiis euoogh. HtatiHtics, if carefully 
drawn up, may he vctv useful in detecting »l^ht retuinul in- 
ttuvii<H>s; hut as Mtpcr>4-ding inr»ti^ution into the mus» of the 
I»»er« really at work, it lawU to mt-rc delutton ; and a» an at- 
Mtatioii of thfl necessarian doctrine, it wcniH to us a tbonHighly 
Woderiiil piece of jugi^lin^. No man aupposca that the will is an- 
iiiHucniW tiy motives, thou|;h ho mav lielieve that it has a power 
of dptmninin^ to what solicitations it will <iuiTendcr. No man 
4»J9 that the more temptation iImtc is, the more crime there is 
■cly lo be ; the oidy question bcini, wlicthcr the proporlionalo 
Ucreuc m iJways oo exact that it lenvcs no room for the iutcr- 
^nitioii of a certain ci]ii'n!ie of resisting power. And if any man 
*i>ii|K:ak certainly tnr bim!>elf that hiti jirxMutin^ temptatious have 
(•fr i]|creasi!d in a greater proportion than his moral restraints 
I *<)knit producing a proportionate increase in his sorrender to 
WM) temptations, be hofi solved the problem for himi>«lf at ooee 
j W fer ever. The indetenninntc influence of the will, nhich, if 
Jaily free to choone between op|>ositc solicitations, mipht neco- 
■vilrbe thrown intoeither«cale, eould not {>o»sibly lie discovcrml 
^tlatistics without a previous certainty of the equilibrium of 
■■Aer teudencicsj which it is iinpoastblo to ascertain. And eveu 



208 



Gcititatioti and Faith. 



thui. in 3u<ljn>iS for a largo oiam of men, the ntunbor of enso 
in vrhu'li tin: will'« caating; voU> went fur rifrht mictit be cancelled 
hy Um: mimber of cases in wliicli it went for wronp. 
i Mr. I) tickle's objection to the medium of psycholt^caliavrst)- 
gation, on tlic old (jnound that the oincrviug mind ie clouded br 
the vorr intensity of the ex|)erietK« it wunts to oWttc, is detrhr 
not iFithout weight; btit, tkt adl ercntx, it in the only medim 
throitf^h urliicli we eait hope to get a .Heieutific knowlalge of the 
hiwK of miiiit at all: and a^ainai the special 6eSectA c^theolK 
aen-iii;; me<lium must he set off one or two special adrantiga 
which other Bcienccs do not possess. W hen Mr. Uueklestatea, Uol 
except a few of the lawn of nswciution, vision, and touch, " ikn 
is not to be found in the vfaolc eoinpiua of mctsphysicK a nn^ 
principle of imiturtuiioe, and at tlie Kiune time of incoDtaaUt 
truth," we can only &ay that we are quite unable to acqiMwe 
in luH arbitrary dictum, and that we believe thn ethical achul 
founded by Iti^hop Bntlcr is destined to elaborate a Cfeanott 
science of the mortil nn<l active aflTcetions of man. We an va- 
prised to stc that, in enumcrntiug the ethical theorists of tht 
ao-cutceutb und eightecntli centuries, Mr. Buckle compleM! 
pa.-<»<-!t tner one w> vaiitly superior to all thoNe whom he tcU' 
memles, in detith, breatllh. and, abcn'e all, reality of tbou^hl 
And wc are fidly convinced that a little more sympathvwillil^ 
great thinker s fundamental assunijitiun of primitive forces po> 
oet^ini; from and original in the mind, — not mere reflex staW 
(wflAj) produced by tbc action of the external world, but iin- 
pulses social and iiidiriduni, urging man into an external warM,-' 
"would have givea n life and truth to our author's intcrprctahoM 
of national history, which muat liare reixlered it far more mnkf 
of the extraordinary' learuiugaDd twt onlinary geiiej^Iiniuf poW 
that those interpretations erince. Ah it is, the aetiie parti*' 
national character vanish wholly away beneath Mr. Buckle's tit* 
mcnt ; or arc seen but dimly, as spiritual soils absorbii^; a p^- 
dually accoraidatuig dew of knowled^, which others by its own 
bcneficrnl laws, and •onichon* carries tlii>*P bt-neficent U»» "ii^ 
it iula the formless national life into which it Miiks. 



We have analysed briefly our author's philosophy of arilif** 
tion, and shown what wc believe to be its radical errors. B*" 
fore touching on any of his historical iUustraticHis of his thetf^< 
we shall, wc think, best illustrate our theoretical criticism W 
disctusing wluit sort of utrength or rirtue it is that barbarisd* 
may lose, and often has lost, in {)a»iiig into avilisation. 1^ 
is a simple matter of fact, that barbarism has often de^rad^ 
much by tlie steps which ou<;ht to have civiltsed, nay, whick i^ 
some spurious sense did cirUise; but which left meu mutwdl/ 



Civiluation and Faiih. 



300 



vithout any mutua] respect, because they left men 

a aoeial combination that had ceased to be lifc-^ann" and 

witbuut ceasing to be ncudful. If vc do but hutvct 

history of the world, vrc viitiH undonbtMllv tiud more cwua 

niuuoccasfid tbait of ^ucccsnful civilisation, Mr. Buckle has 

If notrd and discutuied a fev — not tbo most iiu|iortant — of 

and we sbtdl have occasion to examine tbc [larlial solution 

proi>oses. Hut he docs not commcut any where on the cs- 

itial moral degeneracy which often marks the transition irom 

■bsrism to a more n^tiui.-(l mid i-oiupk-x iioi;t»l lile. Yet it is 

ions, that the vanous natioiiH of Mabdntetaii faith Iiktc cvtirj 

seemed to part with their tine^t char^ietenHticN, — to Iom^ 

gleun of many stem and brilliant military virtiiu<, — uheu 

SpoAed to an atmofphcrc of tranquil industry and aoeumnlating 

Vr^tli. Tlic Turk, as we know, scarcely resists the decompoOBg 

""iwer of that European cinlisntioti into the heart of which he 

successfully fouj^ht litu way. Thi^ Tni-kuiunn Mussulman in 

ia had virtue cnou;^h to conquer a country whivli he hud not 

uc enough to hold ; and yet the dynasty which has just ended 

foulc-tt of im)>erial careers at Delhi ftave promise of really 

qualitica when Baber was fircsh from the wild regions of 

ixiana and Cabul. In China, too, the Northern Jlongols 

iftTcr triumphed over the Chinese hy » su|X'riority which 

immediately lose throni^h mere contact with the civilisation 

bare bcatcu. It lookii um if the life of the desert and the 

were a needful prejiaratory nchnol in the East for the life 

of the eitiex of the (ilaiu, and that not unfreijuently the former 

atage of civilisution has been tempted too sooij iuto the latter. 

Bnt it is not perhaps till we come to the civilisation of (irecoe 

■nd Home that we hud any distinct and conscious expression oi 

totiooal distrust as to the teiidenci<^-s of civilisation; and these 

Ota Mr. Buckle utterly pns>eN by. It i* clear that, to tlte 

Gtf«k and the Roman, civilisation, though an incritnble proccxn, 

4(tai tieemed a very doubtful good, tomotinies a very certain 

^*iL Tliey perhaps did not very clearly define to (Iteinnf.lves what 

Btbcjr meant by it. But thouf^h they would not have disputed 

' Mr. Buckle's detinitiuu that it is meiisurahlc, in part at least, 

fij " tbc triuiupli of mind over extcntal ugcnts," they certainly 

I pvc it a much fuller meaning, and tcaw cleiu-ly that it often 

ndtd in Uie triumpli of cxtemai agents over mind. They thought 

^i1 as a ccnu-alisinj; process, which tendeil to bring nidely dis- 

•*« limiu into the range of one similar and homogeneous social 

Wulittau, — as a process ithieh enabled men to interchange with 

fftsttr ease the fruits of lalxtur, which widened human rcHuurecs, 

V^ enabled the many to avail tliem«elvcs of the intelligence, 

iy,aiid wUdom of tlie few, and which enabled the few to avail 



310 



CtrHisatiOH and Faith. 



themselves more enHtly of tlic lul>our, Htrenj^fi, and rereretK 
the many. Tliey thau);)it of it as an influeticc which promoted 
thought; which gave those who had eyes to sco, and cars tolicar, 
a wider rmigc of experience, and the opportTinity of comfnuni<»t- 
iug what they saw aud hciud to others who hud iio such oppor- 
tunity. They t)iought of it as u force f»vound}le to the mere 
adminivlration uf jiiftiee, which did away nith (he necessity that 
every maa nitmt be able aud willing to protect himself. And fct 
thcv alHo thoutfht of it as a icudcucy protnotiug liuurjr, s^m- 
vatiiig socifti iDcqualitics, cstrant^g tlic biftber classes mm 
habits of Ni.-lf.<lciiial, ostraii^Lug the luwiT cUwcs from habits of 
self. res jn'cl, giving to Bocifty generally a linge of effemiuaey, and 
to all elassten, even iiiciiiding the »oldier«, a spirit of self-oonscioos 
license more dan^roua tliau ttie ferodty of baihsrous pcrioda; 
and wcakeiiinK in all ctaasea the traditional faiths which, barii^ 
been born of isolation and hardship and bndding natiounl am- 
bition, lo»e all their reality amid the lovdling influence* of cine 
traific, civie levity, and tho (■ontiigionn hclpleNiiieas of civie Cesn. 
It h a remarkable faet tliat, in mery nation of classical au> 
tiqiiitv, there v/wt, at the height of tlieircivihaation, areactiottaiy 
school which professed citlier scorn or dread of the main results 
of civilis»tiuu. Plutiirch smiles at Cato the Censor for asaoting 
tliat when the Humans )iud onec tborvughly imbibed the litcn- 
tnre of Greece they would " lose the empire of the world." Yct 
the event justified the fair, not bcewoM; the Greek lifTolurr was 
es^ieeially dangeruns, but iKX'-uuse the Roniuii eliami;U-r ^vun not 
sound enough to bear — and felt that it was not sound enough to 
bear — the enervation arising from a wide division of classes into 
classes of wealth and clasAcs of labour, classes of literary IcisuR 
aud luxury and classes of stern military eutnprisc. Aiid thtis, 
not only in Juile4i. where it was natural, and in Eastern countries, 
where hui4i habitx uf thought nre indigenous, but in Greece sud 
Koine, there sprang up lunong the nob and educated > school of 
ascetic jihilosophy to express its profound fear of the moral dangers 
which civili«atiou had bred. Tlie fact is more remarkable, because 
we muxt renieiidter that it has no parallel in modem bistoiy, 
although in modern times the nrtM aud luxuries known to the an- 
cient world have been multiplied a hundredfold. And if wc'shoolcl 
now deem it a fmlish and unmeaning anaehroninn for an emperor 
of France or Auhtria to lead the austere life and inculcate the 
aseetic doctrine of Aurclius, — if we should conceive an Knglisfa 
Ktat«.-i«tmui obviuuily insane, who should practise and rceommcndto 
theHoune of Commons us the best IruitK of his wi»dum the Eeverc 
frugalities and phynieal self-dtMiialx of I'hocion, — it seems dear 
that there is in the popular mind and heart of Kun>i>e Icm dread, 
and less reason for dread, of the moral dangers which civtlisiUion 



CirHitation and Faith. 



2H 



Kbring* than there vn» in the ancient irorld. We i«cogni*e that 
H M s maHc of streugtli in tliem which would be a sineuUr neak- 
^ ness in ourselves; and tlie reason ia obriom, the world in which 
their lived was a world in which dvillsatioa nerded to be undone. 
It impHcd n Xosn of a]l the manhnc^ss and puriU* of the old tra- 
ditions. The turliurouK nntioiin wure no doubt »tiil at the be- 
ginning of their career; but the cinli«ccl nations were, in moral 
coiulition, behind the beginning. They had to unravel the web 
of their ciiiliaation before they could bepn ^^q. And we hon- 
our those therefore who, being the first to perceive this, strove, 
however fruitlessly with regard to others, to anticipulc as it wc» 
in their own livra the itubsequent hiaitury and di»ci{iliue of thtur 
nation,— to ke<-p pentonally clear nf tlic ittiiiiitng impurity and 
practical paralv^i^ of miud which the fiery advcrwty of oeiitnrie* 
was acaroely able to eradicate iroax the national character of tiieir 
feUow-oountrymen. 

What is it, then, which has done away in modem history 

with thi» fear of civilising agencies which evidently poHcfsed the 

highciit mindK of the highest n«tionsofand(|uity? What i« it that 

Buke^ ua look U]X>n thi» ampieion of the artit, and xcieneeH, and 

literatures, and luxuriea, of the modern world aa eomothiiig either 

ignorant, or at least cascutially liarrow and antique, and wholly 

unworthv to enter practically into the policy of a StateV We c&D- 

noi aay tliat it is merely our superior knowledge which leads us to 

BBC — that what Sparta fought against by immemorial policy, what 

Rome dreaded, and Rome's iiio»t ehnractcriatic statesmen in- 

vcig)icd a'^ain-iit by lifi^ ninl precept, what the deejicsl philosophic 

»ch(>ol of Atlieii.K n:huked aa the root of jKilitical rottenneaaf what 

tlic rtJigiouH eulhu&iasia of every Uriental nation renounced as 

by common consent, — waa not really dangerous aftcrall. For all 

these nations were, in fact, decomposed by the very influences 

against which their own ti^w^'hers raised their fruitless tcrtimony. 

iMffhcy »aw the procos going on, aiid we tN-e it complete, the 

^P^ar with which it inspired them wan by no meau» a confused 

V^fear of all new fbrecA, auch as we now see in the Coiiiwrvatives of 

Vinodern Kurope: it waa the instinctive fear ofconstdoua decay. 

And in. OS it baa no similar vitality, because it is not thua accom* 

panied In' dwindling strength and gmn-ing UecnK;; by the frightfel 

antitbeus of strong ignornnl superstition in the multitude, and 

cultivated ari»tocnitie scepticism in the fcv.'; by tbr- relaxation of 

law, the ih:vpair of philosophy, and an intellcctuul development 

anurng the learned out of all proportion to their intellecttud dio- 

^COveriea and eoii^ietions. But to say thus much, is only to state 

Bthe problem in another form; and we may still ask. How could 

Vthc very same agcncica cause or aggravate the mortal ditieaMW of 

KvLcieut nations which at least co-exist with, if they do not tend 



213 



CSvUUatioH and Faith, 



to produce, health in nations of tnodi-m Auyt ? I>t n« brie 
note what werv the racogiiiM-t) tk-ini-ntK of vvil ant! misery' in all 
th« ancient cirilisutioux. Thi* c-^■i^ and inisci;j' showed itaelf, ire 
tieltrvc, lint in on cxafi^eratioii of tli« claatdfyin^ tendency of 
civiltsutioii, that it>, by tlie mpid growth of impaflsablc chaams bc- 
tw<^m dam and daaa; next in what wc may call the abtorttut 
power in tlic sodal influences of civilisation, or, in olbrr nonb, 
in ihe tendency of s^eucral society to drain individual and domn- 
tie life and faith of all tb«-ir distinctive »traigt]i and diaradtr; 
Gnally, by the gcueml confusion aiid identiftcation of social endi 
with the externa] pkasures which riviliaation accumulated as or- 
caxionsi of Hoeial relaxation, tJic higher tie itaclf losing ita bi»diii| 
power oa the glow and cnthusiaani of a common popular lili 
becamn more and more dependent on tlie stimtdating food wtiieb 
ti»e tyraiinic appetites of the mullitudc speedily i-ravetl. These, ae 
take it, were the three slug)-* of Kodal decay, in one or otber of 
which all the nnciont cirilbintionK wem wrecked ; in othcrwonh, 
tint, the xta^ of clasx-hatretlB, in which human nature ahons itMtf 
too tfilfinh for the larger clainm of society; next, the stage <rf re- 
laxed purity, in which it BuiTcnders to social temptations the 
strength of indirithinl character and fldclity proper to tlie priw* 
tive household tnulitions; linaJly, the stage of »ociidcorrnpt>oa,il' 
which even the Hociid tie becomes utterly sel6.fh, niid the n(3d 
body has become a KCnMial body without a mxul. Mr. Buckku- 
ludex only to tlie firitt, and to a ver^- ainiall part only of tbat tU^ 
of decay; hut wliat he saya upon that is very charaoterutic. 

That eiviUsation liegina at once with dat^ymg mon, w 
auth<J» sees clearly; and he has illustrated with moch acutuei^ 
and with his usual iuc]thaui>tiblc learning, the gn-at infliuV 
which physical couditioiis have in exags^erating the divisions tx> 
iween wealth and iK>ver^,— the claaa of maslcn and the da^ oi 
slaves. Hut here, aa throughout hia book, he is content witb ti- 
hibiting mere negative conditions farourablc to the state <ift]iiip 
he is describing, and yet speaking of them aa the "dynamic^ <> 
society, while lie cntitely neglects positive causes. ForeaaiD)Jt> 
he here refew the niijutriible results of almost nil the Oncnul 
and aLw c^tlie old Mexican and Peruvian civtH.^atiuns to one l^i^ 
sieal circumstance alone, the immense iruitfubicas of theswiD 
proportion to the wants of the population. He ]>oint» out AU 
whcreTer this has been the case, aocunralationa of wealth an >>■' 
eritablcj so that dvilitatioii, so far as rnjards the classi6catioa<> 
wdcty into lahourert and copitnlisls, is certain to begin. But " 
a little tubour yields a vaat deal more than in needful to »ip[*>^ 
ittelf in thcw warm climates and fruitful soils, it is at least p(^ 
siblc for the capitalist to approjiiiatc as protit a very la^ i*" 
ward after the labour has been p^d for. In dimates where dK 



CtvUisaiion and Faith, 



213 



as is Icaa &iritful, and the physical wants of the labourer more 
fxiciwivc, this is no tongcr so easr. For industry yields a smaller 
prodttcv, nntl at the same time aueolutdy requires a larger share 
of that [iiTHl'ice. It is therefore obvious, caterin paribtit, that 
lar^e ami npcedy nccumiilatioits of woJih Xry a very idihI) ohua 
arc far ni»re iintum) in rich tropical conntrira than in Kiirope. 
And Mr. Iluckle jioiiits out with great care that this state of 
things has been, as a matter of fact, favourable to what ve may 
call a hothouse d^-ilisation, of rcr)- rapid ^VFth and rcry feeble 
stamina. In India, in Ein'pt, in Mexico, m Peru, the i^pleiidoiir 
of the rich iras only mntehed by (he helpkss indigence and misciy 
of the midtttiidc ; and it is clew that the cnnrmons crops nliich 
TJce and dateit, and dlionmi and mai7.e yielded to the cultivator, 
were in this way extremely mifavourahle to the slow and atearly 
progress of the mass of tlio people.* But ctch in this case it is 
falwe, and in its conscciucnces a falsehood of some importance, to 
say tlint these favouring physical conditions arc the operative 
cause* nhieh pniduec this sort of rta^ult. It would be too «.4f- 
evident » oritietKm, to point out in thctie c*»es that it is tho 
acUiEhness or alrsenoe of self-reslraiut in human deiurc wliieli, 
availing itself of these favouring conditions, really works out these 
results, were it not that the neglect of this very simple observa> 
tion has vitiated the fundamental assuniptions of Mr. Buckle's 
book. No doubt, in popidar language, we call any thing a cause 
the removal of which wotdd greatly vary the cfl'cct. But it is ob- 
vioiM enough, that without the active f(ircci« of luimnn desire, the 
mere prrxhictivenf's of the wil ('oul<l hiivc no ctfeet wlmtevcr on 
the distrilmlion of wealth, lite pro<lm;t« of the ttoil do iioi, we 
imagine, diHtrilmte theniselve*. Were there any prudent wlf- 
restraint among the labourcra in adjusting their cl^ms and em- 
ploying their savings, or any beuevolcnt self- restraint among the 
I'apitalists in enforcing their advantage, then, even iu a tropical 
country and with a soil that produces four-hundredfold, there eoidd 
not grow tip Kueh vast and impoisabh: cbannis between the various 
ohuaea. It \% the unmtraiiicd dcitireoii eneli side tliat really brings 

^k * Mr. Boshla'i book ia ttry Av4r«lin in maUiiMl, w nti»t Sir W, ILiaillon 

^hd grxidl; (o nil " uebi;«tuniu poB*r." IIp fr*ifUHiitl>* lnlroduc» ibou^birnl 

^M vslwabfe digrcMions i)uito irrrlivant to fais nibjiH-t. For rxunpic, h ■■ no 

JBdM fdirriolo^iesU* vary totcmting to tbon ihnc tn hot conntrlc* tho hvman 

^bdr BMdi "oxidiM" food, which ii &ltnc>al entirely ngtlDblc, nnd in cold eown- 

Irie* ■- MihooUwl'* fnod. wUch U ftloKwt entirely iiiiiiDkl t but i\ \» only at iW 

iwn Mep, with rtganl, nuncly. to ila jilenty or varclty. tliat Ihl* afinu die hlt- 

tory of (hs not. Xlm hniiw if it !• ■iHindanl. ; they do Dni hnow thai it It 

"ozhUMd," itur would tb«y hv nlTictxd by it if ilicy did. In lika mannur, w« 

mi^it Kay tbit iho iivighbiniirbuud ef Ibv M« but ■ ivr> iiDpiWlsnl tflfvt on huiiia* 

(itiliMlion : HonM bcuQ (hut accuiLUt co a tic|>btt«k iWrf alop, and analvK mrr- 

Ailly the MtMlific anlccMlcnd In the hl«M«j of thr gtobt whirh mt v^Eiiglsnd 

bom the OTiUiiMat of Knropo F 



21+ 



CimiisaliOH and Fa'tlh, 



about this rtaitlt^ — the limitk'sfi aiid unvcmpiilniu pioAoa fur g%ia 
on oiiv si<tc, tbc liniitk-Mt tiriir of power «iut love of iiniiu»li*le 
grutiliuittgti uu itu! otlier. I^ow ttiU would he a \erif tnvial aud 
CMTinuK criticiMu, <I>(I itol Uie whole hiittory of cirilisatiou thcnr 
that the ^reax ditierence between tlie def^raded and uDstahit 
civilisatioos and tlte stable ciTilisation of modcFu timca bcs, lol 
in any tbdcrcncc of pbvaical or intellectual rooditioos, but in 
coiiln)ltcd ineliitatious, lu a new iuHuenee over men's inpube) 
aud nillM. 

Tlic uew elemcDt ha* Ijcen iutrmlueed throogb no channel of 
exterttal op|)ortuuitj, but at th« deeper fount^ua of desire otS- 
The three aiioieut iiatiniu wrbicli hare moet influenced the hittwr 
of the world — the Itomaua, Uie Greeks, and the Jcwa — all ioh*- 
bitcd landfi in which tbc uufarourable conditions of vhich Ur. 
Buckle speaks were nut to bi^ found. And, in point of lact,tiic 
vast chasms between cIilks and eln.w (hut (bd exi^t in each of Ukm 
nations wen.^ not tirituiwiiy due- in unyoflliem to rapid or raH M> 
cuuiiilaliotut of we»lth. They were due to the uneqnal accunn- 
latioa of imnlegea, but not of phvMeal wealth. Througlmut tbe 
greatest age of HxNue, the pobtieul monopoly of the highest das* 
was not grounded on riches at all : throughout tbe great intd' 
Ittcliud age uf Aiheus, the iiitellectual anxtoorscy wa» quite JsAt- 
pe.ndftiit of any jiniperty-di«tiuction ; and throngli the long idi- 
gious hixtory of Juduu, the theological ultgan-liy of tliP itaDM 
had no |>ower that wa^ founded iu wealih. Yet we find that the 
adttnhuejis and the unrestrained dodres of men acted as power- 
fully in condensiug into a very Umitcd sotnal area political, intel- 
lectual, and theological privi!ej;c8. as they did in Oriental coun- 
tries in aggrc^ting phy^icAt wcEihh. There was the most genv- 
ihe cxcUisivcness in each of these cases. Tlie Rumau patricitM 
not only fought bani fur their privilege*, but tliey had uo vuh 
that any clasn xliould \i&jU for political powex but themselvai. 
Tbc Athcniau philoMphen avnwe-d their hebef that the higher 
wisdom vtas not suitable for aUy but a select few ; that aetioa 
wiiJt vulgarisiTig. and spoded the mind for mtellectual vision awl 
niedilatioii ; that only the privileged golden natures were bom 
for apeeiilatioii, whili- tbe common artitia^rs bad siHih' of linw* of 
iron, like the niateriiU.t tlicy used. Tlic Jewiiih l*lmri»ee, again, 
was " uot as other men were ;" and on tlie strength of hi» aupe- 
rior sanctity he did not scruple to aay, " the poojde that know 
not the law arc accursed." In none of these instances was it, 
perhaps, the el imn-di villous or class-spirit alone which ultimately 
unilermineil the con:ititiition of society. Fur class-dirisiona » 
great, and a da-'s-spirit ivf-ii more bitter, has fHX-n orcrcoroc in 
modern times, when the csclusivcucss of NeJli.ih privilege bad tfli 
oopo with tbe struggles of a popular life sound at the core. Bd 



(SvXtatim and >at/A. 



215 



I 



in ttie«e discs it vz» not so. The lifo vliidi »tntg^e^ to ascend 
iras as rnmi{>t and more i^orant tlian tlie power whirb stnig- 
rIoI to keep it down, llie truth seems lo have been tliat, in tlie 
clMsical world, wliatcTcr purity and vigour there was belonged 
mainly to the most favoured clnsses ; the eloi>c contact of the 
poortsl cln"«» of i'ri-cmen witli gla^-ery poiHoning completely the 
aociiil atniotphen^ they breathed. 

But thou);!) the wide elas&-eha»nifl of tite ancient world were 
not the main cause of the decay of ancient civilisation, yet the 
accumulation of each nation's highest function, — in the case of 
Rome, political and tc^slatirc power, in that of Athcus. intellec- 
tual and litrrnrynbilily, in that of .liiiU-a, the dogmatic authority — 
in the han<lN of a Miinll and luiri'OniitMl KeiHinii of flic nntion, vrns 
a sure nign of a tendency to decay. Kven Mr. Kuekle foU this. 
The only hint he Kivea us of the cause to which he ascrilicH the 
docompositioo of ureck and Itoman society, is in the following 
words : " The distance bctn-ecu the ignorant idolatry of the 
people and the refined Bystem of the philosophers itns altogether 
mpimtahle; and thiM ix the principal reason why the Gn-t-kiiand 
Botnana were miahle to n-tuin the civilisation whteh they for a 
thort lime popse*foed," No doubt ; but why was that distance 
innMaaahle? It cannot in this case be ascribed merely to the 
nntbrtnuate conditions of the physical world. Jt wan due to the 
nine predominance of scllishncsi, the same absence of noble am- 
bition and self- restraint, wiiich we naw were the really active 
eMtscv of the uncqiiid dirtribiition of wealth in Inipical countries 
noTvlly lew favotircil. The ahtNmce of any diffiuing /wee to 
eqnaliiie spiritual, moral, intellectual, and physical blcM^ngs, ia 
the one atrikiniE fact about these ancient civilisations ; or rather, 
Ae presence of a steady selfish pressure and a steady stolid ih- 
(iiflerrnce rewlinff their diflitNion. \Ye see great national gifts 
quickly appropriated by a cliwn ; wc w^ that the other claNM>s 
have not even virtue enough to desire, for any tnie and iniHclfish 
Tvasons, a parlicijMlion in thofte gifts. Surely it is evitU^nt that 
if civilisation ia ever to be purified and deepened, the purifying 
power roust be applied deep beneath the surface of the phyeicai 
luid intellectual life, among those hidden springs where alone the 
desire to give and the desire to take such blessings as thcac csn 
Itare its sourer. 

The >tw»iid marked stage in the decay of the eWiieal civil), 
iaatitjii was a visible relaxation of the naturalnesj. and reserve of 
iilividiial and domestic life amid that strong fermentation of 
tionat habits which accompanied the first conscious awakening 
of the social intellect of the commnnitj. In Athens towards 
tbe time of the PcloponnesiaD war, in Rome during the last cen- 
tnrj- of the Republic, the life of general society drained all the 






S16 



CliniisatioR and fmlh. 



interior mid inilcjieiwleat ttrengUi of domestic and ]>cnM>Dal roo^ 
rality ; aiiil wliiU; iucreasing tbv mileiulour and literarr activitr of 
the social intellect, cxhaiutted all the Ttscrrcs of itinard povcr 
froin which the social intellect drev its life. It i» no doaht tlic 
necessary tendency of ail civilisation to drain off fur gpm;ra] iwdiil 
purpoNw, wlietlicr of public buxincMi or ttiDU»eiiH-nt, the utciital 
and moral coergic* which wuitid otherwiBe find much of their 
naltiral exercise in indiviilual and ilontciitie life. The reserved 
atFcngth is tempted outtvard*, often too rajiidly for the health of 
the community, and social life becomes more rivid and brdUast 
St Uic expense of the tics which keep men in a narrower ^bcrc 
This process is of course much acceluraled by the exigence uf 
davny as an initlitution, npudnlly in tlie form in which it a- 
iiitixl it) the Greek and Rinnan world. A much larger number 
of cilieetis were thereby set free for the indolent bfc of the a^ora 
or the forum. The public intellect and sentiment prew rapidly 
under the process; but it consumed the life by which it should 
have bocn constantly fed. At Athens iIm; development of thiftfl 
procon was especially rapid ; and therefore Uie eshauxtion of^ 
thow imrrower njiliercH of <ltity luid sclf-<liscipliue from which the 
public life was renewed was e.-^eci&lly rapid also. 7i\ r. (irote has 
shown, no donbt, how moch pnbbc virtue remained in vVthens 
after the traditions of private and domestic virtue had ceased to 
command general reverence. Hut even he cannot deny wl 
Fbito's dialo^cs incidentally prove, that, while so much gcncr^ 
ouN and ank-tit public impulse still lingered in the brilliant 
public, the rieepcr habits of private life were beii>g poisoned (ron 
which thost- impulses could alone have drawn permanent strengtli.* 
The elasticity ot'llieir civilijtation was ftiving way. The M>cial' 
life had still some nobility in it; but the virtue and strenph was 
rapidly drawinR off from the interior reserves behind the social 
life. Whenever a calamity should come to shatter the gcucnl 
frame of Honetij, there wn« no self-restoring jxiwcr in the anaUer 
elcmoiits of tliut society like that which no often enables eemi- 
barharous natiims to n^»vcr from ^ncb a shock. It required 
but the euneussion with a power so vigorous as Alacedon to dis- 
organise the Athenian civiliHatiou for ever. And what is true of 
Athens, in true at a later date of Itomc, Dunng the later Bcpub-^ 
lie, the elats-burricre gave way; but no new and ])urt power 

Gniuvd into the State. The sacred Mmplicity of the old dome 
fe was fast disapitearing ; slave* and !>la>'c- labour became 

* ?tlr. Gntu ■a}->. thai Plato'i ulandanl of arilieinB wiu ■* IbMntolSr 
dnwny for Athcii* u Mr. Onvcn* for I^ndon. Ai ■ politJoiU thooritt, this maf 
haiD bero true. ItuI <ro kaaie what T\ua'» nalioiu of liccme, biiiI aTiu-fc, lofl 
fraud were ; and we knnw them to Irnvn bc«n tfniX* prnclical. ui'l irry far fmn 
itTtincd. The fftcK Plaio •lli>)[L'i u to tht gvnarttl pniktcnlchcdiicu of AlhtM 
cannat thonforo b« rvkMBtd Kwij', 





Civiiisation and Faith, 



217 




more profitable; the free pL-asantrr died nway, or entered the 

Brm}-; thv {>lvlM.-inns who ro«(t iiitu power degraded instead of 

■BTigomtiug the lone ufinihlio W^c; tlu-y cnmc Truin a ohi» in 

dose oontaet •k'xOx xlavory, &>id taiiUol with all itn vtnui; the 

null mral landed [iroprictore — almost the otily ivspcHitahle clasa 

Wft— were, as in almost all uatioue thej- Kdicrally arc, an inae* 

tii«-minded body of men, who infliienucd but bttlc the social 

miad of the State, and though uo doubt oooK^tituling a contcrva- 

tiiT power, yvt tjiiite inwm patent to rc:<Uil the eorrtipting infiu- 

tnce of that xlxvery iu the advaiita;;i3 of wliinh thry ahiu-nl ko 

laigdy: and thuH, as in Athenit, ihcrc iFas only wi-ukiiosH and 

comi)>tion below to rciolorco the dccayiuEt faith and simplicity 

of tlic ruling cla>«. Tlic nation was still gR'at as a nation ; but 

Ute elcuentii of it« greatness wen' decompusiitg fast. The elastic 

was giving way within. The Jew* cannot be mid cri-r to 

reaelted thiii iitaice- The chnrueter of Uiat " ignorant and 

un" pf^ople, ]ia Mr. Uuckle not nntndy calls them, reHi^icd 

eS.'ctiiaily the absorbent forces of social life ever to be in any 

diBpr of Itwinf! indiriduality and the stitngth of private tica, 

^V iadividnid passions were so much stronger than the social 

pi^rian^thc ties of family, and tribe, nud nation, were so much 

itnmgfr than those of intellectual inten'j'tand noeial weutinient'— 

ihtl they poritilied suddenly and viotc-ntly as a nation, in the first 

rttp of Hcirixli and pa-tsionate elii.-«>(-a>nfllets, without exjtcn- 

(Uiii)! the full diseolvinn jiower of seltiiib refinement on the na- 

"onal vitality. And yet it was from tbem that CiWlisation dcrivt^l 

dw which afterwards i-cnilercd it as durable as it had hitherto 

Men iborilivcd in ita most briUi&nt cfibrts. 

Tlie but stnge iu the dissolution of the claMical ciniisatioos 
*»• tliai in which even the sense of nocial unity expired, and 
■mnui nature may l>c i^d to have been almost diiisolvcd a^aiu into 
IW physical world, on wliich it bad $:ra<lually l»come more and 
■•we groisly dependent. This was the stage in which the re- 
*(tloiiof a small and bclple«s minority againtt the Iccblcness and 
■gmbtion of the ^c beciime so loud and dc»)>ninng; when the 
^fnig civilisation of Itoinc fairly iib»orbi.-d the dying eivilisatioa 
*^0(««!; and bccuDNc it had lived a .itronger and hardier life, 
'^'vggled harder at last againot a harder death. Kv-ery ttymp- 
'"U of political and social rotti^nncas showed that the ficl&shncaa 
*wcli had eoimptod dvilisatiou had at length destroyed it by 
nducing ii to its lowest form, — the unrestrained subordination of 
••e trts^ <,f literature, of government, of social life, in nhorl, of 
^ the powers of man, to phynii-al cxcilemeuta, or llie intellectual 
j^ti&cntion of physical cxeitemeittH. The remaining teachers of 
''t *orld fed men with empty norda, the huHka of thotigltl ; and 
''tir pupib leuDed to feed iheuuch c& gladly on tlio husks cd" 



218 



CivHisation and Faith. 



thing*, "X\\f food that tlio swine dM eat." Tliat s 
school of i)liikiaop)i}* that paUcd itsdf Neo-PUtonir attcmpttJ 
to show iu rrvi-rcncc tor tbc nohle«t and the inoAt s(>aok>ai in- 
trlWi the world liii» ever known by rtrctchinp tiKwe few pnv 
blcnifl tat In our hainai) faonltieti which Phito Imi) left as indcttr- 
minato till thpy cowred with doubt all tlio»e far yn-att-r problem* 
ofwhicrh hchaddeln-niiiicd thf tu^lntioii; in !ihort,byi)rcwntin|^hu 
soliitiDiiii SH llii^ only ditlicultics, aiid stating his ditlK-tiltic^ Mt 
only solutions. M'hcn the Noo-Platonist Camcad«) proved to 
wonderiiif; youth of Rome that the nio«t oppo«tp niornl fonrip-^ 
tioiw were eiiiiiUly true unA «nially false, no woniti-r that tbc oU 
Roman ceiHor hsut an iudwiinct feeling; (bat Komc had rmn 
pot bcr iron hold of the world by bnilditift on siich kand iw tJiai: 
and no woiidt^r that ho afl&erlod that tbe reception of «iKfc ■ 
cTOttl (if it t-ould be iTcciwd) must undi-nniue the empirv. B«t 
even tben it wan undvrminvd, and social corruption was tnnkinc 
room for the inteltectual nnneality by which it in iUvay» foUo«M 
Tbe young Romans drank in the verbiage of the Greek wlioo^ 
and nere now and then startled by the iiesatiTO wi-nloin of tttf 
Stoic reaction, lint even an Epictctus was a poor remedy fw 
a Poraitiati ; and in onier to jn-evcnt the inordinate Rroirth nf 
human itwire from revolving man baek as^ain into the litrnl 
dn«t of the eartb, it re(iuire<l tlu; interrention of a miBhtier bilk 
than Suiieisani, and rtronger ivprenentativts than either Anrffio* 
or Julian. And when, after tbe Cbritttian faitli had Ih-tu pnselied 
for rentnnefi, .lti»<tinian at length abolished tojrether the nominii 
eon<iiilsbipnf Konie and the schools of Atticns. he did but takeawiv 
wliat bad lonjt been the mere monuments of two extinct crriliw- 
tions; for the faith of Christ had long proved itself stronger tn 
eonstruet eivil order than Rome under her strongest oonsul, «bI 
mon; ;)Owerfnl to eoiie with the intoxicating wlfisbncss of buiaia 
Boeietv than the Aeailemy under its greaK^At tx'acher. The woadW- 
ful political shell of the great Roman system had lietm viitmd 
and appropriated by a more endnrinR power; and the woudnflu 
intellect iiui shell of the "Teat Ptntonie system had been »tnt^ 
and appropriated by a more enduring genius. 

"We see, then, that civilisation — or tbc tendency which An« 
meu into wider and more varied ^tocial inten'ourwc — has no rharf 
of indemnity against the mor^ly corrupting iiifluenee« which eii'' 
in uneirilised and civilised man alike, but rather that they«* 
moff powerfully through social channels. There are three naited 
stages in which these influences have been seen to dialurli 0>d 
decompose tbc social fabric wbicb civiliwition forms, l-'irst, thf 
•elfish (ie si res of man nwist the natural distrHution oflliepfc?- 
ftical, intellectual, nay, even tbc mora) and spiritual, blessings ih^ 
civilisation briugf, and create tbc wide clB«K-cb«Hns of tlie t/t 



nu 

31 



Civtiaation and Faith. 



319 



%t oTciiilmtion. Next, if these ait broken ilowo, the same 
diwase 1ia.<t Hhoirn itself in exa^^ratiu^, if ire mar ao 9*y, Ae 
eocialisii!" forte itself, and tempting men away from tliose inner 
sphere* of life in which thrir fitness for society is fonnwl, ami thus 
Mtcrific-ing indiridnal. domt-stic, nod lond oblii^tions to a wider 
and moro sn(XTficial, thuii^^li more intoxicBting, eliws of influences. 
And iawtly, there i» the Ktage in which aooiety, tlnw dcfOinposed 
within, becoinet a Koeial body wilhnut a mm); and recognising 
sdfijili need as its only remaining bond, sradunlly breaktt up into 
deetniclive anarchy, and resigns back a»ain to a state far worse 
tluut any barbarism, tho«c whom it could never have drawn toge- 
ther at all but for their recognition of some higher law. 

It is !<tnnige indeed, witli ^uch a history as this before him, 
that Mr. Buckle can mijipose intellertnal activity to be the real 
dyiiaraiea of mciety, — dirau'mg men from barhftri.im into civilinn- 
tioa. Waa there ever a day or a people whose intetleelmd ac- 
tirity was k> marvellous, or the attempts of phitnsopby so full of 
promise, as in Greece in the time of Aristotle and Plato? The 
Greeki« had the inductive method on which modem xeieuce builds 
%o ninch ; and >lr, Grote has told ns what u revolution its first 
■pj)lic«lion by SwratCft catiscd in the world ofthonght. They 
had the deductive method with whicli to reinfnree and extend the 
results of inductions. They nwd both with brilliant «ucce««. 
True, rejilie-t our author, but there wa.i no tfiffvxion: the know- 
led^ was not among the jicople, it was not the atmo-iplieiv they 
breathed, hut in a separate stratum of noeiety. What is thin hut to 
WT that intcUcetual aetixity, taken alone, has uo dilTusire force 
uiaqnatc to its tjisk of civil i sing man, — that it ha« not within 
iuelf any priiieiple of contagion m rtrong n* to " find its own 
Wei" in the great human wieiety, — that it doejt not kindle, cTen 
in those of whom it does take strong hold, any eiithiiHiusm for 
fht work of carrying it abroad to the minds of the dull, the in- 
dilcrcnt, and the ignorant lo\cr of pleasure, — in short, tliat, a« 
it the CMC with physieal wealth, the onlinary forces of human 
utnrr tend to accumidntc it in fixed masxciii, not to spread it 
ojoiUy over the race? But if intelledTial activity docs not 
flwmtenict the selfish spirit of monopoly and the »elfi»h spirit 
ifiDprtiA in human nature, far leas does it counteract the 
otbiT tendeitcic^ which we hare noted in the decomposing Ktagcs 
oJoTibsation, The hiatorj- of the rci-iral ofleaming in I'lorenee 
•M Komc in the days of the Medieis would aloue show, if the 
^TiliMtion of Athens were not a suflicient example, ho^i' brilliant 
^Irilwrtnul aetirity may in itwif even aut that ahoorbing in- 
licitiuu of society which trenches upon the &trengtli of iii- 
Tidual charact^Tr, anil hreukn up the minuter circles and weakens 
t Dwre primitive bonds of family life. It provides a comoiou 



220 



CirHtutioH and Faith. 



source of ciijojniciit fitlnl fur it wiilc aodKl ficlil, dram 
of tbcir own uiu-run- licld of cxjxriciicc, uiid tlUtracU tUeui 
hukntiui; mcntuncRofI>rt)ken [mrpOM.-* and nejtWted clattn: 
bocatuM it iit iiat mere )i»11(i<tik'a.<, U-cattM; it U uot mi raai 
hnuntfil, na men; artificial aocial life. Ncvertliclcu it fails Ul 
an a |ieriiiaii(-iit Iwiid even of the outer &aiDCWork of _ 

large. t*or tlte juiMious, wbii-'h it docH not even Mtrivc to n> 
INTOM, sijuii Hiia]) ttie siviiilcr tlircatls of iuti-Ui^ctual rAlCiom Mtd 
n'mputliy; luii) tliu ttiteUcct is »ou» got under \>y cuuncr fbrcca, 
from itit {turu la^k of |)oirer to hold the mn» of tlte miml. 

Tlie utter inealiereuce of all Htati^a of society in wliirJi the 
Oldjruuitv naa intcllceiua], ia au libtorical &ct wUicli Mt "■ 
apIMUtiutfy i-GganIs as aocidentul. IJis tbrec euimier-^^ 
Kppi'ar to be — (1) thut if ciii ligation rrqtiiro any oilier tluiii 
tntcUi-etiinl aid, tlie mutter is 1io|)c1<:m, iu rcli{pi>ii, imd 
tiling indwrd cxoejit scientilie truth, contnct* iu 
the moral dimritNiona of the iKO[>le to whom it i> i'i'-.i.^i.[ 
tliAt what i>iir author terms the grvalr»l evils of llic wui 
hiatun', war and pcrsecutiou on acoouiit of private n|>iiuoii, L 
bcirn lo^«eiietl by the intellcet, and by it uluiio — w):il<- the r 
luift \mxx\ fiw.tcred, the other almotit produced, by r ih . 

and (3; that in point of fact the periods of lav- a\\- 

Yuuciug eivilisatioi) in modern history have bccu |> o-j^ 

tical inquiry. Here iHagt^tieral iwiuc cnutigh, xhi<.t> ii>> •■^•: wIm 
hiavteiitli jiarlof Mr. ltut'kle'« knowledge, witliuul hiD»i!mc«hit 
it^ ' I i ]irrjiidiee fur the inih) ^i»>|h-I of the cnli)^h(riked od- 
d> i, would hesitate for a moment to wtKf^- )('' » 

ha|» ui-uriy the only le»riic<l and niotlcmtclr able '. 
prcKODt (lay who titill Itelieves im|ilicilly that " c. 
u the one reimrdy for tiie manifold niiia nnd nuM-nea of 
cxiNtence;* who ittill regard.-) w«r na unmixed exil, and nui 
Me wlint a puhfyin^ diaeipliiie it may |rrovc for drrprr ilU; or 
who would (yimpare for a moment the vmW* of' 
tiou, frightful ;i» they bnve been and are, with - , .t^—, 

of woiuu really itiuHertiiiil and niiinv non-penceiitiu 
If Mr. Kiiektir indnrd thinks, wuXxk would umi 
MureuD Aurvlitu and Julian were mora m< 
lifstion of their day than Commodua atiu d 
boeaiMe ihe fonniT were peritvciitura and tin: '•■ 
Hnd In . i i' II ■ .r ■■ ■ 

own, 1. 

■ Ur. tlufvhti''* miU ihigiualbiD t* b/Un ivn uii«tl>[. / 




■ tU<k.' 



JDI, IWl <"thmi la OH IMlUlUt M n«Mll qfM ^ 



Ch'ilisatioH anti Fail ft. 



2SI 



KB. 



Mr. Brwltle** first jjloi, tlint failh, n* a civiliwig agent, a 
xero; that it in nnt, and <:aiiiiot be, a iiliia qiiantitv tii tli<^ ajcendeti 
of the irorld at all ; that it so iramcdiati^Iy oontractN to the shape 
and qnalily of the minds it enters as to become whatever they 
already arc, no more and no less, — i» not easy to refute, except by 
tlic rn<*« of hi»tory. It arises, however, in the confusion, nhieh 
is r«miiIeU'Iy ingrained into Mr. Bncklt^s book, between Wl 
opinion and a trust. He would not deny, we imagine, that a 
real reliance, a leaning on a higher ktiman I>eing, — a l>eing^ 
morally and spiritually higher than oiirseIvcs,~'docs aSect the 
character, and draws it np lotctirt/s that hitiher mind. It is be- 
itMC he r(!gard» a faith as a mere moral and iiitelleetnnl product 
the atate of mind, Jipwn like the spiih-r's wol> ont of ihv mind, 
that be doubt* this in regard to reiijtton. He would Ix' very 
mueb surprised to bear it argued, that hia own sympathy with, 
and reverence for, a friend could not change bim, on the ground 
that bis friend's image must be immediately eulomvd and af- 
fectnl with all his own cbarHctoristie* of thought. lie would 
reply at once, that if .'<o, individual and xoeial life are tlie same; 
thut no man can change society, and that society can change no 
man. And yet that is his argument concerning reiijfioua trust ; 
■hhough, as is evident from one part of bis Inxik, he docs not 
^pustion the real csistcnec of the oiiject of faith. 

But the only cSectual answer to Mr. BucLle's ar^ment, that 
Christian faith could not have done any thing for civil iKnt ton, U 
ta ukc a little evidence »» to what it did. He will wiirwly deny 
tbat it did Kometbing for the societies of the early Christiatk 
ehnrcb ; that it did soraetbing for St. Paul, for instauw, and for 
Wme of his followcrB. Findrng such a society as we bare ilc- 
scribn), during tbc downfall of Greek and Roman civilisation; 
Ending a society stained by vices mieh as those with which Co- 
'"'"ith and Rome were but too faniilinr, a« we do not need St. 
I's letters to testify ; Rniling a deeaying hmly, full of all rot- 
.,— ilia faith restored to it, i« St. l*anl's mind and that of 
»«* dbciplea, a spiritual unity, a new life, a cohering power, 
^hich no human shock could ilestroy. Society reassiuned, 
thmigli their new trust, so far as their infiucuce reaehcd it, the 

■''vil^goa] inlcntioot, and Bujirvmr uowrr to viif»iv" ihtia. IjH" >">( i]nni> Ikr 

*M*tnl ihaa good. But if you diminish ibi-iiiuwhiy of ihut nun. if vi'U rnn mis 

*ilk7irilblii*inotive«.]roa will likcu'iicdimiiiii.1i the e>i1i!iiil In- M'l-.rin." And 

I lb. Bucklo liuMnoM the («ks mbore rnvnuoncd. Wr do net tapymr ho 

I to wi<i)cli AnnUiii and Julikn, in iheir iiiiic>t« prrmnol inlliirnM-, a^^aixt 

nln kiid llt-linicabalui ; bal iinUu ho manntt to •nnrU Ihi'ir mpQCIirr in* 

I on «iviit>Bti»ii, ihara In no point ar inoaniiii; in lliii liliiilnuiao. llicrs tan 

B» duubt lliul llio |>nr« Uvm at Ifanriiii Aunjiiiit anil .tullan reollj did Air 

*OK tia ChriMliiiiity. Uy iih>:wlnK tlia mural pxbKusliuD oftlK- nnlil>.>i paitaii pU> 

> '"■'fdj. tkui thvj i-ould jHiinilily bHTn*ffn't«>l tiad nut Itinr iivm bnn to Hrma* 

I '^ tad (aitttfal lo their um-ii lUuidurd, 




223 



C'uiiluation and Faith. 




UDitr it hiul 1o»t ; and St. Paul sjjetiks of tlte rarioua 'naailMn 
of thi; "uiic txHly" att tlioimh he had a^uii forgotten the utlcj- coi^ 
niptDO-tw lie bad iM> often alluded to, in tbe proHijialc Cireek citjc 
to vrl)ii:U he writeji. Tbe mere opcDiog of a feir Chiiatiau hcaiti 
to the trust that, amid nil this ouufuaion oikI evil, men were sdB 
oapaUc of doing thv will aud receiviug the purifying pover of 
God, gaw the syM^'in of societjr a new stntngth and M)ut>diKac, 
and enabled them fi;nidually to witltdraw their life from the tdat'Ci; 
to EOciid iinpuritic-A, in irhich they bad plunged the deeper tW 
they could u<:vcr appease their hunger for sonictbiiig deeper and 
more exciting BtUl, This suddon ncixsG of rvligioue fervour, 
Mr. Uuckle might tay, \» a wcJl-knuwn ptuniomeuon, — Ike fa- 
tutiaisin of the world') reaction from it» own eiceine*, mwuniing 
tlkC form of a utrict and liaioiiary frale.rmty. N'o doubt ; Init 
neverthelcM tbe phenomenon Iiad a vitalitr ; for from that timt 
tbe history of social decay was measured uick again in the re- 
verse order. Fir»t, the social bond was renovated, assuming 
a punly religious cliuriu:tu, and ulVn rcuorat«tl even at a tern- 
uorar)' expcu^t; of other ticit; iheu those other ties wen gri 
dually purilied and nlreiigtlieued ; laatly, ol&sa'divijuoiis 
eoOcncd and sliadftd away, llut, firet d all, the new relif 
cOnxtituttoii of Hociety bore down almost all other tiea 
it : " 'lliosc of one house were divided, the mother against h<f 
diiugbttT-in-liiw, and the <tauL;ht<-r against her moiber-in-law.'^ 
Secular social relations, too, were left unloacbcd. This new faitb 
had not yet strength to remodel the old civil tii> on a new prin- 
ciple, or even to recogniMi tlx-ir esKential imi>ortaiicc to tbe 
heatUiy aetion of Metal life. Rut when the religious tie bccaou 
firm and indi««i)litl>lti, Chnatian faith ineWtaUy bnaied itself wHb 
the general Hceuhir relations of men, alleviating soonest lb«B 
tJiiit wort! niOBt obviously opprcssiTe, recosjnisiug least eompktetjr 
tJK divine character of tho»<- that were mo»t spoiled indeed, bat 
spoiled by no outward wrong, and remediable nither by iuteriMl 
wan by external influenee. Hie Churdi *oon became the ricbnt 
power in the eommunity, and very soon, therefore, pos*c«M:d * 
large pro{)onioii nf the slaves: she was the kindest {towt-r, and 
tlierefore soon raised their condition abore that of slaves. Jl re^ 
cent writer thus describes this state of things : 

" She bectme ridi; and her ridiea were not only calcnlaled in m*— 
vincdt, liiit in hundreds vf tliousauds of human beings. Tbtt« bna^ 
wero cliAiiiwl tu li«r will as tlittv hut) bi-en chained to that of tbe ft^' 
man pntriclnD vr Prankish chinf. wliu hud bou;;ht them at tnn^ 
or I/0ih1i>[i. SIic did uot, however, man urn! t ; fur slic could not <k> 
so wttliout dctlrdyiiig the value of the prupuity hIic had ao^oired* 
Her lands were worMiIwi" wit.linut adtivnt»ni ; and none but sUntf 
were left or adapted for that work. t»ho, howercr, gare an earnest 



I 



CivilUalioH and Faith. 



223 



that ibef hud fallen iDto better hoiuld, by nmcliorntiiig tlirir scrrituds. 
She t4vaU<l thoni mildly, remitted bbour va Sunday, nnil bmu^'ht the 
possibility of freedom wlttiiu reavli. .... She began to IculIi buldly 
ttwt tlic difltrcDcc betwoeu the serf or »lit»e «nd tUe proprietor «a« a 
wcial differeiH-e only ; iliat tliB eti-nift! particle of eatli was of ti\at\ 
vulue ; and buIvhIIou. unlike worldly liuiiour, was to 1)0 woo by 
meau!) wliicli tb« slave, lu well nx the buroii, coiilU coiiimitutl. Her 
l«*cbini^'a were followed by ttcti""*. SIk Iwfjim to plead the mtue 
of tbe mUtc iu ber timndl". At OrlcAnn, in 'I'Ati. kUc direot* tlint wtrfit 
wlio hurc Koii^'ht tb^ cburch u an iwyluTn mgninHt -lewiKh mnxtcrs, 
fliall be bought, not milArtxI. Again, •'rtl, if Obmtinn itlnvcR of tbe 
lewK li*Tc flmi Uidr msstore and donn&ndvd liberty, hiTiiig given jnst 
|)rioc, tboy shall be Mt at liberty. In the nme conncil it is ordained 
tiiat if a bishop has mad« a Dumber of free m«n from serfs of the 
Clinrcii, th«y shall remaiu free. At CWmoiit, iu &i'J, ' As we have 
dweovered tlut awenil pe.jple reduee a^aiu to aervilude tliUM who 
have been set at liberty iu thu cbunhea, we order (but every oue ahull 
keep poH«a«ioD of the liberty he hua reivived ; and if lluti liberty 
In attacVed, justice mujil be defended by the Church.' In the ciuiouH 
of a ouuui-'it at Londou, in 1 102, it in orcleri'd thut ' uo one fruni heiico- 
fortb |)TciHtnie to ciiiry on thnt wicked tnilfic-, by which men in Eng^ 
land liavc hitherto been void like hruto Aniinidn.' "* 

But it was not simply that CliristiuJi fuith worked buck Irum 
tbe r<^iou» rrnuvntioii of the sudal ttv tu tliv renewal uf stHiular 
tiftt ; it gave .1 JM^w life to that very litcruturv whieh in Greece 
aiul Runic hail died out from iiinnitiuii. " if iii»titiili(iiM could 
do all," aiiy* M. CiiiiMt, uotilra-tting tlie kIhIc of the mil orpa^an 
«itb that of tbe ('hriNtiaii or religions society of Gaul iu tlie 
Cwrtb and fillli centuries, " the iuiuUcctual fttatc of Gaulish 
o\\\ iKKTicty at this epoch would have been far superior to that 
of the religious isocicty. . . . Roman Gakil was covered nilh liirge 
•AooIk. , . They were tuiighl philowphy, iii{»li(-iiie, juris prudL-iiee, 
'■'eratun', graiuriiar, uHtrohigy, all the tuiieiices of the age." Ulie 
Ouiitiaiis, he saya, " hat) only their own ideas, the iutcTDul and 
jwnumal movement of their thought." " Still the activity and 
■I'tdluctiial stningth of the two socivtie* were prodigiously ud- 
t()iial. With its institutions, its profewKirs, its privileties, the 
"ne vox nothing and did nothing, — ^wilh iU single ideiw the 
fthtr iiLCfvsiiiitly hiboiircd, and nciiicd every thing. All tluiigH 
1 1 < ntury attest the decav of ^le civil schools. The 
, <':uj writers, Sidonius ApollinBris uid Manicrtius Clau- 
"Wius, for example, dejtiorc it in every page, saying thut the 
y^g men no longer studied, thut profvusions were without pu> 
Pjh, that MTicnce langiiislied and was heing ItwL" Compare with 
"wUie wimii writer** remarkable account of the healthy rigour 

1 * /ijfvtan of CVutkiitiy «n Cieilualion. Bj TboniM CraMoek. Itfoie- 
•KIMS. 



su 



GciliMitiom ami Fmik. 



of Cbrbtiain literature Rt the game time. There is »o tntir niM 
of the health of Ulenture thaa tlm, — that its deepest tfaiifl 
come oat quite ioctdeatallr ia thd diacossion of occasioaal qndj 
^ns. Then, and then only, can we be sore thai ilicv constantlT 
occapr the mind. " Litcraiurc, pr operly h> vr>llc(l, held but 
little plaec in the Christiao world; mm wrote veI^- littlu for i\\e 
sake ofwritiag, for the mcTD pleasure of mauift;^tiIlg thi-ir idiux; 
some event broke forth, a questioa arose, and a book nas often 
produced uuder the form of a letter to a Cluistian, to a frieuil, 
to a church. Politics, relieion, controversy, spiritual and tcn^ 
poral ialrrc^ts, ■;cueral and special councils, — all arc met aili 
itt tlie Iclicre of this time; and they are among the number of tl* 
most curious documents." 

Now, does Mr. Buckle omieeivc that this is the picture d 
a life ttttorly onefaanged by laith? Whererer we IooIe,— to 
the decayed Roman, decayed Greek, or undccayed harlmiBii 
world, — the picture is the same — a new sociciy, new monhtjr, 
new institutions, new literature. The eifete Greek philowfAy 
takes a new life and power in the pagG« of Justin, Clement, aid 
Origcn. The effete Itomna cloqiu-na; gin-* out a ni^r wansdi 
of conviction iu Lnctaiitiuii, aud a new Roman force in Am- 
brose. Kvcn Uie tropical African blood that beats passionsidj 
in the grow and virulent invectives of Tertnllian, does no* urp 
him to seek the eontliets of civil life ; for he feels tliat the raait 
real passions of that day, as well as its most real tlioaghls, co- 
cem the t^piritunl world, and touch ctn-iiity more thao liiK. 
And here in Gaul it is still in the Chri^tinn chiireh thai tbcbtf- 
barianit are learning eagerly and fa«t, while llie Roman aritt*- 
eracy are rajwdly diverting the schoola. Here ia Uttle eoou^ 
sign that civiliNStion ariiiea in intcllecnia! activiiv. The ne* 
faitli iite8l» away Greek and Roman from their hollow iiild- 
lectoal discipline, and the barfawrian from his servile toil ; mi 
after it has united them in a rcligioas society, bi^tiu to ot^^aax 
a new law. It holds back the hand of the oMwter ; it itirs i^ 
the lethargy of tlie serf; and not only remodein the relatioo* 
between the powerful and the poor, but ojiens their minds by * 
new literature. If thU be the j/wM/aiieotw progress of the popula* 
mind, why did it not arise in the Roman schools? why did it nO* 
start from the last antecedents of the old world 'f why iliil it 0<** 
build on the old fouiidiitions ? Because men iielicvcd in a off* 
bond, because they had a new nsion. Tlie " life" had been 
" manifested." they said ; nnd i\wy saw it. .\nd much a* th*7 
degraded and narrowed what they beheld, in the process ofgivir»S 
it the form nf a practical creed, vet their trust was lining enoug* 
to give it an iiiHuenco on their life. The change was slow, an^ 
K&ea. retrograde; and after the outward church had git'C 



I 



GvilitaiioM and Faith. 



225 



1. vhe Iwgui to take nwaj-. Sbe had hud faith to loostm 

id (liMK)lvo Home oftliv tiio«t i;iilliiig 0{fprcuioDa uf Ku-itlar m>- 

tiy ; aud oovr ncciiIw vuciety hud gaiu«d faith to looM'ii aud 

N)lvo the tuoet giilUi^t oppmaioDs of tltc churc-b. lii tlio 

■1 least, LtttUcr reHturnl to politicitl, MNridnr, nod Hitniljr 

lio IVwedoni, uud ultiuaulv the sacrcdocsa, of wtiich llilde- 

' uikI thu Niu^enlotuliata liM atrivan to nili it. Nor nos it 

Irclital activity which gave the atrcngth for thin ciicoudux. 

^11 Italy, when! opiiiiou Snt heciimc heretical, the mural scepti- 

^lu ami liwDM? hud too much undcrraiiiod Midal courogv to admit 

fa revolt ; and in Oenoaiijr, when the conflict eame, — the iiihd* 

ot itoA not the assailaot. Loug ))«lbre Luther'a time a rcli^ioin 

ktaniity lind ahMMi iu Gcrmauir, free rather in the freedom uf 

»rir n-l^puiu affeetioita than in aiiv audacity of thoii;;ht. Nor 

iiuhl liiilhiT have moved Germany a« he did but for the moral 

and derotioiiol reaction from formal and legal religion noiirlAhnc) 

ti the ponidar scliool of Bonaventura, Qenon, and Taulcr.* 
be DwertioD that all the civiIi»atioD of the last Gev conturies ia 
uitland and ahroad \* diu: to weplical inquiry \a a mere confu- 
oii uf tennx. No doubt it i* due to thnt >ort of »ci'{>limm 
birh challangeii foorttign and urhitniry authority to impoae ita 
ictuni eilber nn to right or truth uii ihc hnman mind ; but this 
n » iwrutietani rooted in a profound trust tltat Kelf-attesting 
mill aiid right are acceuible to humnii comtcietiee and reaaon. 
Whi-n Mr. Uucklo classes ecepticism like that of llobhos and 
MoulaiKiie with soentictam like that of C'hUUn^worth, or Locke, 
or evL'n Itentham, lie uses the same termit to denote op|iu«ite 
atabea of miiid. The implicit iKilirf of Locke and hU M-hool, 
aoid of many even of the gn^naent utihtariauit in the abtvluto 
reality and attainability of truth, b utterly unseeptieal. Tho 
pae-Niilcd and t)hort-si)|;htcd extcntolity of tlicir views may baro 
nvolvcd intellectual denials ; but their method, their cagcrnCM, 
:pr»Ci)und conviction that Homethiiig wsa coming, \» of the 
BWmcM of tru»t. The truly and profuundly hreplical »cliool« 
lliOK of Hume and Montaigne, — whooU founded in the Ulief 
there ia " nothin^i; imv, and nothing true, and no malter." 
knd wlierc or uheu was tliU ever found to be s bond of tivilisa- 
»a, or any thiui; bnt a source of indolence, apathy, and there- 
' of ra|u<l eorniption? Could Luther have done bix work at 
on Montut(,'ne'H moral ground ? Wiw therw ever yet a great 
mild nrviilntion etfieled in the tiure nf &ucb a storm without the 
el|> of l)i<' fnith which carri<M Lntlier through '( 

Mr. ilnckle's aaaertion, that laith has w^en fed dugniutivm. 



', I. 1-. I». 



226 



GrUisatfon and Faith. 



and A>mrtim(!!t leads to a roilitaiy-dcsitotic tone of mind, » trnM 
enoujili ; and yet wotdd ^cm straugc cuou^h at first sight. It 
vmtld socai that nothing has so uiuch tendency to fir^amc a weak 
■nd ill-kniticd socinlism as the fmrour of religious pir^-. Tct it 
^Rctiiallr drew to°;t'thcr the nlrongest, wiikwt, nod nw»t elaMic tn- 
tern ofsocicty the world haa erer seen. Whil« it purified HKKiy, 
it zavf! it radiating; eentres of streneth. Intitead of niukiug tbe 
individunl ruenibers of the social body lean too much on tbe ^ 
neral socictv, i^ is the rase trith all other socialisms, the (;enenl 
society rcccircd all its strength from (he innumcralilc and impreg- 
nable spiritual stroiifiholds whifh were garrisoned for it f\-vrj 
where by a incre liiiiidfnl uf M-Jitiixd.i. It wast a syxlem in which 
all the moral nt-rr.Y that lia<l Idl the old civihitatiODS waa suddenl? 
nwtored a thousandfold. The new trust not only srave eoci^ 
Btren^h, but solitary strength — strength to the smallest gtoupt 
in a proportiou as full as it gave to the largest. And this strvnfdi 
of trust often betiinic confidence, nudacity, leal, intolerable dog- 
matism, iron (Tiiclly. In truth, it gave al! tho military rirtte; 
and tltuMC were otlen fostered into military vices. The nroceasit 
cle-ar enough. Men did not doubt, they htew that God was rul- 
ing the world and them. They leaned upon llim ; they knew that 
lie was. There is nothing that gives such edge, such kceoDrM, 
8udi promptitude, to Ki-lf-eoiivictlons of right and wrong as thii. 
Till you believe that God is in you, you do not feel clear ^ul 
your own convictionii at all; you will tske any oneV word tlial 
you arc right, any one's wort) that you are wrong, howe^'er msdi 
it confuses the simple undefined perceptions of your heart; jta 
hope that you bclie»-c, you bclicrc that you tnink, you tmob 
that you feel.. All is in a mist. Any one's word is hetlcr tluu> 
your own, fur it mldit more to the eonitision. Suddenly tnvl 
comes ; an<l then, " if your heart eondemna you, God is gntis 
than your heart, and kuowcth al! things." ]t is a word of con- 
mand ; if a rebuke, it is an inevitable condemnation, — a seuIeK* 
to be executed and accepted. Every sentence that fiaahes tbroiif^ 
the heart is written idso in the heavens; and, even if the scnttnM 
hero i» but half le^ble, still elsewhere — with God — it is ckaru 
the sun. Here is the foundation ofe^■e^y military- virtue,—*' 
that instant and unflinching obedience, that aense tliat AaA 
itself is se/Tice. that uncriticising attitude of mind towards tbe 
superior, that severity of cspertation firom yourself and tout 
Bubordiriale, — which is tbe essence of manly conflict. And on!? 
add to it lilind confidence thalyunr couscieDce and spirit is th^ 
measure of every other man's; that you may judge /wAunwkatK 
ia written for him to do, — and you have all the homorv of higefy 
of which Mr. Hueklc speaks as one of the two worst evils o(h^ 
man society. If evil be measured by suficring;, tK> doubt it is(^ 



Civilitathn and Faith, 



227 



iisb ; but th« mmt pitil«»ii iwroeculor, who identiftes for Uw 
ne hi) own cruel will with that nf ({(kI, strikes leas aeverely lit 
itJou tliaii many who help to sprc-jul the iufectioii of n soft 
tg rL'nunciation of all lair except the law of selfish [ileaAurr. 
(It fortiitinU-ly there is no need to cliousc iK-twecii tlie tun, 
llt^ hi)jK>'»t tni^t cKM.-ntinUy gives* riecwion »aA j^hiirfiiu'w, <U'lw- 
kinnLioti, — dpriii^, in iilinrt, to dviliitRtion : but not in luiy wny at 
c.ti>c»fte of l)t>erty ; for in it« moat penoiinl form it in incou- 
Btcnt with juc%iti^ others. The humility it caifiiot be))) iuapir* 
;, iuiV4!)t it from persecuting rigour. No era of iutmsL- |)crsonal 
tnwt lui" l>w:n ft ixTwnitinj; [K-riod. St, Paul perjeeiited whil* 
wat iu till: old phiiriMiie *i»^if. nf Ix-lii-f in a rigid itystcro \ but 
Kt ill ft lix'iutf |M-r!uiii made him the nutat larg<--miiide<l of men. 
5 most ifonmnc school of personal relijtio" throughout the hiii- 
ryof theeatbolicchureh, up totbc timcofFcadouand Madame 
fliyon, hn» been the school with a bias to mystieism— a ecbool 
Dtcd for iiH himitlity mid irharity. Pogmatism is utterly tncoii- 
Itent with a living truHt ; fur it believe* that it is mituI by the 
(ioufi cl.itmratioD of connected riews; and only dogmatists hare 
^ been jtersccutora. And yet wc imagine the at cragc " myslie," 
Fox, for example, who was far from enlightened, would 
tcrt pattern .Mr. Uucklc desires of an ignorant and holy 
It ja only at the point where faith transeenda tbc litnilA of 
ies|)cricuce,— the limits of {>erm>nal trust, — that it bardcus 
, do;;Miatic stnudsnl fur the l>i.-lit'f of utlieni. 

lucklv'ii Ixwk is one of encyclojut-dic learning and gn-nt 

iity. If we ha»c seemed to depreciate ii, it is only l>e- 

we hare dealt rather with the philosophy tluin the history ; 

that does tvcxa to u» pale, slinllow, and alniunt jiompuus. But 

power of Kccitif; t)ie right fact* to claMify, and the power of 

inlying IJtcm, vrliich the book contidos, gives much promise for 

ability of the work oa a whole. The great want of the book ii 

tittle mure human nature; it is humane, but not human, and 

tilvs on men and nations with the sort of lieiiignity with which a 

bd-heiirtcd |>erMin treats tnmc domestic auiniaU. Mr. Buekic 

no kind of perception bow frightfidly dull a thing civilinstiou 

Dok) be if it were wliat he deiwrilieB. The refulatiou of the 

ijn error of the book lies within the compass of cTciy man's 

rn natuT«. Wc know what it is that eiriliscs us ; and wc know 

[lal it is ill ns that resists civilisntion. Intellectual iieCivitv d^ies 

lior the one nor the other. It \% merely the iii.Htruiuniil of 

Brio* wbich heighten stocial iuflitcitceii a thoutandfuld l>oth 

id sad for i^vil. Kailwars and tetegraiiha would nut be 

t<l much, we think, by pure luteJlccts, though tht-y had bcon 

rented hy them. And were the iniellcet the overmnatcriag 

rcr Mr. iJucklc believes, the volcanic tonx> that tend so cQu- 



228 



7%c Monetary Critis. 



wtantlv to break up soi^ial unitiea would not be possible. In bd, 
witliout tlie bond of a cofumon trust, ciTilintioo vould be aiwD< 
durable by stroug tniudA, and wuuld rodare we&li miods. Ilr 
fd'cr of iocicty, it» HupcrftiJBJ coart«ie», it« extenui] urootfaiTUiK 
of passions wliich it gtvi» no spiritual poirer to rcntntiu, its bal^ 
latent prasMire of opinion, ila unsatisfying interoourae, its glinpiei 
of higher things, would far oftener drair men into solitude; bnl 
for that &itb whidt not only gives access to an eternal solitvdt^ 
but habituates them to see iu faint signs the image* of dacpv 
realities, and to reco^ioc tln^ apjianMitlr «iuillov diauidB of 
social life, as ronvevinfc to thcni an influents which is UOt 1 
Burcd bjr tli« lij^ht action and the pasetuj; vonL 




Aht. X.— THE MONETARY CRISia 

Sfjwrtjrom tfte Se}ect Cummiflee. on the Bank Aett; toother *i!i 
the Prorredingf of the t'ommilfir. JUijivfea of Endntet, JnM* 
dix, and Inde-j-. (>rd«red by tbe llonse of ('uromans to be wmOA, 
JulySO, 18S7. 

Diha/e in the ITottte of Lord* mi the Bank- /timet Jn/lenitUg^l 
on the lltk Deeember 1857. Reported in Times Niiwspspr M 
December lUth. 

Debate in ikeJIoute of CommoTu on the HeappotHtrnttUpftheBMi' 
Charter Committee, on the same dajr, and nirarted in tbe «»■ 
journal. 

Voa once the serious attention of business-men is applied t» 
the Hob^ect of the ciirrencjr. The recent commercial eriifev 
bringing anxiety to all actirc incrcliants ; the failure of nwn* 
houses believed to be aolrent, and of some who reallj mren; 
the BuspcHsion of the aelof 184+, which, being a rcpctilionof 
wliat happenc-d in 1847, looks, to say the least, like an inditS' 
tioti iif liffoct in tliat fjimous piece of legislation,— these cireuin- 
stanct^ ami others Imvi; caltud ti) the topic of the currency tl" 
real minds of many who generally regard it as the jiedtit* 
of dry economists, and the puale of captious Kiwculaton. I" 
Lombard Stfcot, on Thursday the 1 2th of November, there *»* 
no denying tliat the ))ank-nute question was a prooticalia^ 
Some months ago, a parliitmcotary c<'inmittee elftborat«l; i"* 
Ycsllgated much uf tlie suljoct: it was ctirioits to eonpu* 
the listless curiosity of its speculative iiiltTust with tbe np' 
-queries, — " Will the act be upset I" " What will the Govtn- 



J 



The ilorutiity Cn*u. 



220 



'ilnent i]'>t" "Is ibe Governor cutnc buck from Downin;; 
8trMt r 

I'tiii! erreiH throws k mora remark&bU lifilit on our banking 
pmoliuu nml currviicy Iv^islutiuti, Iwciiusc it does nut scvm tn 
o« the r<-«»lc of it»y i-irciimitunue* im> pvculinr ibftt u-e mtiy not 
•ifiuii •:\fic(.-t Ui nee ochtm of vrbich tite «ffectH may l>e tbc Minte. 
Till! ci rcumataoces of IK47 have been put aside of hits years 
M KxoiiptionaL the extrenm errxrfi uf tbo Bank dirootovs, tlie 
nulvay nuinin. thv bad hu-v«»t. were singularities of that 
thne, and nti^ht nvvcr bo expeclud (■> r«ear; at Icaat, not all of 
thvoi at one time, or in 90 agKTavat«d a form. Tbe present 
year has no mcb peculiar features. Our domoHtic trade — tbe 
tradcM of bankin|r and m»nor-dc»linfr perhaps in pitrt excepted 
— is, OR ihi" whole, wmnJ,* Ciuisidering the unnrmnus deve- 
lopment wbicb our commerce, whether of export or imjiort, baa 
noenllf undergone, few tboughtful men looked without Home 
apprehension at the probability of a wvere preseura Most of 
them jterltnjM really auticiimted a guud manj mercantile fail' 
UTM (rum donietttc aitd pcrsoniJ cnnaes. There haro searccljr 
beoD any; of bii^e Arms exceedingly few. llie trade of two 
itnportaiit foreign markets has been deranged by circumstances 
[lecotiar to tJitm ; we have been affected, naturally and inevit- 
ably, by these deranRcmcnts ; but, except amou); a few bill- 
ken and money-lending companies, no one, even witli the 
te anger of disappointed theory, ha» been able to find blam> 
ible ermr in our national trade. 

The time is not yet come for attempting to estimate or ana- 
lyao the causes of the Ainericjtn panic, or of the cxtcnriTe ful- 
nre> iu the North of Europe Wc have hardly ajt yet tlie factM 
fyre »M. We have enough to refute a few old )M)pular falla- 
'■eief> H'« know that they did no| arise from any cxcoss of 
Pftper currency; for in Hamburg, where the disasters have boon 
Hat«r than any whore else, they have a pure meitUlic currency; 
in New Yurk, which seems the centre of tlic munelary dii- 
of America, it hiu bei.-n proved t^ figures that there was 
tension of tlie bank circuhutoo of any importjnice at alLt 



auij 
^bl. 



: ur 




'Th« ebiaf cxctfitioD 10 tbe rosuk thai ear irade U urUwir>oaiiil,iMiei>ri 
I Ih* Imiihn 0(UinM)|*d *ilh tb« Nctiii of Rurop*, wlio, (oninvy to wiMt n^J^ 
tim» nxpMUHl ka** not Mocd m wwll m th* AoMkaa hoaoa. lali 
pUoB U luA, hoMtvtv, e«i> uf luflkicnt itD|Mtta«r« la aAct our gniaral 
arsuiuTni. 

t I'h" KfvHMtimotAi ISth KflTfnlwr IMT cItm ih* Mle^iag tgurM m 
i*pm>niiii|t ihv UaU uf (h* New- York baiJu al (heir (wpfoUt* dal»« : 

(-4*1 nL cimkikn. atHl*. 

AuKiial tSC i3.tl4,000 aiM»,000 1I.*«S,».0 

Jliar I'M ttXU.mO RftJIMOW rSJIOkOOO 

IbfteuibCTlBM IO;,M;.Oai> 97.I>1;D00 i*jaijM> 

Fol axay uuiiuilMaU ftttoiu aiiU Mpuiv the dnaiMr* of tbe tomatrj to Ifc* 



aao 



nf Monetary Critif. 



Our knoirledjEC is only as yet, however, sufficient for the pur- 
poses of refutation : we do not know enough to advaim a cein- 
prcltcnsivo and positive theory. Wo- clwirly flUcern. howcrtf, 
tliHt the trade uf the North of K«ru]>e ha-i heen conducted far 
a very coniitderable period on a most iinvholesonie tiysiem «f 
fictitious credit Houses in Ilaniburf* hare given their tutnn 
to acc«ptaiiccs for which they did not know irhat was the eqti- 
valciit — for which, in point of fact, there vas no cquivaleM- 
Thwc acovptanccij were discounted on the failh of the ucceplar; 
and. though with changes of amount and detail, in reality ro- 
nen-ed whenever they became due. The acceptor of course nn 
a great risk, as his liability was for a very large ^um ; but lit 
considered that he was rvmunetmted by a commission, of *hith 
doubtloK) the pniceeds were considerable. Every system of re- 
newed acceptance is, however, unplcu«utly affected by a llgll- 
ncfs in the discount market; the old bill twcomcs due «ilb 
an unfailing rapiitity, but the new bill which is to rejilaceit 
can only he discounted slowly, after a hesitation, after a caDVf^ 
sation with the banker — in the end, cannot be discounted at ill. 
8uch a pressure in iho discount market was produced at liam- 
burg by the continued drain of silver to tlie Kast^-stlvcr Iwing 
there the standard of value and the metal «torv<l as bullion— 
and by the American panic, which larvelv affected the conti- 
nental city most immeuiately conueoied with the Tmusathslic 
trade. AAer all that has been said of the "da8bing"sytUiii 
of Liverpool trade, after every concession to the opponents of 
"rediscount" and "fictitious" bilb, it is nevertheless nut witb- 
Dut )iri<Ie that we may compare the consei]uenc«s nfthe Amtri- 
cnn panic on the North of England with its effects atUao- 
bur^. The stability of Liverpool. Manchester, and of the n^ 
industrial regi»n which ia situated round tbcm, can only k 
explained by a gi:rienilly sound state of industiy. At *k>t 
former period cotdd a great failure of remittances, a gnat con- 
traction of accommodation, a ten-per-cent rate of discount hi" 
been borne by the most enterprismg of our traders with to ^ 
disasters? We can only hope that the next time an Antnisi) 
panic occurs, it may iiiid ua e<]ually well prepared ; very BV^ 
better, we fear, looking to the past experience of comnem 
it would be over-sanguine to expect. That panics will occof 
every now and then in many of the countries with whicb >i> 
our ranii6ed trade we laruely deal, it is impossible to qneilioi>' 
We may not in many cases be able to trace thein by veiyioili^ 

iniiiinuiaK«Dictu of iho tninvnc}'. Etvd Mr. Cudorll. ia lb* iMmc* on i^"^ 
jiiiiiilmciil of lb» Bank Commhlfc. klUiwdd hlmMtf to bm Uanmg* *likb •<■" 
cimrry ■iii'h iin Impn.siion : " Vou hmo jeuuc lhn>ii|th a (t'Wt aiuitrr, i— ff"*f 
rnim ■ (^<>iinlr]'. let U ncter be furKi-lti-n. ihal haa ihiit coDiriiibk cnrracj.***'! 
bank of which ha* auipsndMl pay urm," Jk«.— TVsm, SBisnkjr, D(««mk«i IS*- 



Tie Moneianf Criris. 



231 



putable niueUBg to CHU»c'«i wc ^-now to be real : at tbe present 
.moment ther« is a mist over llie wliolt; topic uf the American 
f disasters; we indiatinctlj discera a vnsl »er'ii:» of inwKtuienLs 
in railn-ays. hastily plunncd, and still inoro hastily made ; we 
tliink n*c can sec that an incautious course of hankiof; has very 
extiiiisivcly itidcil (hese over-rapid efforts. Tlius, though wc 
are suffering fruin tlte effects of the ili^casu, wc have tint yet 
be«ii able to set forth in facts and ^urcci an accurate dc^icrip- 
tion of its causes. The point, however, which it behoves ua espe- 
cially lo haw in our inmdii, is that neither at Hamburg nor in 
America luive any events hajipcned so singuhir or out of the 
common course of mercantile things that we can he vure of 
their Not happening ftj&iti, — that we cannot reasonably antici- 
pate any thing but an occasional repetition of them, eitJier in 
llie Kume places or in others, — that we must settle our mercan- 
tile usage, our banking practice, our currency laws, to »uii the 
Kcurrence, not unfrequently, of events very similar and as dan- 
k gerous. 

[ If wc look attentively at these subjects, as the very great 
importance of these remarks sliould incline us seriously to do, 

(we shall perhaps be struck by two conspicuous facts, — the de- 
velopment in tais coujitry ol an extensive — possibly a too ex- 
tensive — system of credit, and the existence of a law wbich 
i(p«vatcs all disturbances and hesitations in that system of 
credit 

Kothingcan strike the mind of an observer, who cun :<uf- 
ficientlv ahstracthis thoughts from the crowding detail of affairs 
to be alive to the just impression of great facts, more than the 
slight effect which the recent monetary panic, which we have seen 
paM like an epidemic acro!i!< tlie two sides of the Atluntic, lias 
produced on ilie trade of France. This time last year we heard 
many complaints that the imperial government, its stock-Job- 
bing courtiers, tbeC)Wt(J/oti7i>r, had produced a statt' of things 
in that country fraught with daiiuer to Eunipcan natiouK. At 
that period we took occasion to show, that though these accu- 
satjons by no means apjieared to be without a foundation, yet 
thai (he speculative temper so induced did not penetrate very 
deep inut the country, and that its common and Icjiitimate com- 
merce was in all likelihood sound. The iriul has come, and the 
truth has been found to Le so. In fact, the trade of France is, 
M compared with the trade of more enterprising nations, so 
strictly a readt/'iiioHei/ trade, that It is not possible to create any 
wild panic among those who are concerned in it. If you trust 
DO one, you need not bu in a fright as U> those you trust : the 
deferred payment for extensive purchases is the primitive ele- 
' moot of commercial credit ; it is this which creates bills of ex- 



233 



The Monetary Criut. 



change, promisitorT notes, ilnnrin;^, indoraements : where thtti 
element doc^ not exiM, there is no tHxasion for eredit aad coo- 
6<lence ; ererr thinp is setlled at the time. The «ame is tlw 
CMC with lendin;; and horrowinz- Where crerr body kceptt bis 
own money, no one need be ■larmed. or ncefl care as to thetol- 
vencjr of thottc Mnund him. All lAnkin^ m well as all " the in-M 
dustry of credit," is baaed on trust The levolulioDa which hate " 
been so Ireqnent in France, by inevitably disturbing all contero- 
plated transactions, have been so fatal to tins essential con* 
lidenoc, that no ramified (ysteni o( commercial cnnlit has erer 
grown ap there. Something' loo — such at least wai* the doctrint 
of Burke— of a timorous and peddling spirit may lurk in tke 
recesses of the national character- At any rate, the result is 
certain ; the trade of France ts so tittle baaid upon borrowinir 
or trust, that it is not cx])oscd to a panic such as LiMiibanl Street 
and Wall Sireet have experienced. m 

Our own system ofcomnrteree is precisely the revise. Afl 
certain energy of enterprise is the life of England Oar bnoyaiil 
temperament drives as into action ; our firm jad^mcnt makcmt 
steady in real danecr; our stolid ooarnpe i» inapprehe«»ive of 
fanciful risk ; an impassive want of enjoyment in tliat wfaidi 
we are prompts us to try to be better than we are. Accordin^dj 
our commercial men hare for years been prone to frr«it undci^ 
takinffs ; possibly there may not be in the world at this moment 
a single large and adventurous spt^^ulatton in which there it not 
some sum of AngU>-S<imm capital. The iirobily which, after 
every deduction, is really, a» coingiared with most active nationt^ 
a conspicuous feature in the Kn^lish character, bas enabled w 
to aid our enterprises by a vast arwi elaborate system of credit, 
based on defined trust, and tested by verified anticimtJoD. 
Both of the two elements of commercial ctvdit, of which we 
have just spoken incidentally, exist among us to a greater extent 
than any where else in Kurope. A deferred payment for large 
purcba.Se^ n more funeral than elsewhere ; wholesale dealers, as 
a rule, (nve and take verj' lar^c credit Our borrowing and 
banking systems draw fr^nn the pockota of the people everr six- 
pence which is not wanted at once; and place it, througn the 
intervention of bankers and bn>ker8, at the command of the mer- 
cantile and active community. So deeply has this penetrated 
among the mercantile community, as to nave beoinn:, perbapa 
even to a perilous extent, the habit of ihe money-lendent tbem- 
selres. A correspondent of the Ecotiomiet, who writes undtr 
the signature of " A Hanker," has described this plainly : 'Tbo 
certain fact is, that, according to the existing practice, no privste 
hanker keeps more actual coin than he wants for daily nece>- 
sary occasions. In London, the iiunk of England is thebankefs" 



TAe Monetary Critit. 



233 



Eiipeciikllr since the admission Intcljr of the grc&t joint- 
iitw:k b«aks to tlie dcaring-liouse, nu Louclon bunker keepa in 
hl» till more cnin, or even more bank-notes, than the minimum 
be can get on wilk If there ia a,ny unusual dcman<l on him 
for mjmeiits across the counter, he arairB a cheque am] ccC* it 
OMtfaed at the Hunk. The Bunk of England i» to him what he 
i«to his customer — the source nf supply in case of need. Country 
hankers probably for the most pari kuep more cash, because they 
are further from the focua As they have further to send when 
they want frcith supplies, their supply of current cash must be 
larger. Tliis duot not, however, affect tho principle. Country 
bankers, I apprehem), us well a» London bankers, only keep the 
minimum in their tillit which t)ieir ordinary bitsines.'! plainly 

Rfuirra ; the rest of their reserve is kept at the bill-brokcrfi', or 
ih I^ndon bunkers, who all keep accounts at the Bank of Kng- 
land, and who, as I have said, keep nothing any where else except 
marrowest and most nccesMary minimum. The conoeqnenca 
fthat there is no other large pecuniary hoard in the country 
I which a drain of bullion can act except that which is in the 
tli» of the Bank." The inevitable consequence of this is, that 
BQ by any terrifying circtinirtuncc or perilous calamity the 
omfidence between man and man is disturbed, our danger is 
itsidetsblc and our sufi'erini; extreme. Wc have made neces- 
' to our vast transactions a system ofdelicute machinery ; by 
nc blow from without, or defect from within, that machinery 
be occasionally impaired. Oar hard capital is clothed in a 
soft web-work of confidence and opinion ; on a sudden it may 
Iw stripped inire, and with pain to otir prosperity. 

We may perhaps doubt whether this .system of enterprise 
tad trust has not occasionally been carried too far. When wo 
ocniider the vast extent of £ni;lish trade, it is not satisfactory 
to think that a single establishment holds onr entire bullion 
reserve. The faa is a cimscqucnce, not of the natural growth 
of commerce, hut of legislative interference with that growth, 
oy a series of enactments and a course of policy which, even if 
We had the space, it would be inopportune at present to de- 

tihe, the Kni;li!>b Government have given to the Bunk a vast, 
d, until lately, a nnirly absolute predominance in the London 
^atrid The oonseauence has been, that, not unnaturally, all 
^ferior banks have clustered around it As there was no doubt 
Wf the solvency of the Bank of En;^land (seeing that, even in 
"^»7, when the Bank had no money, the Legislature intervened 
ktid said it nwrf have no money), all other bankers, instead of 
''Riming the rixk — and, m experience has shown, the considerable 
risk— of keeping their own metallic reserve, place that reserve 
*'( the Bank, and draw it out by cheque as they want it. Obvious 



23+ 



The Alonelary Cr'ua. 



oonvenivncc has (ixvd the habit too deeply in our existing tft- 
tem to iieriiiit a h<i]>u wf itti rcinovnl ; hut it has ihe ineviiable, 
and perliaps daiigerouit, reitull of [iluciiig under the uncontroUtd 
inana£ement nf a single net of directors the sole lioard of actual 
ciuih—thc unly fund ve hare to draw on for intcrnatiunal pay* 
mcntti, f(ir foreign war*, or domestic panics. Under a inore 
natural «y.ileni, it sot <tf hiink>s of nearly vigual magnitude, and 
nearly eoual prentige, wouhi Iiave grown up, as very recently the 
London joint-stock banks have in fact prown up ; and each ef 
these, having no reason for particular friendship with any ulher, 
would have kcjit its own reserve We arc ulnumt reviving ihe 
Aristotelic definition when we nay that oligarcbr is the goreni' 
mcnt of wealth ; but in real and modern truth, the tendM^ 
of a mercantile community in each trade is towards the supn>- 
niacy of a few large cstablishmcuis enjoying the means of cany- 
ing on their respective trades lit the greatest advantage, and, at 
the case mav be, tnisled by or giving credit to the sinaller firm* 
grouped and collected around them. The Bank of England if i 
Tvpavvot;. who has overthrown this free constitution, and imid- 
tain« by irresistible usage its unnatural supremacy. The eSecthu 
been seen lately; what the net of Sir Robert Peel seta aside as tlie 
banking reserve has recently been reduced from aereral milliwit 
to Hoy.ODI)^ ; and then, by a violation of the law, to less (liM 
nothing. Even if we disregard the technical provisions ofllwl 
statute, the entire bullion reserve held, both fur the bankinz 
credit «nd the paper currency of England, was on the ISlhel 
November (3,4)8+,(K)0'. ; a very small amount, as will he ahacfl 
universally admitted, when we mnsider the vast amount of tlic 
contingencies and liabilities apainst which it is held ; anil thii'. 
in addition to these, it is liable to sudden e;ills ti.> replenish in 
ca«eofncti(l the cash stores of Scotland and Ireland. Wecin 
tiardly, with these circumstanctiH before us, deny that wehs^ 
pushed our system of credit rather too far, — have relied oa tw 
email a basis of actual capital, and incurred serious and nc«^' 
less danger from any vicissitude of foreign spcculatioii. 

Another el rnini stance, whii-b ban been much more dwelt on, 
but to which we a,scrihe much leas im|Hirtance, is the system pt" 
sued by the joint-stock banks of the north of En^iland of IcaaiiK 
the whole, or more than the whole, of their capital and dtpcBil-' 
oa the spot, and obtaining the neccssarj" funds by re-diBcounO"" 
the north-country billii in London. Like every other coniD'' 
ance of money-lending, this may be carried to an extreme*' 
which it becomes dangerous : but within reasonable and prof*^ 
limits, the system seems a proper and even an excellent "««• >''/ 
bille of Liverpool must be. in the main, good ; for with all ll"' 
pressure, — a pressure, too, likely to tell with unusual effect*' 



J 




I port which is the outlet and inlet of our American commerce, 
-fcry few Liveqiool houses have suspended payment, when w« 
Dnstiler the number of houKvM there nrv, and the- cumphculjon 
as well as magnitude of their tranMclion.t. The l.tveqxiol hilts 
therefore are, m general, jcood securities for thosewlio have money 
to icnd. liy the course of bankin;; business, the bill-brokers and 
similar (radcr!i in ly^ndon will have much to lend. The n^icul- 
tural aii<l nvurly uiicommcrcia! couiittus of Knglund, as any one 
mav see by lookinjr at the map, are many : none of these, espe- 
cially during the receut prosperity of ajfricuUure, any thing like 
employs its own m<mey ; the surplus funds of all these counties, 
by a natural ^rravitation, isc-ek an mitlct in the capital, which lii 
the fticus of iiikliiiual finance, and the market for securiticj* best 
knownandmostaccesxible to the whole country. The«e funds are 
lent to bill-brokers and joint-stock banks, who carry on a similar 
business — nho are, in truth, bill-brokers as well as bankers ; and 
by the«e they are employed in rc-diiicounting the bills furwunled 
to l^ndon by the northern bunk.s. In its e.«aencfi, the Hyvteni is 
this : A man in the north is trustworthy, and wants money : a 
man in the south has money, but does not know who is trust- 
worthy; a middleman in Lundon knows who is trustworthy, 
and lends the mom^y of the south to the num in the mirth. Of 
bourse, as re-discoiuui n;r >>* a ^ysteiu of extensive borruwin^, it 
^s expivTiwl to all the evils incidt;ntivl to every svstem of exten- 
iiv« iMmiwing. The banks which require re-discounts should, 
as a rule,connne them within limits which they can be sure of 
obtaining; in times of adversity as well as of prosperity — should 
have distinct arrangement?! with bill-brokunt to re-discuunt 
within tho)H! limits — and should select litood bill-brokers who 
are able to perform those engagements. These are, mutalia mu- 
tantlia, the same conditions which every prudent merchant who 
requires discounts would make with his banker wliu gives such 
discounts ; and if these conditions be duly complied with, both 
re-dis4:ount.t and dLscimnts arc .<uife to the borrower, and distri- 
bute with singular adTantage the capital of the nation. 

It is much to be regretted that members of parliament should 
have spent, in attacking the really beneficial system of re-dis- 
ooont«, the moral influence which might be applied wtih so much 
effect to other parts of our banking system. The obviou* con- 
venience which we have explained will insure to that system a 
longevity far greater than that which can be expected by peer 
or representative. The use of parliamentary eloquence is nut 
to bewail fixed habits, but to improve improvable habit-i If 
the re-discounting system has been iiusbed too far. as is pos- 
ubJe, the effect is owing to the condition of the bill-broking 
tnuie in London, the state of which is certainly not in accunl- 



S36 



Tke Mtmeiary Crisis. 



nncc with strict principle, uik) may not periiaps be pmcttcaUr 
Bftfe. 

In its theory, nothing can b« sounder than (his tntde. If odct' 
18 rec«ived commonly in considerable sums ; an interest is paid 
fjT them, smallvr if they arc to he rc[>*i<) on demand, and 
greater if they lire only to he re^wid after the expiration of a 
notice : this Hioncy is employed in the discount of commercial 
bills, — the kind of security which runs ofl'most reeulariy and 
most constantly, and which in times of scarcity and anxtcty ad- 
mits most easily of hcing curtuiled. On the surface this would 
appear the Kafe^t kind of banking; the way of employing the 
money is the best; bo much of the money ia only repayable 
after s notice, that the reserve which need be retained is 
smaller than usual. This apparent safety, however, is at present 
vitiated by a single fact. The rate of interest now given is m 
high, that the business would be«ome unprofitable if any re- 
serve were kept at all Of this fact, which is familiar to those 
who are in any deRToe acquainted with the practice of Lom- 
bard Street, there is a very distinct explanation in the recent 
pM-linmentnry inquiry ftirnished by a very experienced witnes*. 
The most influential jiartner in the house of Overend, Ciumey, 
and Col, the most import&at bouse in the bill-bruking trad< 
is examined as follows : ~ 



la*.! 1 



" 520G. You »rc awmv, «« you have rcferrifiJ to the liahitM of 1 
iug buHiiium, ttint it is tlic hnbit of thn Ituiik of EiigUud, u well i 
beuerc, of oilier bankers, to keep a certain araouQt of their dc)>ant( b 
baak-notcs in reserve 1 — Certainly. 

5'2()7. Do the luoncy-dcaling houses in I.nmbnri] Street act on tke 
same principle with regard to that nioncy which iw left in their hanik 
at calif — They could not afford to do it; it is not the nature of their 
business, exee))t under cireuuiatanccs of danger as to the cnrrencyi 
tliey could uul nifurd to pay iuterest for money and not to tue h; it 
is the nature of tlieir buniiit^tui to lirin^ into acLiun and useful en- 
ployineat the Imnking money of tlie euuntry; it it their liusinns t«> 
use it. 

fi208. Do you, then, think that tliey may mfelr use all the aon t^y 
which tliey borrow, in lending it out at iutcnst, iiruvided it u on im^^ 
aecurity t— Assuming that tliey ciuploy it on biliii of cxcliaiigf (klliuj^MI 
due dc die in dUmi, then cspcricnue shows tliat they may tl>o it ubij^U 
witliout any hazard. 

6200. Witliout keeping any rcwrvc beyond a banking balance t—— 
Certainly. How could I afford Ui pay five or six per ocol for 
if I did not UNe it t It would be cert^nly tbc rood to ruin." 




At first (iight this seems contrarj- not only t« abstract srg_ "» 
mcnt, hut to evident prudence. How can other people's mon. -^ 
be securely kept, a good deal of it on demand and the rest « 



7%e Monetary Crui$, 



237 



it at a short nntiec (seven days is the u«unl penodj, if dSi of it 
is invested, and if none is retained in the till to meet sudden 
detnands ! The doctrine that a reserve is necessary to bor- 
rowers so situated has been maintained orf natiaeam by all 
theorists on banking. The same autliority, however, has ex- 
plained ibe expedient by which it is rendered, as he thinks, 
safe, and, its all will agree, le^s entirely iiiitecure. Tlie ex- 
planation is rather long, but is curioudy illustrative of real 

"5193. Ttisn yon think that the Bank of Eogland could not slop 
discounting for U)0 discount houses in LouibanJ Street, at particular 
thoos *t Ira^t, without creating );reiit iujury tu the comrucrcJal com- 
Otuaity i — I think it wuuld uraaLe very grunt lujury iudeed. Of course 
Um Bank IMnotors would uae tlieir owu diicretiun ; it thtry saw thMe 
houses diaeouoting very luiix liillx with them, uiid biUa which were not 
sutaUe in any way, I tukn for ^^ntcd they Would not take theui. Of 
eourse tliat wimld not atTcct the general queiitioa ; but aasuniuiK that 
tfcere ia a drtuu upun tliu mnnclnry Rystvin, and that the great iiiuiiey 
dealem are driven to convert their bills more quickly than tlicy fall due, 
I think it would be a very gieut calamity for the Biink to tic»ilate for 
a nogle moment ; I cannuC conceive any greater. 

51 H3. No matter what the m-serve of the Bank of England was at 
tbt tiiaat — Certainly. 

9194. Then you ihiuk that that is one of the grouuds, in addition 
to tboae four which yuu huvc' Ktuled, whii-h oug'ht properly to be in- 
duded in an aet of iHrlJAint^ut a> a ground for iufritigiug tJie act) — I 
hardly Duderttmid that point 

51SU. You gave fuurgroundii nn reowna for an altcnlion of the act 
at particular pcriodn, but y<iu did not enumrnktc tliat tu whirh t have 
josl alluded. Do you think that that i> one which ouglit to he in- 
cluded in th«i provisions of the act of parliament 1 — I will mention a 
case, if you will allow me to refer to the house which I reprcHimt, bc- 
flaose tbia is a fact which has taken place before. About twenty years 
■go, the Bank tried to adopt that course ; 1 am obliged to spmk per- 
aMudly, which 1 hope yuu will exouae. I happened to have boon sbsont 
from London for tliree or four weeks ; I came Iwck to town, and found 
the wbule of Lombard Street as if we had had a dark cloud hanging 
«ver it; our deiJc wuk piled vrith bill* of the very Ituesl coiuniorcial cha- 
racter; I Mud to my partner, 'Mr. Gurnc}', what iu the world baa 
]iapMned t Wby do you not di-*ci>unt thcMc hilln V Hu auid, ' Bocanae 
"tibe Bank hare intimated tliHt they an: doubtful whether they will dis- 
<iNint for us.' 1 saiil, 'It is irapcosihli-.' He »iid, 'It in perfectly 
tme ; and therefore we will not <li8coiint tin- bill"." I wub ijuite ahocked ; 
I went over to the lUnk, the Uovcmor then wan Sir John Bae Beid, 
and Sir Ilenry Telly was the Deputy Oovcmor; it was aiiout 1839. 
1 toM Ihein exactly what had taken place, and what the pRcet of their 
aat had been. I said, ' Wc have taken cans of ourtelvw ; it ia not that 
^B ire wsnt the money for uurtelvca, because we bavo our bills to rely on, 



238 



Tkf Moneiary CritU. 



and unlea* then i» a re;nil'^<' eoDB|iir»cr. we *lial] not min^ our hnif. 
But we b*T« to Kipplj Uie public. Vvu bare ttcpped tli« )«ni« ot uctM 
to tw; ami if you, wlio bavc liecn in the hnbit of Kupplving w with 
moncj nlivu wv mjuired it, vrill not do xo now, ire, on the other han4 
will not RUpply tlic public' I utiafied llMfii tliat if iiirj witbcd to 
curtail trnnwcliiHi*, which wiw mllj* their object, the wav to do it *u 
to make lis act hnrmonixiiil)- wiib the Bank. 8ir John lUc llciil uid 
at oDoc. ' I jicriectl/ iintlerstand yaa ;' and after a little coosultation be 
said, ' If lliey are all projier bills, go and discount away; aiid if jM 
wnut tuoney, come to us.' 1 weiii home, and told them what had Ukt» 
plftce. It not only affected ua, but it affee4«d tlie whole ol Lombard 
SlreH; thia dui-k cloud diduppeared. aud a perfect buiMuih to<^ plan 
in nu ioBtaiil, W« diacouuted every thing; mid, ■* far ua my mniMTy 
Hcrrei Die. I du uut thiuk we neut tu the Bank for a shiltiug; lliere 
wud no iuterrujitiuii tu the ebb and How of the banking money. Bal 
when the Bunk of Euxlund «utd. 'You Khali not luive it,' the cScct wm 
to lock up iitilliouH immi^liatcly ; for a Urge portion of tli« basldnj 
money dcpuHiled witli UK t* in gre-nt maxeen, bccauic the parties Imov 
that tliey oin have it in a rnomrnt. If, in o&r own aiTangenicotC ht- 
twccn ourselves aud the Itank, tb« Bonk say, ' We irill not do tlua,' all 
that is stojipi'il in a nionicnt ; and those millions, which would Otbc^ 
wise be of brricfit to the public, und«r eKisting rircumMances bweOK 
immediately locked tip ; because people any, ' Vi'e would rather ha*f 
no interest at all, than have a doubt ubuut our ],-ettia|j the money i> 
case we require it,'" f 

Probably this is a satisfactory resource if the Bank of Enf " 
land IS rendy at ull times, aiii] willing nt nil times, to giv« IM 
rc-discouiil required. A inaii may advance crwy shilling of 
borrowed imtney on securities which ho is sure thut he caa , 
pledge in any quantity and at any tima But can these tmdcri^ 
he sure that tlio Bank will be ut all times do able and so wiH- ^ 
ingl 

Of the willingness of the liank there need be no (inestion 
Its leading director has explained the system on which it art& 
Mr. Nunnan is asked : 

"332". The advances of the Bauk of England are made timi'^ 
what in calli'd the Disuouul Office t — The greulcst jmrt of tbrm. 

'itt'Iti. ^Vliul in the niiture of the Dincuuut Office / — It t* a wij ] 
anomalous institution, becauite the Btiuk its auppotcd to hold out au e^i' 
to eveiy body to liMid money to any amount on bill* of exchaoge at ■ 
rate of iatercst fixed by itaelf, and suhjcet, tirnt of all, to rarialious ■■ 
the rate of interest, and then t*) certnin other contingcnciM, sueb « • 
iliininutiuu in tbo eehiaitce, and au occasional rcjoclioa of wcunB'* 
ordinarily admitted. 

U.'iay. In it not principally by rusing the rate of interest th«l J"" 
check the luuount of discounts which may be so demanded of ^u I' 
Yes; we have found, contrary to what would hare been an^cipai™' 
that the power we potwess, aud which we exerciue, of rusiug tii< f^^ 



The MoHelary CrUu. 



23D 



I cul 



iltAOOtint, keep* tbc dcmnnd upnn ii» within nianiiK;onble iHm^aions, 
■arc wro otbor rcslrictions wbicli arc Imx im[>nrt.nt>t. The raut we 
dwrgo for our iliacounts wc find, in general, is a *iilKcient check." 

6 ptmer of the Bank is far less evident If Sir It. Peel's ut 
!s to be retained, and really acted on durliif! a crisis af diffi- 
culty, that power would, if w may trust our t'-Tperit-nce, not 
ixinl. When there wa» lus* than a. million in the Tcscrre of 
tes, it was tjuile certain that the JIank could not niiike ttw 
limited advances. lJn(|nestionably, by keeping a much larger 
reserve in times of security, the Bank may retain the power of 
makirii; these sudden and large advances in times vf insecurity. 
And if the Bank directors in the forthcoming inmiiry mean to 
support the act of 1844, they most certainly rihould assnro the 
public that they will in future adopt that expedient. It is idle 
for them to undertake to make very great loans, and also to 
defend an act which limits theJr mciins, unless ihcy can show 
us that by judiciou.s mauagcment thecis meatw can bo mode 
jiractically adequate ti^i .luch advances. They must either aban- 
don the argumentative defence of the statute of restriction, or 
they must show us how the business which they profess to 
carry on cim be managed within the pruvivions of that statute 
And even irrospectivoly of tiie couditioni of this act, a cautious 
banker hardly likes to be under an encasement to make ad- 
vances however great, in times of difficulty however .severe, 
may be safe, hut it does not sound safe. A much larger 
e of bullion than six or seven millions seems quite ne- 
,ry to render the profession tu ufi'ord such advances even 
lUsihle. 

We are therefore of opinion, that though the slate of other 
tfad«s in England was as satisfactory during the present au- 
tvnui as we can in general hope to have it, the condition of the 
mooey-iending trade wtis critical, and perhaps perilous. Wc 
think that the reserve held hy the Uank for its hanking lia- 
liiKties was dangerously low; especially when we remember 
^tt this is the only actual ca^h reserve for all the banking 
h»l>ilitie8 of the country. We believe thai the hill-brokers of 
i^ntbard Street incur serious risk in depending on the abiKty 
of the Bank to make unlimited advances at niomucit^ when 
f^ntj is remarkably scarce. On both these points we have 
|« wme fault to find with the money-lenders ; that they hare 
^'tlupcd too highly the system of credit — in inorv graphic. 
tw)iij(b leu elegant wonl.i, liint tbt>y have " used up Uieir money 
•w oiow ;" and do not keep enough of it unemployed to meet the 
'"ntinijency of an occasional pressure, 

As we are using phraseology so simitar, wc would desire, 
''**eT«r, to distinguish ourselves particularly from those per- 



il 



240 



The Mowlary Crim. 



SODS who impute the principul error in the oveT>dcvcloi: 
of the HTittcin of credit in IaikIoii lo the joint-stuck 
whic)i are now so remiirkalile « ft- atun! in its frecuniary sjrftein. 
We have no desire to eitier the listfl for cverv thing sfaich 
tluse banks have done ; we lihould be iDcIined, ud a |VOptr 
occasion, to maintain that they have committed errors; aod 
tliat,in conMK[uvncc of thv law which requtrvit thHtcTci^'sbAre-. 
holder shall be liable for the debts of the bank to his tail shilr] 
lin)c and his last acre, there are defects in their inana_ 
which it will be difficult Co amend. Still, on the whole, 
joint-stock bankn of London have stood remarkahly well; i 
only have none of them failed, but none of them have Iweii i 
danger of failing. They have now gone cjuiie safelv ihrov 
general pressure, and some time unce they passed throu, 
special pressure consequent on the failure of the Royal Brilaii 
Bank ; and in both cases the result has been beuvficiaL It is 
quite true that they have adnpted the bill-bruker's busiiKst; 
hut they have divested it of the dungere of which we lisi« 
spoken. Bein;; pos&ibly conscious that, as appareni, and i<a- 
haps in some degree real, competitors of ttie Bank of England, 
they mij^ht not find extreme favour with the authoritieioflb 
"Uiacoiint OlFice" the joint-stock hanks do not rely on l^e 
support of that establislimeuC in times of difficulty. Ur. Cbip- 
man the bill-broker, whom we have more than once cited, bu 
given evidence on this point which we must believe to bewn- 
clusivc, as it is in favour of those whom he admits to lie hi< 
competitors; " Is it," he is nuiked, " within your esMricDva 
that the Ijondoa joint-stock banks, such at the London and 
Westminster and other bajiks, re-discouot their bills T "1 
never beard of such a thin^" " Then in that respect the Iad- 
doD joint-stock banks differ malvrially in their mode of canrin;! 
on businestt from that which i» udopliMl by the di^c^unt bouM 
in Lombard Hireet, do they not J' "Certainly they do; b*- 
cause It is our business to sell our bills a^^ain, and they do out 
sell their bills R^aiu tbatl know of." These banks arc enab'tvJ 
to carry on this course of business without recourse to the ti* 
pedient which those who lir»t practised it have been oomjNillK 
to rety upon, because their situation is in one nitist impuitsnt 
respect far more advantageous. Tlie bill-brokcra pay an inwW 
for all the money which they borrow ; the banks which dJ'"' 

Sete witli ilicm Imvo a grcnt ileal of money on the lalance*"' 
rawing accounts fi>r which they p«y no interest — they** 
afford to keep idle some of their cheap money in order to p(^ 
vide for the occasional withdrawal of the money for which uw/ 
pay highly. Of course they do this at the expcns<e of a di""* 
nutlou in the profits which they mtj^ht derive from the «tlwt 




The Monetary Cri»it. 



241 



n 

m 



furta nf Uieir Imnlcing I>iuiiii'S». If they Oi<] not keep llictr 

owmay i<ll>- fur \\n* ))«oulitu' purpose, thcr miElit cmpluv it in 

llho toiniriun vay, and obtain a nrofit upon it. Hut tbis is a 

unnttor which may W safely leK to tlic practised pecuniary 

Jud^mcnt of the manneLTS. If thry carry un sucli a Itusincss, 

U(! may without rushiiesti infer llial it is a profitable one 

i'oiiiibly tliey may, from an implied engagement to gire for 

^uney one per cent less than tho minimum rate of discount. 

DBVo hc«n recently inducud to give higher rates for deposits 

than We tihall he likely to kcc again ; perhaps the time of nu- 

Pliee in which they hold their interest-bearing depoKiUt may be 
too short ; but these are points of detail— on a general riew of 
the subject tJiey must be considered to have diminished one of 
the miMt serious risks of tlie bill-broking busincs!^ at the same 
timii tliiit they hare continoed to aBf>rd tu tlic public all clia- 
mcicriNtie advantage!!. 

We do not consider as im)»)rtant arguments in favour of 
the inclusion that the system of credit has Itcon perhaps ton 
lar|;oly developed in England, tho rccklew advances which 
l^lipjncar to have been made by the three Urge bttnks which have 
^Hiuleil in Scotland and the north. In a great country like thU 
Vtbere will alwayn be :t<>nie unsound Imnks, u well aa some in- 
P*ul*'*i"< merchants. Two of these banks nearly suspewded pay- 
ment, and perhaps should have .tuspcnded payment, in 1847; 
^and the other has been well known in the banking world for a 
IpeciiUtivo and exceptional business. AVc would not ground our 
mnclu^ion on any f^mgular and cnsnut facts. We wish to Imuc 
Jt Molely im the aiuiill amount of ca»h, esi>ecially of cash avail- 
riible for banking lialiUIties, held hy the Bank of England ; and 
[on the exclusive reliance of Lombard Street, and indirectly of 
the rural bankers, on the Bunk of Engluiid. 

Thin extreme development of creilil must of course be «t- 

ttciided with peril during a crisis, in whatever manner that 

aiais mav be occasioned. Kvery crisis must disturb confidence: 

ind credit is the effect of trust and confidence. We cannot hot 

tielieve, however, that during the laat two monthn the peril of 

[thi« ioKvitiible liistiirbance of credit has l>een much enhances) 

by our peciilinr Icgislatiim. The proof of tbis seems tu us to 

Ilie on the surface of the subject. The cause of panic is the 

1exi>ecluti>in uf insDlToncy. People who have during many 

l^'eara given long and large credit, become apprehensive, and 

fvUh 10 bo paid in cash immediately. The peril of this state 

[nf fouling is mi;a.-iurrd hy the amount of cash which is avail- 

[ablo to meet tho demands for such repayment As wv bare 

vxplained, (he side reserve applicable to such repayments dur- 



242 



T%r Moftetary Crins. 



ing a preeenre on Lombard Street is the banking roMirc of the 
Bunk of England. Previously to the Act of IS44. the Baok oT 
England re«emhie<I the Bank of France, Bnd held a (tingle re> 
Rerre of o>in aiid Imllion aeainst ail il« liabilities, whether to 
Qote-holders or deixiiiitunt. Ifthis state of thin^ bad continued, 
the reeerre of cash applicable to a domestic panic, and its jiiv> 
portion to the claims upon it, would have been shuirn bj iht 
following fipircs : 





UxbttilML 


Bnllkm. 




£ 


£ 


October 3 . 


. 39,070.000 . . 


10,fiS2,000 


10 . 


. 39.033,000 . 


10,109,000 


17 . 


. ST .01 7.000 . 


9.534.000 


34 . 


. 36.711.000 . 


9.369.000 


Xovcmber 4 . 


. 37.SG2.000 . . 


8.497.000 


11 . 


. 39,2S«,000 . . 


7,170,000 


„ 18 . 


. <1,«7»,000 . . 


6,684,000 



" The result of which U, that the Bank reserre, bf^ioniojE 
about one-fourth of ita general liabilitiee, was redaced t» be- 
tween one-sixth and one-sovcnth of them in 6ve weckc. In 
that space of time, while the liabilities have been increasing 
on^third of the bullion rc«crve has been abstractwl." Tlu»i* 
evidently an account likely to create a senutta feeling in 6e 
min(U of attentive and cautious mi>n. It would have conrinced 
many of them, at least in our judgment, that our credit eyiten 
rested on a basis dangerously small: but it is evidenUy >» 
account requiring to bo looked at with attention, and tmwiu" 
ujwn after consideration ; it noiild not produce a fnniUc alim 
in tli« minds of nny of tho»e who iire incapable of steady na- 
soning, and are solely acted on by the tendencies of the momesL 
and the opinions of those around thetn. The extreme danger 
of a period of discredit consists in the frantic alarm wbkli >t 
occasions among such unrcflcctive and undi^tcriminating per 
wma. Sir I{ot>ert I'cuI'm act enjoins a form of account whi<a ■* 
felicitously apt u» catch and rivet the minds of such peiwi* 
The amount applicable to the banking liabilities ofth«B»n^ 
of Kngland. so long as the ordinar)- business of the Bonk i^ 
going on, is the reserve in the banking dcpartDicnt ; this, it i* 
true, consists of notes, but thnne arv exchangeable on the otbe' 
side of the Bank for bulUon, and may thembre be rc^ardd "f 
tickets for so much bullion. The history of thia tesavt,V>^ 
of the liabilities to which it is applicable, is as follows: 



i 




ting on the 1 9th of September with u reserve of more 
D oae-third of the deposits, tlie iiank reserve was reduced 
the lltfa of November to less than one- eighteenth : aiid 
b tiiipposJng the 2,UOO,000^. said to have been withdruwa 
Scotlttiid «tid Irehiml ii-it to h«vc been so withdriiwa, that 
irve would have been under one-fifth." Now these are 
Ires which can be read not only by a man who runs, but 
K man running very fust. The most inconsiderate mind 
•t be struck by an iiocount which shows so frif;htrul u dc- 
titu of available rcsimrces. Evcryoncin truth, wa* so struck 
^ Dtuch earlier period than the last of the above dates ; and 
iresult was the panic of 19'>7. We think all candid persons 
kid allow, that whatever other advantages the act of IMi 
r hare, its effect just then was to ag^avate seriousness into 
nhensioD, and apprehension into terror. 
fTiiii cfftx't is the more perverse, becAuso the first of the 
bunts, as legal authorities tell us, rtipreacnts the real stat« 
me Bank, and the other only embodies a theoretical form of 
ount. This may gccm unlikely to porsons only slifihtly fami- 
vith the subject ; but it will not scorn so to those who 
f£ studied the crmtniverwea in which the theory of the Act of 
' oritfiiiat«d. According to the iLccomplishcd persons who 
t«i that theoiT, it was dejuirablc that the amount of the 
' circulation (whether including the reserve of notes in the 
Bkof England, or cxciudinp it, was by no means clear) should 
. to the flurtuatioa of the bullion in the Bank ; that for 
new live jxiunds of bullion there should be u new five- 
ad note somewhere, and that for every new 6vc-piiund uolc 
! should he a now five pounds of hulliou somewhere. Tbo 
Bers of the act looked at the matter with the eyes of tlio eco- 
tists rather than with those of lawyers. They wi:*hed that 
five-puund note and the live pounds <ifbullii>n should al- 
|V> CO- exist ; but they did not care to appropriate or earmark 
P bullion for the paj-ment of the note. They wished, as 
N Overstone has expressed it, that the note should bo " the 



£44 



The ^f(meiaty Criaia. 



shadow" of thometal; but they did not especially care tn enforce 
ft legal tic between them. Id the same way, the taine ttchool of 
legislators nnd thinkers enacted expressly that gold should go 
down to Scotland as u basis for the not« circulation (above a 
certain limit) ; and yet did not at all specifically appropriate it 
to that circulation. In a word, it was rather the rcprewntatire 
character of the note that thoy were anxious to Hicure, and not 
its wnvcrtibiiity, in its obTinug mcjiniiig tliat whoever has ■ 
five-pound note slinuld he sure of Imving five pounds in gold 



for it. It struck tliese theorists as immaterial whether the 



note-holder had the five pounds, or some one else had it 

The consequence has been, that a fictitious form of account 
which really gircs no priority to the note-bolder over the dp- 
posilor, iippetirg to give such |>ri(irily, and that the depositor iJ 
nichtened into panic by the idea of his postponement ; alttiougb 
it 18 not true. 

The evils nf a crisis so produced and so aggraTated are i^> 
complicttled nntarc ; and it would require much more apace than 
we liavc at our disposal to specify all of them. A knowlt!iI|:r 
of one of them, however, is particularly important t" a cornel 
understand ins of I'ery recent events By one of the most ela- 
borate ciintrivanccB of our commercial svitlwn, credit, in its w- 
rioiis forms, is largely employed as u currency. The hank-not* 
is one of the most obvious forms of this ; it is a mere promise 
to pay, but in its tmn«ference from bund to hand it closes l)t^ 
gains as effectually aa gold itself. ITie bank-note, howerer. 
thau;;b the earliest and simplest, is not by any mean.* inow 
refined commerce the most operative form of the credit f«I^ 
roney. The large wholesale tninsactions, which really d««- 
mine the general price of im]>ortani articleii, are rarely no" 
settled in bank-notes. The real instrument of lai^ge operation* 
is tlio cheque. It is within the familiar experience of c*«7 
one, that all the ordinary purchases of private life are wffw 
settled ; the large purcliiises of trade are so also. Some ytof'^ 
have a notion that a cheque is not currency because it »» ""' 
mediately paid and cancelled; hut this U a mistake ot i^^ 
Very few cheques, in comparison with the whole number. >^ 
really paid over the counter in sovereigns. The person who re- 
ceives a chc<iue probably keeps a banker, and pays the clici^w 
in to his account with such banker : if iIm; latter is the ban**' 
on whom the cheque is drawn, the cheque is " paid" by aS™* 
pic transfer from the account of the drawer to that of tiiepsj** ' 
even if tlie hanker of the drawer is u different person frwrnw* 
banker of the payee, the pmcews is the same. The rural iKiiAei*- 
as a rule, settle llieir accrountii in London. All I^ndon hsa^*" 
"tettlc their accounts at the "clearing-house ;" that is-thtT** 



I 



<L 



vliat cheques each holds payable by the others, set off an cauul 
ftmount one offaiust itnothcr. and pay the balance thpinsulves 
by n cheque oii the Bunk of Knglanil Every Londim banker 
has an account at the Hunk ufKngltuid, from which the che(}ue 
so drawn, by a slightly complex machinery of book-keeping 
which we need not explain, is transferred to the account of the 
banker who ii; to receive it. By this artificial arrangement, 
che({ues drawn in ]Jorsetshir(! or Liincashirc arc rctilly paid by 
tran:>rer< in (he deposits of the Biiiik of England. Xo .scjve- 
reigns or notes pas.t at all; the whole is a matter of book- 
keeping. It is evident that all this supposes a general feeling 
of conndcnce in the banking community. If every person who 
rcccired a cheque took fright about the stability of the banker 
on whom it was drawn, or the adequacy of the provision made 
by .tucli drawer in the hands of that banker for its payment, 
the system would he at an end. If every person who received 
a cheque rushed at once to the hanker and obtained coin for it, 
there would be no room for this currency of Gi't^off^, and the 
work of the clearing-house would cease altogether. In times 
of panic there is a good deal of this. If at such a [leriiid there 
is a run on the bilUbrokers of Lombard Street (as there is un- 
derstood to have been last Norcmbcr for two or three days after 
the stoppage of Mcssrii. il^undctnan and Saundersun), a good deal 
of it is taken in bank-notcg. Kltvo us persons do not like to trust 
to the operations of the clearing- bouse, which they will not 
Juiow for some houi^; especially if they hold securities, they 
■riU be very unwilling to rely on this distant proce-ts, or to part 
Vitb them except on the payment of bank-notes. The exjfec- 
tatioD of this process produces even a worse effect than its 
reality. Every moncy-dculer. especially every country bunker, 
rbo cannot from giu>^rraphicul ditlicultius at once replenish his 



:>n», slrenglhens himself to meet the sudden demands ofup- 
ehcnsive persons. He has no confidence that other people 



jno 
Itun 

Erel 

■rill have conlidence, and he provides accurdtogly. The conse- 
quence is, that a larger amount of coin and bank-notes is re- 
quired in times when credit is lurgu than in times when credit 
small, bccniusc in our elaborate comniurclal civilisation we 
,vc coined credit itself into a currency. 

Tliese considerations afford the best reply to those theorifita 

bo seem to consider the letter from Lord Palmcrslon and Sir 

. C Lewis, permitting nn additional issue of bank-notes upon 

ritics, OS a " debasement of the currency." The exact state 

. thinjrs was this ;~The knowledge of a limit prescribed by 

'urmer legislation tm.^ produced n feeling of apprehension which 

destroyed the efficiency of a portion of your currency. The 

' * :aining medium of the country is as much diminished, 



246 



The Monetary Cri$U. 






I 



or rather is ctcd more <ltniiiii«hc(t, !>/ the difToscd Dcrro' 
vhich wc hnvc spukcii of, thuii it would Itc hy ihv. fKiluro ot&. 
cuunlrv bank Usuing tK)l«s. Vet it has l)c«n {rencntUy adinitl< 
that, in the case of such a failure, econonrical principle did 
forbid, and obvious commoa »eDS« warranted, an issue of otl. 
paper by solvent pcrsonii of credit to supply the vncuum vrhi 
had been mo created. AVc can ucVnowlodgv no distinction for 
(hia purpose between bank-iiotea and tiiher forms of credit. The 
orculaling medium of the country, in this relation, most bt 
re^rded as an entire whole ; whatever by the cour&e of uagv 
settles our domestic transnctions, is a part of it ; and when aaj 
important part of it is destroyed or impaired, wc can rccugniM 
no violation of principle in a development of that which in un- 
impaired. The place of that which is wanting may surely U 
supplied by the substitution of that which vv have. In tke 
instance before us, the case is even a Btronger ona ffhnl 
eauKcd the pimic wus the apprehension of the legislative limili; 
the mere removal of that limit was in itiieir equivalent to a 
great increase of currency, because it supported so much crofii 
which by custom and habit was pcrfanning the fiinctio&s of 
currency. Lord Orerstone has observed of the circumslancts 
of a fonner panic: "Look to the Government letter of 184* 
What was the Government letter of 1847 i Why, it wa* u 
indetiiiite increase of the iJank reserve What wus its cffcd'^ 
Not one note was put into what is called ita active state- HolU 
one single note passed out of the Bank in consequence of it; ^ 
bu^ the Bank reserve was instantaneously augmented. Whu 
was the result i A miracU was instantaneously aorked. T^ . 
want of coajUlritce uwt rfmovetl ; etvrt/ thing b«catne tmooti W 
nujr. Tht uiAoIii maehitten/ oflht crtdit sytUcm of the cowdrj, 
tdtick had heen brought to u SeaJ-loci:, was immediattlif futt i» 
order, and every thing v.'ent on vUh perfect ease." Can there bt 
a more satisfactory testimony to the effect of the limit upon 
the ii^ue of bank-notes in impairiug the cSieicncy of the "credit 
currency" of the countrj-, or of the instanlanouiw rupiditr wlIi 
which tnat credit currency is repaired by il-t reinuvnl i On tlie 
present occasion it has been necessary not only to eniiie, bat u 
overstep the limit. There is hardly any one, in the midst o/ib* 
facts, but will find, however, that ihc amount of circulniof 
credit impaired Uy apprehension is very much greater thau tbc 
not very ctmsiderablc »um which [las been i»ued beyond the U'- 
This alTords also the replv to the suggestion nf Luid Gr<?> 
that an issue of Exche()uer-bil]s or stock would be more apfW 
priatc than an issue of notes. Neither of these would,***- 
ever, repair the deficiency. A portion of the transferable tn- 
dit which effects the purjioses of money iu the community bkS 



i 




The MoMtary Critia. 



U7 



_ ^ImiSdciiti you cnu only sabsUluto for ii miiio oUier 
ni itf errdil wliich will be oificioiit ; uiul iicitht.T Exclici|uvr- 
iii>r uUrck itrc, in our |>r<»vnt (iructicc, cujuttfk of liuitig 
aa money,* 
There \t, iitdcud, do other credit so well adapted as tbut of 
lis Itatik urKtiglund fur ttiiijtuininfr and rcpluciiijr other crediu. 
riitml iKiiiiion, iu great <.-u)>iCiil, il^ [xiculiar prc4tui«. til it 
[rially lor bo doing; uiid if il kvjit » sullicieiit hullioii ra- 
re, ami vvTv un)iuin[iered by itiu restrictive ugreralion of tbc 
itil "f lli*. it cuuld do 6u safnly and without diHicuIiy. The 
ktlowlud^i! lliut it wua ublu to do so would very likely prvvCDt 
Muic ; luid a judicious dim: of its power would initiL'atc uud 
ii«v« a panic if it should occur. We are aware that thia 
Involves tue neccesity of liktrutttiti^ our entire bullion reserve 
U> the disurctiou of the Bunk dircvturs. But, as we have se«a, 
ktl of our bullioit n-ficrvu which is held for the banking liiibili- 
pea of tlie country (or. if any vav likes it better, all the re* 
erve of noien in tlic bankins deputineut) is at present ia- 
sted to their disci'etiou. They can, by errors io judgment 
id tnisculculutions of events, with facility reduce this )>a.rt of 
ttiu reserve to the zero at wliich it lately stood. Is there any 
_ kt additiotuU risk in giving them an entire control over the 
whole } 

I It is, iude«d. nlWcd, and iii part truly alleged, that the oper- 

^fction of Hir It. I'eerd Act is to compel the mnk to make pro- 
^■ruiion for a drain of bullion at au earlier period than it would 
HptherwiDQ tuive done. No one can deny that the Act of 1844 
^^laa been a mott inslTuctive Mrieutilic experiment ; and the evi- 
dence r>H-ently tciren by ibu Ilaiik authi^ritivs, as comixsred with 
tliat civen by them ten yetiri ago, certainly proves thiit tboy 
bavelutu-nt u (lood deal that is very Tsluablc But now that 
Jiu precedent of tireiikiiig the Act is thoroughly estublUhcd, 
re niny well iiui-stion whether the conduct of the Bank under 
It will be dilluruul from what tliat conduct would be vitliout 
|L The resource of breakinf; the law will always be in the 
L-kgniund of the mind. In overt argument the Directors 
nay alietie that they uru not relying on tueh k resource; but 
_ tt«nl fiictH will bnvu their iiiliuencc Thoy know that they 
can have a letter of lit;eii»4: if they chooM ; and they will never 
^^01 aa though tbuy oould not have it. Although, therefore, Sir 
mb- Peel's Act, and the reasonings on its working, have taught 

^V " To iho linn of EKeh(!<]uor-bilI) thtre wwitd br tk* fi>rUii>r T-lijoilioii tint 
Hlh*]r worn Hurvvl* ulonhU ; and if ibrr* kid b««n a djrun of kuy kiiji: Han 

T^Sut. ib> t 1 ■ Tlic higli prk« i4 •lM>k, iBtl Ike 

millAtw '1 tinan it. mIm frnu tha u«uib>r uf 

.. ..,..,, ^ ,. ..^.. -.,. „.. , ,tsd by wiulmwrnt*, fte, U) thu it»<«t- 



U9 much rftluable caution, we cannot expect thitt tti« Act will 
enforce a dcfrec of prudence on tl«! Bimk which it would uo* 
exercise otherwise, — cerluiiily not that the dejirree of extra 
prudfuce which we shall so obtain is worth the feverish ap- 
prehension which the knowledge of the restriction is sure t» 
produce 

Some theorists have indeed snid, that there should be » 
warning now and once for all explicillr given that the Act 
shall be broken no more. We have seldom any faith in legis- 
lative "compacts" and promises fetterini; the inevitable dbofe- 
tioti of futuro ndminislmtors. But in realit j wc have now some- 
thing like a compact that (lie Act will be craded when future 
circumstances are itimilur to thuse we liKve just passed tbroagh. 
Chancellors of the t!xche<iuer are cautious men ; the desire nf 
cautious men ia to be safe; the way to be safe is to follow a prs- 
cedent The boldest man in Knpland would shrink from wt 
following a precedent, when the inevitable and instantaneous 
result would he the failure ufthe Bank of England, and the 
consequent and irretrievable niin ufthe bankinir and money- 
dealing community. No one who duly considers bow formal is 
the habit, how extreme the prudence, and how tenacious tlie 
love of precedent in English statesmen, will have any idea that 
any of them will ever he so wedded by an abstract, an abstnuc. 
and, in our judgment^ an erroneous principle, a.<i, in a presuig 
crisis, to accept such a resjionsibilitv. 

Some statesmen have fancied tkey can elude the difficuliy 
by carrying further the casenlial principle of the Act of 1844, 
vesting the business of issue in a Government departmvut alto- 
gether and geographieully separate from the Bank of Knglaod. 
We do not, however, jierceive how, if that course had been 
adopted previously to the present crisis, it would have at all 
lightencu our difticultice. The issue department of the Bank 
would have been at Somerset House; hut the bunking depart- 
ment would have been just in the same slate that it wtut. Tb 
demand on it would have been the same, and ita funds pn." 
cisely the same. The destruction of the credit currency, suchi 
OS we have dyscribed it, would have been exactly »« important i 
the need of a remedy as urgent ; the kind of remedy identical; 
public opinion would have prcstged the Guvcrnmitnt to aa- 
thorise an Qxtrti issue, ju.u rnt now : indeed the pressure in all 
real likelihood would have been greater, because the interpDB- 
tion of an independent body like the Bank shields the Goveia- 
ment from impatient clamour, and mitigates the apprcbenaon 
uf a factious political opposition. At any rate, men of tbo 
world will commonly believe that, notwithstanding the chinge 
of form, the Oovernment would have done exactly what thty 



I 



d 



The Monetary Crms. 



349 




now (lone. Too may miiko a T\f\A rule easily eDou^h ; bat 

Wbcrc vrill ymt firiij n rigiJ Htatc^inuii tu &(llicrc tu ihnt rule ? 

Tli« M-pamiiott of thu Umuu department Imiii tliu B&nk ia 

lUppuHei], na liu liitnself tells us, by Mr tiUK^slune, b«citu»e he 

livTrs tliat it is a confusion of the business of isvauv with that 

hiiiikiiio;, which k-ads tu the notion that it is the business of 

II.' Ibirik tn ai<l triulc without liinitntiun iu crises of difficulty. 

hiive neen. h"wi'vcr, that i\m iioikin rath<:r arises from iho 

t of the itaiik {m exnlained by Mr. Nornmn) to ni«k« ad- 

' >s at all lime?, to unlimited amounts, on sucti securities an 

within thoir peculiar rules, or only to check those advaneos 

ly the greater rato of IntiireMl charged tolho borrowers in times 

<f scarcity. 8u Ivn^ sjt the Bank hiiA any siicli principle as thii, 

II sepiimtion of {\\<- issue depitrlinunt from the Imuking de- 

itMincdt will weaken the pressure upon it If the Hank of 

n|;l*ni] were to dehno the limit of its advances to its regular 

liustumors, and not consider itself bound to make advances to 

any but it* regular cuatouicrit, nu tiepanition of the huniaess of 

' isttc Would be needful We are not recommending this course, 

for it is not in the parenthesis uf an article that the f unda- 

tnl maxims of the most important corporation of the country 

he (lisciiBsod, — nve only s«y, if an alteration ia ncedeti, if it 

Is un<ie»inilito that the Ijank should be expected to advance 

itliiiut (tint on occiisions of scarcity, — this alteratiou of their 

hftnking pmcttce will be absolotely oecessuy, and will bo 

enou|ih tu effect that which is re(|uircil. A chnnfiic in the 

o»Kra)>hicaI position of the power of Lssue would have upon 

no eirc<:t ^rliaterer. 

The next suggestion which ia made by those wlio wisli to 
tain tiiD esscuiiitl peculiarity of the Act of 1^41, nnd at the 
me lime to prcvonl the oeccsxity of cxtni-lccal and recurriti;j 
uspenHiuns of it, is the "clastic clause." The details of this 
proposal have never been verv well worked out, and probably 
iifter much in the minds of different theorist& llie essentiiil 
- of it, under all variations, however, is. that at ■ cor- 
Li it in a conuncroial crisis either the Itank Directors or 

thu i><->vcTHmi?iit, or both tnjfvther, should have (he legal right 
autiiiirise an additional is^ue of notes ujnm securities. Some 
iDTMuiH would restrict the power tuoccasions at which the bul- 
3<>n niM Uiluw a certain |K>int ; others to times at which tbs 
ito of interest was us much us ten percent or twelve per cent; 
^nd others a^r^ln to times at which the exchaujies were not 
/»viiurable to the country: but these persons are all aj^eed 
~i at Some point or other in the crisis some such step should 
iken, and some power of taking such a stc]i withont in- 
rUigltig the law should he provided. If the Act of IbU is to 




2£0 



The ilmetartf Criais. 



l)c rctuiiied, wc can scuroely queittion tliat sucli a power shadd J 
b« givvii ; «n<l yd lltcre ure iiianr aad creat difficulties in Kl- 
tling the way in which it sbuuM Iw conlorrcd. und the iienuoi 
to whom it should be iotrusUd. Wc may disi«)se, — at JeaaC w 
it secmii to uo, — idmost at once uf the sugfi«»tioii for an exact 
prtt-nppuintnictitorthcoccasiotuioD which mis exceptii>Dal iit- 
cretion is to be- cxerciiied. The circutiutaaccs of cumtnvnHl 
crises differ so very much, that even for the few of which « 
know ihc dctuilii it would not be cn«y to fix u machioety whicb 
would be uniturmly npplica'blc ; mid it would be imineasimlily 
more difficult to prvxcrihu bi^forvluiud, and in an enactment, fur 
all which Uie future may lutve in store for ua. Wo nu/yhan 
a domestic panic when the bullion in the issue de|«rtia4iit ii 
iiborc any point which wo can exactly specify, — when the rate 
of iiitorc!^t is eight per cent or ten per cent. — during a foni^ 
drain of bullion, or after iu No jimctical ilatesman will, il it 
probable, friimo an elaborate projio.'^al ol'this kind; pcisoiu ceo- 
versant witli complicated affairs are habitually sTcrsc to minute 
pnjdescription, and to any profession of foreseeing more thai a 
is possible to foresee. The most plausible of tbe*e contriram 
is tiiat which would fix tlie minimum rate of interest to fe 
charged during the time thai tlie Hank may avail itself uf sndi 
exccptiunal issues ; hut even this is liable to the two objeciiMU 
— ^tbat it may happen that the viinimum is fixed too high ; and 
that the noeessiiy of cbauging it. in order to obtain the aeeir 
ful iiotc!!, may impose a ueuillcss burden on the pubjic duriogt 
timeofdiHiculty: and secondly, that it only in appearance Uniiu 
the occiLiion» tm which the exceptional power may be excite^ 
since the fixing the rate of interest must necessarily bn a 
the same hands as the exercise of that power, whether of tlic 
Chancellor of the Kxchequer or of tlie Itank, or of iKilh ; ufl 
if those aulhorllicN ut any time wiali to avail themselves of tlie 
power, ihey can adjust the rale of interest accordinjely- On ih* 
whole, therefore, if such a. clause should be hereafter udikd bi 
our legislation, it will probubly be found necessary to leavetbe 
occasions on which it may be exercised, as well as the ejAcnt 
and manner of that exercise, lo the unfettered discretioii tf 
some persons, and it will only be necessary to consider wlio tliose 
persons shmild be. At first eisht, it seems absurd to plaa 
ihift exptinsive power in the sole discretion of the Bank ciiw- 
tora. These are the persons, it »hould seem, whose discrotiuo vt 
cannot trust, and on whom we wish to im)K>se a binding ftlWt; , 
yet great ditticultics arise when we attempt to vest any wdi 
power in any department of the executive governmenl. A* 
Mr, Gladstone has observed, nothing can be more fordfa "• 
our Iiabits, and to the entire genim of our legislation wl 



71te Monetary CrIiU. 



351 



ucioty, tlittu tliikt niitiiatirrs of the crown sbuutd Imve to decidi; 

rliicti commercial Iiuusc ur firm is lo stutid Kiid Khich to fail. 

iVi in iictiiul [)riictic« ihc diatretifinan- ciiijilovirii-nt of sucb ui 

ex|>aiiHiv<! jKiwor m i.H jiroiKmed di^» of iieccK^iiy involve ilicir 

Ituviiii:; tu >Iti-iJc such ["'inta. The [lOwer is oiiij- U) bu cxcr- 

tisud ill tiitiL-s iiioxirciin; prirssiiro or of jmiiv. Wlim is (o be 

the tvat of lb(! I'xtri-Tiiil}- ul tliL> prciititirc ) The only test is tbo 

opjMi^u or crtlicul pcmition of grciit coaimcrcinl bouses. The 

inic ujipreticn^ioti vbtch bringt* «ucb vminent tiniis iiito a 

^rixis of difTiculty caD only be tecled by coinmiinicaiiifn villi 

firms, ond ao cxuinimition of tbcir difficulties Xo mure 

itv or iiiipli-JiMint ]K>wcr can bo pliici-d in the bftnd» of uny 

^(or, oti]iccially of it niininter under a purliaineiiinry "uveru- 

it, wbo miiy he politicidly mid fIo>cly coiini-ntc^l with some 

utntnenriKl city, and have to decide on the ruin or pmspuriiy 

fbis wannest and most important auppurtvrs. Vexing tbo 

fcX|)anHive iMwur in the Govvrninent baa »\io Humu of the incos- 

Venti-ii('i.-.», Jtint now no funiiliar to nn, of a double government 

hi I.S4-7, lh>: lliink dire<:tor» maintained thiit ibc ?(aCo of the 

lisink una a |>e;rre(.'tly safu one, that they denired no help from 

"^liu udmiDifltration, aiid that the issue of 8ir C Wood's totter 

tas only desirublo — if desirable at all — for tbc general welfare 

^f tile Dommereial community. Wo do not know if there was 

ir Bucb " co<|uettiui;" on the lat<.' occasion; but in bcr Majesty's 

3|fc<:cb, and in ihu debate, mini^te^« uppci>re4l to take on them- 

clvfa the full rv^iion.tibility of the cxtradefnti ael. In this 

tieru is certfiitily suntc anomuly. The Ilank direclonf uui:bt to 

n'jfulalf, and ousht to be reitponaible for, all the acts of the 

link, whecber legal or extra-legul — nbothcr tlicy were done in 

10 common course of businex!!, or under the authority of an 

'olantic clause;" The le^'iiibitive creation of Nuch an expanaivo 

)wcr. asAoines that its existence is nccoiaary and tw employ- 

SiL'rt' ^ desirable. Tbc iiulboritiesof thcBunk can hardly 

bo I I to abdicate all re«|)on»ibitity at these times— to 

itiarin;;!- in onllnitry ]>erioilA m tbey did in tho ye»r IHt7, so as 

iiivule the intcn.sity ofa great criais; and then, in the 

|i< i*f llie most harassing di^culty, to devulvo the entire 

^aii- >ri ihe banking community njioa the executive g^ivern- 

laoL llic warmest tulmirers of a duplicate ailministration 

~" nd that we ilhould b;iTe one set of authori- 

mble, and another smX to gel u» out. Wc 

Jr ((ue.Htion, that if there is to be sucb un elastic ele- 

tiiin the limits of the law, tbc Bank should bave a 

I Iti Uiu rcs|>on5ibility of withholding it or of netling it froci 

tbty the bejit solution of thcNC coiillictinj; ^>mc(iciil difficult 

Stw would Ih;, to vest the roMfjon^ible discretion of makitijf or 

Hinakiitgsuch exceptional issuiu in the Bank and tbeUovort:- 



352 



ITie Monetary Crisis. 



ment tar/ether. We would recummead that there sbouM be ■ 
distiDct application from the Bank to the fiaanciiil cxccultTe 
fur the pcniiiasiuii to miiki; »uch uiiusuul iKiiics and an officii) 
reply rri)in tLu Oovvnimviit uiithorlsinK such isttues t<> he nude. 
Wfi should then clearly knovr who was responsible for what hu 
been done : the Bank directors, having expressly asked fur pt» 
misatou to overstep the ordinary limit, could not lu any di^nfl 
cviule an iinpurtunt share in the responsibility so incurred ; iha I 
Govcrmnuiit, having aclcd at the request and under tbe amad 
of Um Hank directors, would be relieved from some put of 
the odium which attaches to the intervention of j>arliamcnlU7 
statesmen amid the distressing poniooaliticx, and what muitbc 
to thcni the uiiaccustumvd Kccnc, ufu commercial crisis. As«e 
have formerly remarked, we believe that if such a discretiou it 
to bo ijiven at all, it had better be an unrestricted dlscretiun- 
Only a doctrinaire pedantry can, we think, presume to laiii- 
mcmtc circumstancc«, or dulinc the precise minute, ut whiciiit 
will be required. 

The ditliciilty of framing such aa "clastic clame" thiun 
ereat doubt, in our judgment, on the advisability of firamisg 
it at all. This aibitrary limit, and authorised manner of eter- 
possiii}: it. have rather an appearance of artificiality and tecli- 
nical theory. All Kuch schemes ore likewise liable to tlie oV 
juction that the relief they provide us with, is. if the cxpreracD 
may be alloweil, relief with a jcrL The panic is allowed w 
become imminent, and then is on u sudden calmed by to ex- 
traordinary and peculiar act Under an unfettered system iIm 
relief might be given gradually, innensibly, aud as a matter of 
ix»ursc. 

We are aware of the great feeling which exists in Kn^itfrl 
against ve.ttiug an unfettered power of i.>>suin^ note* payable 
on demand in any body whatever. W'e believe that this feeling 
in so far as it is a just oue, is founded on historical circnin- 
stances, espceiidly on the insolvency of the old race of cmiati;' 
bankers in times when banks were not allowed to be cotnixut'l 
of more than six partners, and o» remarkable misuses uftt* 
metropolitan monopoly during the same period by the Baak of 
England. Much might be said as to these hisbirical circiuo- 
stances in mitigation of these apprehensive feelings; bulil» 
simpler to observe that the whole subject is a choice ofdiD' 
cultie.s. It may be an evil to have discretion ; but the eioM 
of the last few months prove — and all that we have wriitcaD 
but an attempt to explain — the evils of a rigid rule whicli s^' 
mits of no discretion. 

Much of the apprehension which prevails in England *> 
to "huHeli^ss paper' might ]>erhaps be calmed if we sJopu^ 
the plan of requiring from all issuers of it a specific socnril^ 



7%e MotKtartf Critis. 



233 



'all notes were known to be Hccured hy a deposit of cohboIs, 
"with & marfrin of consols taken at it low valuo, tliu fear of oar 
beinff flo<K)m] with paper insued by insolvents, and representing 
nothing, might he mitigated. This might he extcnaed to the 
country districts, and to Scotland and Ireland ; and the cur- 
rency of the three kingiloms would then bo unifonn, would 
bo protected fritm panic fwHng, and would be reaiwHiably and 
iuvtly relied on hy the public. 

■^ The whole of our banking system is to be explored, it is 
Kid, before the impending committee, with an acuter atten- 
tion, if posnblc, than ever bcfvre; and though we cannot ex- 
pect a gre«t deal of new light, we may perhaps hope to hare 
Eome. We should especially hope that we s}iall not have on 
any future occasion the class ol theorists who have beset us 
tely, and who maintain that the Government relascation of 
le Act of Itm is a debasement of tlic currency, and yet do 
at dare distinctly to impugn its propriety ; with such specu- 
DTS tiiere ought to l>e no argumentative quarter. A debase 
ent of the currency is a measure which can nfimr be right 
ider any imaginable conjuncture of events ; it is a violation 
'a fundamental maxim ofmorulity. We can imagine many 
sonings umkr miiiiy circiiniKtances for u Kusponsion of cash 
lymcnts ; unfortunate events may prevent oiir paying our 
_Bbt8 for a lime, and it may be necessary to postjwne nil cre- 
ditors, to avoid an unequal preference of some few. But we 
can imagine no circumstanci'S in ■which it would be right to 
compel i»eopIc to accept little shillings instead of largo shil- 
lingis No words can be t"" niwiii for the subtfrfuge ")f pro- 
fessing to pay our deiits, when we are really giving; k'.ss than 
we contracted to repay. Those whose tlieorj- logicjilly compels 
tiicin to take this view of the Government relaxation, ought to 
have opposed it with a far greater decision and cxpltcitness. 
As a matter of fact, we ap|>rehend, however, that the priictical 
food sense of the most accomplished of such perxons really 
makes ihein feel that if they had been in the piisition of re- 
sponsibility, they would have acted as her Majesty's Govern- 
ment have done; and ac«irdingly, whatever a rigid logic may 
lvanc«, their essential judgment is in its favour. 

Notwithstanding the arguments of some eminent orators, 
lie whole subject is not yet exhausted. There is no exhaust- 
ig subjects on which experience daily accumulates, and of 
rhich the details daily changes We have only been able to 
.,i>och on a few points in comiiarison of the many which are 
important, and vet we muiit have wearied our readers. We 
can only hope tfiat other writers will be butli more exhaustive 
and more agreeable. 



C 254 ] 



BOOKS OF THE QUAHTER SmTADLB FOR READISC- 
SOCIETIES. 

The Bpwtli'M iif St. Jolirt. A Smee of Lectmve on Gbristiiu EtUtt ' 
By F. D. Maurice, M.A. Macmill&n aad Co, 

[Tliiii If, wc think, Mr. Maurioa's nuMt vETMtm and InMrucnn 
work. 111- ii jit^culinrly fitted by ttio coiMtitution ofbUmiuJ 
to throw light upuii 81. JoUu's writiuga.] 

Tie Indinn Crisia. Fire Sermoas by K D, UsuHw, M.A. Miic«ii)la!i. 

[A firiR inrin of •craiont, on tlir spirit in wfalch all Bn^ghiDa 

Hh<mld iiitcrpKt the ladUn oiliiinity.] 

Tiie Philosophy nt Kvau^iciMii. Ilell mnd DhMv. 

[A very able nud thoaghtftil «*HV on aouettuDg far nrid«r Oaa 
wimt h tc(-linlc»1ly «U«d Bmn^licisiii. The ttyle it, po^*- 
n littlc! ton KtiidictI for the nabjcot. To th« wrtt«r'f critjd* 
oil our hut Niuubvr wo inaj perinpa take Mine Mh«r opfMn- 
nily Ml reply.] 

Xlw Pliiltipopliy of Tlipism. "H'aid and Co, 

[This ii a TcnUrablc but hard emy. which show* modh lBl0S' 
with tbo 0*I*iDi«lio metuphywM of the uDdcntwtdiog.] 

8aniMn!i iin'iichfil on vnriou* Orcswiomif. By Jolm Henry Ncwmsi, 
D.D., i>f the- Oratory. Btirn» iind Lnmhert, 

[A volume of tennoDi^ prvoohcd chicHr to th« ntudcott t! tk 
Ik>iunn CHth'otic Uuivertity of Dubhit. It bu Dr. Ktwoint 
genemi chainotfTistiak — wtcte intellvctual giwp, (ad n«T 
cmcs that nyle on jcivs to very untntiiifiietorj monl irwum: 
but tbere i« Itrm mb«tanoo in tbc volume than in moft oUwfi n 
tbo >Bn« authur.] 

The Orthwlox Doctrine of tliP Aportolic Ciurem Chujcli ; or, t Ctf*- 
pcniliiim of Clinstiao Theolog-y. WhitUker and Co. 

The World of Mind by Isaac Taylor. Jacksoo and Walford. 
[RcTifwcd ia ArUdc Vll.] 

Essays, Scientiti^;, Political, mod SpeouUtJTe, By H«rlMrt Span*'- 
Li>i^;iiHui, Brown, and Co. 

flUa I* a rwpiibli«f>tton ot .Mr. gftwm'a tbougbtful and abb <^^ 
ia the variaiN tituHfilictL] 

Thomdale ; or, the Conflict of Opiiuoois. By Wiliiam Saaih. 1 "*'' 
W. M. Blackwood and Son*. 



I ^Ike Quarter tu'ttabiefor Readinff'Societieg. 355 

DODtT nrilii> IinIjouHn2' CloEseSi Dy Wiliiam Lucas Sarffunt. 1 vol. 
^mpkiii anil Miurlmll. 

[A r»tun)ilc book, ropn>dudn{[ a. gnmt pnrt eif M. Le Plav's gr^t 
Pnuoli vtork on the wune (u^twt, mit with v«iy emuiidcniMft 
addltloits unil good entamvata."] 

m Hwtoiy of tli« Factory Monoueat by Alfrod. 3 toU, Sirapkin 
and ^Innhnll. 

[ Lnvraan's Coiitriliution to tlio Knowlptii^ nnd Pnicticp of Rolieion 
in ComnKiTi Life. By Willifun Ellw. 1 vol. Smith, Elder, anii Co. 

[A *«rr u«pfiil book on olsnientArj political ocoiiomy. The tllle 

E'vc* n faille oimcoption of thti iwopc irf ihn work. " RcliKinii 
Coniiiion Life" ought prinuirUy to touch niotivca rather tlmn 
«xt«rnal utious.] 

I Sepor Ib'ToIt ; it« CausM and its ConaequencN. By Heimr Mead. 
L JiAn Miirrny. 

Joriontim of Niitura! History. By Fnuici* F. Biicklnii<l, M.A. 1 vol. 
K Ridnnl Bcntloy. 

nnpTiaIo« : nn Attempt to untie the Geological Knot. By P. 1^ 
Oo3se, F.It^. John Van Voorst. 

die Ramblflsi of a Natiinilisl on the Const* of Fmni-n, Sjmiu, and Sirily. 
' By A. D. QiuttrcfHge.1. 2 vub. Jjon^man, Brown, and Co. 



I 



nic Politinil Roonomrof Alt. BvJohn liiiickin, M.A. 1 vol. Smith, 
Elder, ui4l Co. 

aricfl on Secular and Domestic ^Vrchitccture, Pi'»wnt and Futiuv. 
By 0. fiilbert Scott, A.R.A. Mnrray. 

[A good book, combining tlicnrr with prnctioil ini|a[c«tioni in a 
MTOOwhnt dcmiltory mniiiicr.] 

ate Policy of Modern Europe, fiwin the Beginning: of the Six- 
nt)i Cwitnry to tlie Prosenl Tnnf. 2 t(J*. Longman, Brown, 
Bad Co. 

[A naefut and instructive nor^.] 

ion th« IvarlvPenod oftlw Freii<-li nevDlnlirm. Contrilmt^d to 
I Qitarterlfi JReaem by the late Ui^ht Hon. John Wilson Cmker. 
John Slurnty. 

Bifrhtwm Chrialian Centujies. Bt the Rev. J. 'Wliilp. 1 toI. 
Bbckwood. 

[A alight »mpcn:Jium of the history of dglitwai octiturie*, — well 
mlUn, but making lints prct«iiHon to (oing livlon the tur- 

fcM.) 



256 Bookt of the Quarter stiitabiefor Rf-ading-SccKlitt. 



A Y«iu- of Rerolation. From a Jguntal k«pt inPara jn tlieTetrlSlS^ 
By till' Marquis of Nonuaoby, K.(>. 2 vols. Loogmiui, Bkkd. 
awl Co. 

[I'U-afaiit and often new iaForraatioD ai to lAitttrtin«> nlatiiiD 
tlie Il«voliitii>ii, Mid otW oonoMMd caljeaW, ia ooulaiMJ 
thiE brink. It infill! of kgNnibte aneodot* and gOMlIi, lol tbt 
*(f l« U nwkward and ■ometiniM oonfbaad.] 

Uritiftli Rule in India. By Uarriet Martineau. I voL Smitli, Elilec, 
and Co. 

[A good compendium o( n great mbjiKt.] 

A Hundnid Vc«» Abo: sq Ilislorical Sketch: 1755 la 1750L By 
Jiimv* Hutton. Longman and Co. 

The Boocobel Tracts; relating to the Btcape of Charles the itend 
aiW the Battle of Worcesief. aad fab subceqneot Adnntsm. 
Ediiad by J. iluj^hes, K»q. A.M. W. Blackwood and Sons. 
\k u*efiil r«pubUcatii>n.) 

HiatarT of Modem Rome, from tlie taking of ConKtantioople {WX\ 
to 'the rastorotion (I8d0) of Pope Pius IX. Lomginan, Bron, 
and Co. 

Tbo TctiiaI of tiie Alps : a complete Histoir oftbe Vaudou of PiediaoU 
and their Colonies. By Alexis Uustoo. 2 vols, Bkdiie. 

UoBtaignc the Essavtst : a Biography. By Bayle St. John. 2 rolt. 
Cliapman and liall. 

[Mr. Riyle St. John h>ti d«Tcit«d miicli time aod tan to thbloct- 
It i« vrrittcn «itli jiRiiniiic iuicrot, and contaiiia |iawws ^f 
much power and fiuiah. U wiU Iw widul; read.] 

Mcmnir* of the Duktt of St, Simon ; or, ihi- Court of Fmnce dnriiig 
till' lii.it fiiirt of tlic Iti-tgn iif Ixiuis .\1V. ami tho Repencv of 'ir 
Diik'' [)f Orlpjinx. Al>ri<l)^) fmrn the Frendi. By Bayla St. Jubii' 
Vols. It and 4. Clixpmnn hihI ITall, 

[Tliis bouk, aa U well knuwa, U full of grapliic mitoriaL IV 
tmnsktor has not alwayt adapted biia«elf to Kaglirii laW ■■> 
ivlMtiiig for his abrtdgroent.] 

Mi»ionnrv TmveU aitd Ri-si-firchnt in South Africa, during' SiltM 
Ypbt* It(sidi-nce in tlw InU-rior of Africa. By David liTtngaWt 
UUD. J. Sliimiy. 

[Tho unwurked material* of a moat nlaable book. Wa eavngt tf' 
pect the most dauutlesa ot modem mretlcn to be al» tb 
most skilftil of litetaif wrilcn.] 

Captivity of Uiissian PrincMses in tlw Caucaras. IVaiuJatMl fhrn 1^ 
JtasNan. By Jl. 8. Edwards. Smith, Elder, aod Ca 

[ATor7intcn«ting,miniiti;,Knd flntshed pioturaofalongrw^t* 
in Shamjl's bouae.] 



■11. 

A 



Books of the Quarter atdtabte for Reading-Societiea. 2S7 

Tiger Slioottnc in India. By lami. Williuin Rice, S5th Bombay N.I. 
Suith, EM«r, OQil Co. 

[ThcM hunting odTcnturOR «f mi Indiiui ofliccr form on« of the 
mo*t enUrtniiiing boakn of li^ht rvniliuf; tiutt luvc Bppv&red 
tbitf quarter. A geuuiuo love of aport, !X tliorough knowk-dge 
of the character aud bubtU of the li^r, aiid a reioarkably som 

Srle, nUM tbo work above tnoat of lU cliu«' It in biaiitiiullj 
QntntedKith elirotnolithogniphiv pUtv* from «1cot«bc«b]'tl)e 
autlior.] 




ifionOuuiM anil Nice. By Mtir^irul Miuin BrewKtcr. TLomas 

ental and Wcrtcm Siberia ; a. NarratiTe of Scvim Yeaw' Exp!omtions 
ami Advcntiirra in Siberia. By Thomas Witlam Atkinson. 1 vol. 
Hurst anil Blackett. 

Nortlieni Travel*, Summer and Winter Pictures of Sweden and 
Nonrgy. Dy Bayard Taylor. 1 vol. Sampson Low. 

leminifceoces of Pil^imac;e to tUn Holy Places of PaleHtme. By 
Henry G. J. Clements, M.A. J. H. I'nrker and Son. 

tions of Chrintophor Nortli. Vol. 2. W. Blackwood and Sons. 

IUodem Engliali Literature, its Blemishes and Defeots. By Haniy 11. 
Br«en, Esq., F.S.A. Luuguian, Brown, and Go. 
[There is some ability and some hypercriticism in this book.] 
Tlie Fail}' Family : a Seiies of BaIla<U and Mctricitt Talet). LooginanR. 
[Kle^utlj writtcD, and accompaiuod bj a buautiful frontispieoe.] 

TboTlioin*udiuidOn« Diiys. KdiM by Miss Pardoc. William liiy. 

[A delightful book for childr«u, with really nea Anbian talea of 
the cU sort.] 

[ RiTerstoD. By G. M. Cmik. 3 vols. Smith, Elder, and Co. 

[An unqueatiuuably clever novel, but imitative of Min BrontE.] 

, and Credit. I-'rom the German of Freytag. By Mrs. Malcolm. 
Bidianl B«Dtley. 

[An exocllont transhition of a vorjr clever German novel.] 

iY«ar Nine: a Tale of the Tyrol. By the Author of "Maiy 
PoweU." Hall, Virtue, and Co. 

illie Exila of Italy: m Tale. By C. O. II. I nil. Hamilton and 
Adams. 



. Hmsu) 



Mon ; or, the Child of the PyiMnid : &n Eryptlan Tale. By the 
Hon. C. A. Miirray, C.B. 2 vols. 3. W. Parker. 

[dercvofitskind.] 



358 Bookt of the Quarter tmtaik for BeaOiia-SMieHM. 

Tbe Three ClericB: aNorel. B^A.I^oIbiM. StiJs. lUobaid BeadeT. 

[Tet7dever; butoontuningnotalittleintidiwo^ nwdunetoi 
mrasometunea not oouUtent with thenuelTet; and mdnoititioai 
"oopj^ u nnd M padding to fill i^ the TolaiuM.] 

Orphaaa. By Mn. Olif^uat 1 voL Hunt and Bladstt. 

TlieWhitaHonaebjtheSea: aLoreStoiT-. By H.Betibaiii Edwards. 
S toIb. Smith, Elder, and Co. 

[A btshlj written tale, with no blse aentiinent, and moeh powa 
of the f<anunuie Und.3 

Wluta Ziee. By Gliarlas Reade. S vols. TrQbner. 



On^ Nn SLntt iDd FMtat Lui. 



THE NATIONAL REVIEW. 



APRIL ISoS. 



Abt. I.— MEROPE; a TRAREDY. 
fmme: a Tntffedj/. lly Mait.ln-K- Arnold. liontlan: Langiniuui, 

Mr. Aknold ia 110 doubt following his own tnie beiit wlien lie 
devotes tiituac^lf to what ia called the classical school of literature. 
Certainly no living poet is so well qualilicd to familiarise the 
English mind (if that be possible) with the forms aud Hulntance 
of the Greek drama. Tbc limits, as well as the qualitr, of his 
^niiis give him more than common facilities for such a task. 
Bis love of beauty is profound, and he loves best, pcrhiips by 
nature, mui cc-rtiiinly from study, its more nbstraet niuiiifcsta- 
tions, cspeeially those of fonn. He \iM» the emotion.* iw ii field 
£or the intellect, not the mind to Kiibttervc the heart, and hiti ima- 
gination is bound up uith the former rather tliau the latter; it 
is a lamp that shines, not a tire that glows. He lays a cold hand 
on sensuous imagery; and there is a keen clear atmosphere about 
I>is pictures from nature, as if his muse had steeped his eyes in 
Attte iiir and iinn»hinc. Thii:« ^fied, he devotes lilm»elf to rc- 
produeing (Jreek poetry iiiiui English dress, ami pregeiits u«with 
an Athenian tragedy in our own hukgnagc. We are not uii- 
grstefu] for the gift, hut Mr. Arnold is not content that n-c 
should accc^it it a-i a bcnutiful curiosity, or treat it as a rare 
exotic: he has written a jireface to urge that such plants should 
1)C Qcclimati8c<l ; he Intldly demands place in English lilenituro 
tor the forms of poetry which took their rise in Gnx-k Nterifieial 
obM^^'ances, adapted themselves to Greek social habits, were 
limiled by Greek ideas, and embodied Greek rdigion, Greek |ia- 
triutiKin, and, above all, that which in most characteristic of a 
people, — the fecliuga with which it looks at the hidden nrbiten 
Ho. XII. AnuL ies8. T 



260 



Meropt: a IVagedg. 



of tife, the controlling destinies of tlie world. That drama, vlii^S 
licld these things as a wine lioldit its flavour and spirit, Mr. Ar- 
nold thinks should be studied in Kngland ; not studied to know 
it, thut nc niav rejoice in it and the knoirlcdge it brings wiili 
it, but (Studied to reproduce it, that ire may make the same 
Idnd of thing for ourselves. lie tliioks be can dig up the doslnr 
olive from the pUins of Atlka, aiul pUut it iu our EngUan 
vheat-fieklH ; that he can take in it» fulIcAt dt^vdopment the 
most purely indigcaiuus and tlie most iutenvely and uanowly na- 
tional literature llie world ever saw, and hid it End nev spriiigs 
of life some two thoiLsand years later' in a nation which has 
already found its expression in a dramatic literature c%-olTcd by 
it»clf. Did such an attempt ever suocccd ? A native literature 
iu ibt iufoncy may take the Impression of a foreign one ; thongh 
even thtm, if it Imvc strcnijth to grow at all, it .-^oon tbrom off, 
or carries only ns a superficies, tke marks of ils early tatonng: 
but when did a forcigu growth e\«t share the lield with an indi- 
gcQDus one ? A nation whose liabits of tliought were sufficietitlf 
vongnioiia witli those of some other, has pla^ariscd and adapted 
ita literary productions : Terence went to Greece as Planche goes 
to Paris. Bat in these cases it b not n foreign form and wtrit 
which is transferred, but the adapter mcrrly studies his own idle- 
ness, or the poverty of bis own rcsourera, by bonrowiu^ « pkiC 
and a certain stock of wit and ideas ; and hia cSbrt is to otut all 
that It spcciaUy foreign, or to transform it into a more fjumliar 
shajie. 

Is tlie epic a Greek form ustaral)«ed? It may be m; tla 
particular form of the Iliad lias Iwen adopted in great measinc 
as the model of all epics : htit it is a fiimi so broad and simjJf^ 
has in it so little that iit special or national, that it may be «iJ 
to Ijc a mode c^ emhodjing imaginative ideas common to aQ 
mankind. It is a form which is ^sily separable from tiw luBt- 
ter, and it is the form alone wltich has been borrowed. N4 
creat poet has c^cr written another Grcdk epic. TV'e shall iK* 
be confuted by Glover's Lronidai. Eveiy one has emptied 08l ■ 
the old form, and tilled it with his own native ide^as. The £■*■ I 
is Roman ; the Inferno is Florentine ; the Paradise Lotl f I 
Engliith. In the same way, Jonaon in England and MoUrie n ■ 
France adhered more or less strictly to the rule* deduced by ik* 1 
critics as the true oonditioos of comedy ; but applied them U U 
modern manners, modem character, and all the wider range •* I 
greater ricbncs?, intricacy, and variety of modem ideas. W^ I 
we speak of form, wc arc apt to confound two tilings. ThoeH ■ 
a form which ii one with its spirit, and is itt outer manifestalM',! M 
there is another which is merely a sort of outside shdL ft ' V 
tliia alone perhaps which in m-t one century or one nation e« I 



Jftrojw .' a TVaffetfy. 



361 



I B 

Kb th 
|Vbinh 




borroiiT from another; certainly it is tliiK slone irhich ire bare 
takcii ill titc epic, aiid in some of the broad rules which gorem 
our dnunatic constructions. 

Bat there is what is colled the classical school of tragedy. 
thia vlmt wc hnvc iirofi-^fd to tliiuk impossible, — a new 
of an art which ixxw like a star so man)* ctmturics ago> 
uul afier its brief but imiKrixbn^ilc shilling, fell hendlong again 
into silence? Hat-e France and Italy rw-ivcd the Athenian stage? 
Mr. Arnold claima, and claimn jiLttlir, for the tra^ly of Athens^ 
that though wanting in the rii-hneu of that of Knglinid, it has 
not only power and intcnaitj', but »pealts strongly to ilie lugbesC 
artistic feeling in our nature, because it is ateepcd as it were, 
thoroughly interpenetrated, by a rhythmic proportion and cor- 
rwpondeacc which governs i^ spirit as well as its outer fona. 
either the greiitccsa of its matter, or the beauty of its 
m*, (wen preserved by Atficri, or Racine, or Addison, men of 
de^ioble gtmiiis? Tite Greelc tragedy is not narrow for 
i Greece ; that is to wty, it oocnpies itielf with the fall 
6eld of Oreek tra^o thou^'ht : hut the mralern ela.'c^ical school 
is narrow. It has sought intensity by C3Ccluuon and tiniitation ; 
it deepens the river, not bv an abundance of watcre, bat by nar- 
rowing in the Imnks. j^whylus rolls along with a sound of 
great waters. Racine lashes a canal into foiun. The peculian> 
ties of form and the choice of subjects, which were natural aud 
mdiapensablc to Greek art, serve only as dcncca to countenance 
poverty of that of France. The ancient tales are stripped 
re, neecs»arily so, of the balloucd associations of religion and 
liatriotism and anci-stral piety which clung to them in Greece, 
and remain nakefl exhibitionx of hnmanpwsion. Sophocles gives 
ns tlic deep- WJtted workings oftfaebeartaof men, and the terrible 
sad insenitable rayHterioJi of ninrtal destiny, scd to solemn music, 
clnr and penetrating in its tones, if not rich in its harmony; 
Ifte Milton's scathed angels, moving 

" In perl«ot phalaos to tha Dorian mood 
Of Duna and ntt recordcrt." 

I Bm bis ficltl embraces more than this. It is not the vagaries 
I *M itmicgling passions of the >>iinp1e human heart that inspire 
|™ (n^dics, but of hearts which are the field of action for 

w dread supernatural powers, — hearts wlueh are swayed from 
I *wr nature by divine wilts, which bear the hurdni of ancestral 

*f>ine«, and embody the destinies of nntions. But you cannot 
I J^t this in modern plays. When Racine's Phedrc ascribe* tlie 
I *'» flames of her unlawful <!csire-<t to the anger of Venus, and 
) **8( of l>er vain iwcrifioos on thr- altar nf the goddess, the exte- 
I "ualMHi, which must hare mi^d sometliing of Bublim^m^M^a 



2«2 



Mcrvpe : a Tragedy. 



Greek heart, fBlU dead aud nnmeaniue oa our cars; t( i>ccitis 
trivia), a sort of classical decoration, irhicb interferes vith our 
interest, if it aBTccts us at all. Plic-drc does indeed agitate us 
powerfully, because oar attention undirtractcd is tied doira to 
the oontcmplation of a single frrtnttc pajwion and a woman vrith- 
ing under iu tortitring inlliioiiee: it is not a piny to be fcca 
horn n dixtiiiioc, or ihiit cotitd tx^ iietod in mask or btukin ; but 
it need-* mi HtidieiKH? who can eati:)i each altered tone and every 
ohan^ of feature, and calls for the heart-piereing cries, the work- 
ing featurefl, the pale flashes and Hposmodic action of RacbrJ. 
French trajicdy screams through all its monotonous cadence, its 
stilted diction, and its formal limitations of time and place and 
persons. Tlic same in great mea^urv U true of jUficri, in vhon, 
hovei'cr, M])eaks, if not a liightT genius, u stronger and morcHr- 
dent nature. "Xairow elevation," Kiv^Mr, Arnold, " is thcrln- 
racteristic of Alfieri." PerliaiM ne nhoidd rather eay nonnir in- 
tensity ; and one or tbe other is the biglic^t tragic charactcnidic 
of the modem daaacal drama. Nor is the form of the Uttel 
drama more ctearly reproduced than its matter. Mr, Anmld 
well describes the milueuce and beauties of the Athenian ciio- 
ruses; their interpretive ami enforcing functions; the rrpw« 
that IifTic song aHbrds to the iitraiuLtt emotions ; and the lal> 
auced rhythmic symmetry whick their nusircring parts gire to 
the whole play. But the French school dispenses with tins dis- 
racterbtic feature; or ii»cs it, if at all, rtrijipcd of what mnka 
it moHt charactcnNtic In brief, ihe motli^m cla#»icnl dianuku 
borrowed not the form hut the mere »hell of that of Groxv, 
and even ttiat narrowed and anguiari»ed ; and though it hv 
preserved a set of dasaieal idcsa to which it appeals, and a koi 
of classical phroaoology which it nscs, these are eonrentiiXial 
and external only. There is this marked ditrercnce between the 
influence of ancient literatui'O on the mcxlern literature of Eng- 
land aud of Pmnee, that in tho fonni-r, ideas and forms, so far i> 
they were adopted at all, were di^Mni and (ucsimilatcd ; intte 
latter they were simply employed to overlay ami rarntsli ; llrttt 
was no native groirth to swallow them up and be cnriclK<! I? 
them ; they were greater in every way than tliat with wta* 
tJiey came in contact, and were cruelly hacked aud compre«oi 
to meet its meaner requirements. Mr. Arnold ia fully anaw*' 
this; but he makes some eonfu&iou : he uses the terra 'clasacU ■ 
school,' but what he re:illy means by tlic term is the school'" I 
ancient Greece itself. lie »(■«.■», or feels rather, that yoa canin* I 
adopt its itpceinl and intricate beauty of fonn without adof(»S I 
something of its inner eswncp ; and witraj be enters thefolsM I 
n writer in this school, lie writes something not like the Caio^ I 
Addison, or the Irene of Johnson, but as like a» he con to m 



Merope: a Traged}/- 

*' The melluw glonr of the Attic ttnge, 
Singtfi' of Bwcet Culunua luid iU cmld." 



268 




Jut tlic true ancient drama, which could not Rtrike root Ja 
Fnuice or Italir, can still less bojw to do so in Kn^laiid. In 
ftnhittx-tiin.-, wc have done niiieh as the l-'reiich did in poetry, 
— w<! hiire iiitrudticcd and used freely a dwarfed and conven- 
tional clmNneul schooL We have also built occasional sjiccimena 
more or le«> trtic 1u the rcul <Jrcek tyjies; hut these latter 
static), and must ever sUnd. iw curiosities. AVe caiuiot live in 
Greek houaes, nor worship in Greek temples. Vain in Mr. Ar- 
nold's hoix; to ace an En^liitli literature " eiiriclied," a« he ex- 
es it, " with the forms of the most perfectly formed litera- 
in the world," As well might he bid us rclrieve the dis- 
line of Sparta, or replant the "groves (rif Academe." l^Ticu 
have reiniiit the Greek theatres, it will be time to relutro- 
the Urcck drama. 

}ut this is no reason why yU: Arnold should not, if he 
s, n-rite a (jri:«k play. Such an eserei«e, involving as it 
a close and minute stitdy of the detailn of iincicnl master- 
pieces, may be of infinite value to the jioet's self, cannot l)c read 
(at least if done as well as it is here done) without interest 
jj- educated men ; and it may jiossibly exercise a wider influ* 
Kicc. It ia i>n>fessedly an attempt on tlio part of the author to 
^ivc English readers a knowledge of what Greek tragedy was — 
, to tench them the secret of its beauty and power. And it is 
~ ot impossible that cumcthtng may he thus taught. True, there 
no iiiya! roiui which can give us any adcfjualc knowledge and 
il ajipreeiation of ancient art; trite Unit this p^occ^s is rather ' 
tinning at the wrong end, and that instead of Metope teach- I 
; 119 what Greek tragedy xa, we ouglit to know wliat Greek tra- \ 
was to uudei'stand what Merope is; true that those will 
it with tbc greatest plcas.ure and the highest iqipreciattan 
kbo have ^ a standard with which to compare !t, — gathered 
iri.ittuiis to which it can appeal, — in whose memories it stirs 
he lialf-eftueed recollection of those pleasures when the iutt^llcet 
imagination in their first active spring reaped the fruits of 
-schoolboy dni<lgery, and first eonipnihended how great u thing 
tlicy tind gained. Vet for all this, half a loiif is better than no 
bread ; and many men possess an instinct which enables them 
to gather fmra secondary sources alone a real insight into the 
Ruhjcct of tlieir inquiry; th^' nian^e to get hold of a sort of 
iiaaginativc touchstone, and uy means of it to pick out what is 
^B^cnuine, and discard what is adulterated. You can leuni leM 
Hberbaps of Greek litcratnrc than of auv other through the me- 
u»m of tmuslalions and imitations; hut you had b<;ttcr read 
translations and imitations of the things Uieuudves than be con- 




S64 



Meropt : a Tfttgedtf. 




^Vtent vith descriptions of them, aud better read deacriptioUlfl 
' tbem tltAD kuon- nliHuIutely uothing of tl>ein. 

Still, if Mr. Aruuld's object wiu» to extend tlifi knowledge of 
<jKfV tragedy, utd increase the Englitb appreciatiou of h, Ik 
ouf bt to hare vnttcn a trauf^tinii, not an imitation. He h» 
atirted bis Tcaaous for not doin^ so ; and do doubt tbe latter is 
far fdeasautcr to nritc, and afibrds a better field for the povtc 
of a poet ; but, for evident reasons, it is far Ic&s valuable tv 
otbent to have Mr. Arnold's idea of what a Greek play mt 
thau j£schylus' or Sophocles' idea. If be approach the Et^iiA 
zoadcr any eloser br au imitation ttian a translation, it is )q^ 
being m far false to bin inodol of » true Greek play. If, om toe 
other hand, his obji>«t is tlie ivftirrection of the Attic druu, 
are don't Kce why the imitation sliouid atop short of tlie boi- 
ffuage. If it be ad\'isable we sbouiil pofi;M»ii Greek subjecl-iBil* 
ter, expressed according to Crock ideas in Grade poetical ixas^ 
why not put it into Greek wonU too, and make an exact 
ductiou tuid a scalt-d book of it ? Is aucieut sulgcct-matter, 
C3(cluded irom modem art ? Xo ; but it is ouc thing to 
to reproduce ancteiit art, and another to use what ■vc knowif' 
amcieut life as tlie subject of uiodcru art. It is diflicull, indcei, 
moat diSicult, to do even this : on the one side iit tbe danger Int 
by seckin^c for accuracy ]>oetry becwnc lost iu auliquariauiiB; 
on Hie other, lest in our ignorance «e content oiinelnv wid 
dclineatinj; skeleton pasaioiv), and not men. Shakeupeare did tke 
moat that can be done in his Coriolanus and Csesar : be gm^ 
ancieut characters ivf, firmly as he could ; and then he deJiaortol 
them, not only iu En)^Iisb lan^.ijjc, but in English forms of art, 
and tlimugh the medium of Dugluh ideas and JSngbsh bahioi' 
thought, Wliat we controvert is, the ideB> openly expressed br 
Mr. Arnold, that there i^ an uitnorkcd side of English litcrtfni^ 
in tlie direction of direct imitation of Uiat of Greece. 

Yet the play of Merope nicrit-i nnlice, if for no other rciM^ 
because the genius of its author st:iud> very dixtiuct among AH 
of his coutcuiporarica ; and this work is an effort to exert vd 
extend it« most salutary- influence. There is a pleasure in wi- 
ing Matthew Arnold's poems which can he derived froai ft* 
other poct« of tlte day. It is not merely that bis is tbe vntiof 
of un educated English gcntlviuan, that bariMuums of lanfoip 
a»d pufii^d and gaudy metaphor arc cachewcd, that he waos 
meretncioiis adonunents, thiidt* seuxc of some inipurtiuMe, toA 
is capable of e»eaping from liimKi.-ir, — it ts that hehasanieeseri^ 
of tlie beauty oflbrm, and that to huddle together diiQecUt noaln 
of poetry gives him no satisfaction ; it is that he kitovs, and io 
all bis vritin^ proves that be knoirs, that finish of execstian wA 
harmony of proportion arc c&acutial to the oompLeteuettflf apotlL 



Mcrope: a Tragedy. 



36S 



It is doubUcBH tiiia ocmncticm on liiB part wfaidt htn made 
liiiii profess liiniBc]f a follovcr of the classical BcboaL Kor take 
tliat tcnn in ite widest si|^liciitJon. a» rmbraciii^ all tlie mo- 
deru fomui of art niorc- or Ivss diroctly based on anciont models, 
and it in impotwililc to Acay tlint it k distinguished from that 
which, for distinctioii'N sake rutht-r thiin from aiij- iniinti- im>> 
^priatx, Iiaa been called th« romantic scliool, — hj a more uniform 
legairl for the pn^>rietie(( of expression, the jostaeMes of propor- 
tioQ, and the polish of details. Why this eboiild lie »n it i« itot 
difficult to discern. It is not, aa has bocD sometimes fni[>po)ted, 
and M even Mr. .\rnold socms taeitiv to awnmc, beoansc there 
ia SOnK!thi»^ in the very spirit and nature rjf the more modemly 
evolved literature which disregjinls tin'. Iiotuty of form ; it is b»- 
caiBe it ix an iafinitvW niuru diRiciilt tiuik to ^\c pcTfrct srm- 
to the far iivorc detailed aiid coiii])le]( swlyect-raattcr of 
latter. It is like the diflcrcnoe hctireen drawing K«t«(^'s 
es and painting Titian's pictures. I'he modern daMioa] 
•diocd not only obtained oomi>lcte naodels of form, but by using 
for the most part eUssical subject -matter also, it made still nar- 
rower and easier than to the ancients the conditions under which 
crfcction — w, we should rather say, corroctnisKsofform — was to 

Htudii^l : for, as we hare before oiwiTTod, it is the mere skelc- 
of Groeii interests and Greek idea.-; which can he handled 

the modem artist. And tins limitation reacted on the form; 
fiir the more refined and delieate Ix-autic^ of Greek art l>cing 
tliextrir.abty bound up witli the nieetiis of ibt sul)ject-m«tt«r, in 
lOMDg ita hold of theHe it discarded thoae also, and lenuuned 
meacre in substanoe, and hard though exact in outline. 

The highest poetry, a« Coleridge has said, is an orj/itmc 
growth. Its forms are the natural forms into which tlic rital 
eocrey shoots. This is e»]iccially true of the romantic «ehool, in 
«faicD, wcQ in the most artilicial departments, as in the drama, 
the fixed ndc* within which the poet worka are cxlretiiely broad 
and dactio. It i« true alto of the poWrj* of ancient Greeei' ; and 
tbongi), by reason of the religiotia and ceremonial origin of the 
drama, the conditions were more narrow and stnn^it, yet each 
great poet left bis own impress on the forms aa well as the aub- 
}oct-matter. It is not true of the modem classical school, A 
great scientific mind made some remarks aa to the conditions 
and hiva of the nature of the drama as it existed in hix day; 
ind these mere laws of the existing rondition of an art hare 
been made into laws of control, or rult-n, to guide tlie labouia of 
firtnrc poets; and in later timea tliey have both been narrowed 
and their domain extended. Afore or Ina mocUfied, tlicy be- 
eamc the ba«s of the modem classical scliool, and its foUowen 
lave anogated to thcmvdvcs the claim of ponenng a tu^gm 



266 



Afero/te: a Traced)/. 



of art whtdi otlien wiint. The dsim, as vc have aaid, b in/, 
entirely tLnfoiuided. They gain (tomethin^; but thcr lose more. 
Given a aqiiare box, to hll it, is the French prohlcm ; RiTcn a 
sew!, to grow it, i§ the Enijlish. AMicrc the comlitious are >!• 
ready furnished, it is easier, within the Hniit«, to stxitly jsj-mmctnr, 
dcconim, luul apiiroprintunc-^i of det.iil. A ih-fiiiol path to wnlk 
in ix an niil nnd a i-upiKivt tu a mediocre geiiiu* ; »nd English 
poetry, which nutTcnil once from loo nan-ow a conventionalism, 
is now rather in dnnger in an opposite direction fvota the d>«- 
orderly venting of small and often inconKnions ttpirts nf iniagi* 
nation, which are no! the branch and bud and flower of one sin. 
glc organic fjrowth of the imagination, but mere seatierwl mote* 
glittering in the sunshine, itut liberty i* not hns great bccaiHic 
wjTiin lire too fcehle to ii%c il nriglit. Convent ionidum of form 
<lr:in:t with it cunventionDl).-<m of phra-ne, and even of matte^^ 
Freedom Li an noble and iw essential in art a:* in life. In neith^f 
can wv entirely disjiense with laws : but the tendency of iMtvaiw^^ 
ment ia to reduce their nunil»er, and to generalisn! their enact* 
meuts; and that moral nature and that ima^uation are ibf 
highest, which have within tlieiuselvcs the truest in^tiuets of liir^ 
mony, ntid fullow them with the simplest spontaneity. The cvil^ 
of an inipoitcd iicl of ndes in art arc like th« cviU of a patcmatV 
gorernment: the helps of the weak ure the fcttent of thesUoiig 
and aspinng ; and wc see a genius like tli.-it of Racine cnisMd 
up in unities, tied down tn a luonotonoiis verse, and compt^ed 
to sustain itself nn the faded Lnidittou.i of an extinet national lilt 
and a religion dead and powerless. It i» the glory of the rouiu- 
tic, and especially perhaps of the Knglish school of poetir,- 
glory which raises it above nncient art itself, and inuneasunhi^ 
above its modern restiseitntions and copies,— that it has da 
to be free. Tiiat few have lieon fotmd worthy of that freedom i 
tnie. Perhaps, on the whole, German art 'i% more harmonira* I 
and eonseientioiis ihau tlnglish; it hif not had to tnntrol in^ 
ginatiuns so warm and daring; but where the air ht frerat pov 
the stateliest trees, ajid a literatTirc whicli can show tJw B*inC 
of Shakwpcare and of Milton, of Dryden and of Pope.ofWoiA- 
wortb, of Burns, of Byron, and of Tennyson, may claim at lart 
lo have profited by the great pift of liberty. Great an is GrtA 
art, infinite would be the loss to England if her poets should, ia 
admiration of it, be led jwdc from the nobler and more difficul' 
task of attemptiuK to jfivt- perfection of fonn to the workarf 
their native school. Itut this much is true, that hi the »tJidj<^ 
Greek literature a poet may Icarii niueli of the beauty that lio 
in form; and that what our modern literature moRt wants !■* 
sense of the value of completeness and finisli in thia reelect. An 
English mostcrwork which should fully denilop the laity gni^ 



irahifj 
iwdm 
tim»W 
nimiH 



i 



Merope : a Trai/edff. 



267 



fiviiDcI beauty tliat ootMiiTiinintC' furm is eajntlilc of Ijestow- 
foiilil cxcrci»f, or at least Kiis a liclil fi;)rcxpn:i-->iii);, the liigli* 
hI iiitluun<%, Wt" tio uot say Mr. AruoUi sliould liiivo uttcmptcd 
i-h a taek. U is oo (Ivrogatiou to lus liigli poetical fplU to say 
St it in [irobniily tiot witbin bis power; and it is certain that 
taxtca anil pnrd ilrctious kiul bim to occupy Iiiinsclf with lc«s 
implex aixl ilijiiiriilt MulijoL-t-tiiuttt^T, — uc Miy loss cotnpb-x ukI 
jbdlfiilt, bccjititic it IN uiiilc)ii))ti'<11y tnio that, tbougb n inoJrru 
Nrm may l>e a» ibiiUow mid a» iiiiiitm' ki you pli*aLHe, yet onu 
rbii'b iivaiLi itM'lf to the fiill of tbonc usitcnals vrbtob Cbristiiui- 
|t.- ^.i..l Western thought niid civilUation have laid up, must be 
^n.'atcr tbnu one ulticb ia rc-strictetl tq tlic nuitohaU at 
iii"ii.j«al of the ancient Greeks. And moreover, Mr. jVruoWa 
rork in i> M-rviec in the siime iltreettoii : it eiiidts and isctuplilios 
'Hvuty of tonu — iiiiktd, is s|>wiidly dtvoud to tbi» object; 
'tli«U[,'b thiit Iwauty be tKuight iiudcr eoiiditioiiN dilfrri'tat 
■otn tltOM: u't! itnw rir<)uir(!, not eiLsily njipn-ciidilo by the niiLSS of 
Euf^lifih fL-sders, and w bii'b neceMai'tly und dcvi-rvoUy pravcnt it 
nra Iwitt); popular, y<!t even thus it is no light gain to ecc tt 
jru-mly aud eonsdcntimLsly aotight after by a modem jioct, utd 
it iuiide^ualoly »ct forth. 

IJnt while we admit that the three Greek tragedians handled 

litHr nubjt.'cl-matter uith exquisite skill, and thai they uiolveit 

tnn tliv i-ouditiouH under nhieb they worked thebigliL«t lieiiuty 

" whidi they were cupaUc, we by no means lielieve that tliey 

^ere rver wttuible of tlie full eajmuntiw, and Hltnlned to tlic 

V i'jo of tirainatic art, or that their piny.*, iis whoieg, 

-i iiiodcU of form. Wc hi»e neither seo|«.- nor call 

' to (liiiuvi the tbrmcr orthcsobssertionn — few probably would 

pinpute it ; but .Mr. Arnold'ti {miface, which has drawu us into 

]ie«e geurral nbtwrvatious, innte« some remarks on the latter. 

Ku};lish trof^dy dilleiK from thut of Atbi-us, not only in itH 
prniv, but in the mode in which thf poet works, and in the nni- 
priaU be usra. The driimiuti of IhiOi iMimtricM have that of courao 
uonnnon wbieb heh>u^ to nil tnt^'ii^ driiui:i». llotli (h^l with 
|ifo of man; both liml the centiv of their imagimttivc life 
Dlerwl ill the con teiu plat ion of thos* dread a!t|ieetH of \an 
irtnl (U-atiny whieb have iK'tually slmwu tbcmselveo, which, or 
lieir like, eyes have seen am) ears heunl. Both set fortli tU onoo 
tis pride nud his ^lury, and the «Iipperiness of tbc piunodcs to 
rliii'b he elitiib.i ; ibey cou(nu>l hit i-nergj' and his viut ejii«u:ity 
jiiy nud Horrow wilb the briel'neiu uf his day ; tliey repi'cscnt 
fruitful in n-source, yet feeble In Ijrvak the neb of cir- 
Jioe ; and in the lieai'ts of b«tli cehocs the dim sounding 
Tthe mysterious all-surrounding sea which surges against this 
jik and shonl" of time. Yet tliev differ to some extent in 



S6S 
the 



Sferojte: a Tragedy. 



from, and widdyi 



•ourcn which (hey explore and d 
their artUtic mode of prcBcutmeut. 

The Greek tragedy is much nearer narratii,-e poetry than the 
Soglish ; the dramatic clement is le« comph-tely dcvclojied. It 
deaU for the mo«t piirt with n «it§;U- incident, wliich it dilates 
upon and impressc-s. It is Ihtjact which is uf imiwroince to the 
Qrcck tr:igeilian», — tliat these things huipeoea whereof thqr 
«peak; th;it the adnUreio thtts alen' her htisuand returning in tbc 
^endour of his triumph ; that the son imbrued his arcnehig 
sword in the blood of tbc mother that bore him ; that tbc king, 
iKible in nature and fixed in power, found suddenly that by ctruiee 
and terrible fatality be had nnwittinglr, yet mo»t horribly, dp- 
filed the saiictitiw of nature, and in n brief revolution of the 
scene, from Tx.'put:itioii mid safety nnd » tJirone, wm CMSt don 
into the du.*t, und tliruM forth niurdcrou.1 and incestuous; his 
frame yet convidM^d witli tlie agony of hiti diHoorcry, his »^fat- 
leas eveballx yet bleeding, to grajw his way with trembling hsndi 
SB exile from the laud his preaence desecmtcd. It is in these and 
aneh-ljke special dread events that ihe Greek artist mirrored cr 
illnstratcd human life. He sbowed them on a lor^ acalc, mi 
with abundant comment ; so much so, that mx or eight pcrsoa* 
at most, bevidc^ the chorus, and one or two netion^s, mlfici-d far 
the cxpo«ition of the small ECdioti of ocnt which wau nDdcr- 
token in a «iiiglc play. The Greek bcltcred in an ovemliae 
necessity, part gods, part fntc, maiuly iinraond, whose ooBtra 
men were powerless to withntaiirl. Hence bare facta in the life 
of man had a significance for liini lliey have not for ns. Ite 
Englishman mi-cA a far wider cautiative eflcct to the will and m- 
tare of each mdiTidual human lieiug : hence he studies the Bfe 
of man in the lives of men ; and the naked aspects of fact, hw- 
evcr momentous and appalling, have little interest forhimBalw 
he can connect tbcm with the character of men. Hie cats- 
strophe of an Englinh tragedy i» dcrelopcd out of the dutncW 
and actions of the perwinages introducMl, minglwl, ns tlteyu* 
nuagled in life, with sudden aocident. Tlve ]iocl bnit tu> eibinal 
powers, no gods to whom be cau refer aa an unfailing rescnar 
of forces, using men as half-passirc instruments. Hence tbcR i* 
a unity in his work, aiising out of its nature, to which the Gieek 
play can make no pretension. The only nnity of action the IstW 
cluira^ is Ihfit of selecting a single incident which in its nat** 
shall be stifTicii'iitly severable from the storj- of which it is ■Pf' 
to hare a comiocnoement, and n snflicient restiug-placc at ^nA 
to stop. There is none of thiit final silence and rwt which fil* 
over tiic coneluKion of an Knglish tragedy, and leaves tbr tf^ 
tator in sad or trembling repose. TIio end of a Oicek plsf * 
urbitrarily selected : the end of an English tragedy is tteUf**' 



Merope: a Tragedy. 



209 



^H^ c^'olvcd ; oud death, nliicli gives the complctcst cuiUng, u 
ateWatiy to thi«, while it is ouly iucidcDtal to the furmcr. Na^, 
a tragic event wlitcb vhaJI move all hcort* may be represcntod 
vithout it, K» when Orestes' cutiHe is pleaded agaiu&t llic £unic- 
uides ; aud in other play.t, euch a.4 Tlie HupplloMta and The Per- 
sians, in which it is seen hoir easily tho (iraelc di-araa melts into 
imrratiQD. But death is the uoavoidahlc conciuaioD of an Kn^ 
liafa tragedy; fur this rcpi-c)>ciH« hiiaian life, as vc have before 
tlidf not in isolated events, but in the whole lives and characters 
of ainglc nicn ; and without death, which rounds tlie coiutm: of 
Iste, and if the crownin); incident and fidl compldJou of the 
dtspeniuilionK of lift^ no man's career could be fully d^iHcted. 
'n'ithout it the Ufc would be unended, and the character uncer- 
tain. For as no mau is to he esteemed happy before ii\* death, 
BO DO man is known before his death. Hence it is tliat death, 
and death only, is the consummation of Eofjlish trascdy. It 
comes in various sliapes, and wakims various niootls. Its deep- 
euing sliudow {lerfects the sadness uf the story of Desdetnona ; it 
descends like judgment, and we tremble and exult as it hangs 
heavy over tlic liead of the nstn-ping Macbeth, or nienaees Kich- 
ard in his dreams; or it couich hke pity, lonj^cd for uith lean, 
and gives rest to the ovcrta&ked spirit of Hainlet, or loosens the 
cracked heartstrings of Lear. 1 Jicie arc no such terminations 
to the Greek plays. Their fragmentary charaetcr is always ap- 
parent ; there is alivars a piece over, something undiajxiBGd of, 
which draws the mind beyond them into the future. Compare 
tiic jifftimmiHOH and the Choephor^ with llamkl .- both the latter 
end with death. In the ixTsi the hero comes home in his pride 
and his glory, and the adulti'i.^ii smites him in hio limt huurof 
confidaice and rest ; but tlie scene closes with the guilty wife and 
her paramour exulting in theirguilt. In the second the son, the 
^il-impcUcd avenger, reddens \m hands in the blood of his 
guilty mother, and when all our iutercst culminates on liis head 
lie vanishes. lie sees the furies ^arc, tlicy thicken around him 
vitk their hideous eyes, and he flies the scene in horror. Both 
but parts of one story, links tn the chain of driiul rctribu- 
which han^ over the fated hou»c and its bloody repast of 
aughtered children : in both tlic action is complete, and the 
ient requisites satisfied ; but have they in their nature tlie en. 
tireness of Shakespeare's play, embracing the full development of 
■O many men's characters, drawing so many threads of action into 
one knot, and wrapping all in rest with the potent poison which 
qoitc o'crerows the spirit of Hamlet? The most curious budcI 
cannot ask more ; no distracting Ranees are cast into tlie future; 

" Pasiionloie cnlm ntid rilcncc unreprorcd" 
&tl like consolation on the heart. Coinpleteoeaa ia a thing of 



■aitn 
r^^ne ii 

^^Kona 
^Btlaug 

Hancie 



270 



Harope: a Tragedy. 



Ac^rcc ; Lilt the desire for it— one of ihc deepest of onr nilUK in 
oounoclioii with art — is in the Kngh^h tragedy perhaps morr fiillr 
gnitiliei) thnii in auv other form eiuploytsi liy the \mvi. Within 
the bouiidariw of the play, lliu AtliciiJan dmina, however, pa*. 
seweH a tfreater and iiioi-o oljvioiw heaiily of proi>ortion«! inrts, 
moi'c drlieaey of exerulimi iw to fojin, finer elearer lines offtraee; 
and min^flc.t in itsi ehoruses an airy ealm and sneetiiess that mnrt 
hiirc relieved with an iiiexpresfeiblc sense of repose the iutenm- 
ing trafjic action. Tlic very infcnority of the fonn, as a whole, 
made all this more possible : there was more room for it. A »lior( 
cvcut was disphiyed on a large scale. An English play, wliich 
must show iivra and eliariicterx of mm in a fhurt itpaee throu^ti 
the meditmi (if iictiou, niii!>t erowd in many eetioiia and varied dr> 
CumBtaiieeit 1 it must be at once terse and detailed. In thclireek, 
on the other liancl, the niattej' \a spread out and enlarged upon; 
tlierc is place for anticipation and comment, not only often oc- 
cupying much of the spcccliep, hut haring provided for it tbt^ 
whole lyric element in the play, with its inniiitc capacities ^'^^ 
beauty. All these things arc drnwii into an cx<jui»itc harmony," 
more ciwily appreeiable, yet pcThajM more easily attainable, aul 
in it» nature nut so liijih a." liiat complete fusion of all subordi- 
nate elements into tlie whole eoneeplion of the poet of vliici 
the English trngcdy is, by its nature at least, capable. 

\Vc have said that the limitations of Mr. Arnold's |cniK 
drew him towards (ii-cek art ; aiid it is so in this partieulnr. fft 
have jn^'en him full credit for his lore of finish and proportion; 
hut Ills ])oems have every where shown that he is delieieiit iu tl* 
higher power of eoneeption, which reipnrcs unity. He hal-iM** 
strophe against nutistruplie ; but In- gives us a jihiy with no 
(listraeting interests. lie is pun; in laii^ia^e and clear in tcM^ 
but iiixl(-ad of a tragedy, ho writes a melodrama with a W)^ 
rate tragical end to it. The stoiy of Mcrope is as follows. ^' 
take it, simply for eouvcuienec, partly from each of twg accmii** 
which Mr. Arn<jld quotes in his prcfecc : 

" l>u])huntcs hud not reigned long in Messenia w)i«n li« WM an'' 
dCTcd togrthtr with two of his witis, And Polyphuntc* reigned io** 
slciul, he tui) being of the family of Hercules ; tnid he had fuclii**'''^ 
against her will, llcrope, the widow of tlio niiinlcrctl king. . . . 

Merope scut nwiiv and coiiCL'aled her infant sow. PoIjplif'BK' 
■onf^ht for him every where, and promised gold to whoever »)ioiil*l W 
bim. He, wIr'u he grew up. liiiJ a pluu to avenj^e lh« murdwof *** 
fnllicr nnd brotlu^rs. In ]>iir!iimnci; of this plan, he caine to K*f 
Polyphoiitea, nnd iisked fur tlic promiHi-d gold, sayiaK h* ImiJ ilai" "* 
son of Cre»[ihont«8 nnd M<'i-oi>c, The king onh-red bint to be bc^** 
ably entertained, intending to inquire further of him. He, bdn g'^ 
tired, went to sleep ; and an old man, who wu tltc channel Ibnp 



i 




Mcrape: a Tragedy. 



271 



tlM) motlicr aiiH son iisril to oo)iimuiii«Uc, anivM tt Uu* no- 
meat tn tcar^, lrnii};iiih' n-onl to ^tcrui>c iliuL hiT noa bad diMppOirod 
' am liifl |vrot«cU>r~a lioutie. Mcrope, bdioviu^ itiat tliC iln-ping KUnxn- 
jvr i> tlic niur(l«Trr of ber Boa, comM inU tlio ^cat-dwrnUsr witli an 
9, But kiiowiii^ lliat be n'liutn site woul>I alitjr wu licr sou : the old 
III mN>giii<i->l iiim, and withtK'M Morojw fniin sUfiiiK biu. iVft<T 
llui rcoognitiim but) lakrii jilncv, Mrro|>c, to \>nfnt tao w«y tot L«r 
retigcaitt'c, >flccUt<1 to bo rrooncileil witJi I'olj'pixKite*. Tlwkiug, over- 
aye<\, cclobntwl ■ aacrilice ; bi« giii^&t, preteiidiu;! to iilHke Ibe iinCTi- 
ticial victim, eleW tbo king, *ad so (-ut b«ck liiii futbcr'a kingdom." 

Sudi is the xtory of Mcro))e. Mr. Arnold docs not reprc- 

tt her as the wife of Poljfhoulcs ; otherwise, except perhaps to 

ame extent in tlic character of the luur^M-r, he has adhered to 

ihu tradition. We venture to wiy it is sot well cliosea for the 

ltitiri>n>t-tt of a tragic drnmatist. Itt niaiii interest — the niuii-ty of 

lil<-riii«' for her fnn, her w^ony of grief for lii« supjKxwd loss, 

lid her imrrow es«ii« of kilting him, foUowMl by the jojiiil rc- 

Icogititioti between them — liea wide of tragedy. W'c do not jfay 

lierc ar» no models for such a drama in (ircek literature — the 

fEffctra of Sophocles is voiy mnch in |>oint ; hut we eay tlicrc 

I wen* far lii;;her models, sueli as either play oi (Ktiijius or the^ji> 

\tigow, itud ttutt there is an essential dillbrence between melo> 

Idmiiiit and tra^dv, nnd tliat the lulter is of a nobler class in 

t. In sa)-int; thii^, we n$e ' mt'lodramatie* for nnnt of a Wlter 

orA, un<l as su]>vriur ut Inwt to ' trogi-comie' to express, not the 

lvxii(;u''i'o'*^] di»plny of terrors, but the chnraetirrtstic of plays in 

rhieh terror U nlievediiml fupplaiilcd byjny ; nnd wc luc 'tn- 

p-ily' nut in ibr i.'Ciit'i'al sense in Hlm-h it is applietl to the whole 

i:i» of the Urt-cks, bnt in tlie narrower and luoi-e de- 

■.^M■, in wbieh it UiiM.'d in romaiitie lilcrnliirc. Kscapc 

no plitec in true trn;;edy. The cxiKtCiiec of it entirety changes 

whole attitude of the mind. If it be euid, tlmt until the 

i^mitittMcttt cbines tlio attitude of the mind ts tlic sitntc in the 

Dctodrauiii, wc oay that it '» uut trujfnly to the end, and that 

■HiBiimninlion ia of tltc esKuee oflraiA'dy; nioreovrr, that ci'rn 

:; ean only )k? exeite<l un a ftnl rejiding or 

that a drama is not like a m«-kel to be cs- 

k^prnibvi ni tIk- >ii-it usinj;, but must be little worthy the name 

jiiiileiiN it nQ'onls uiiiltcr that wilt nioro or less re|>ay a close 61- 

Iidiliurily and repratnl {lernKal. Praetieally, it ia not onu Ui ten 

[tliou^and it ho omea to » play or novel ignorant of wbctber it 

lend*. :i* ur >ay, welt or ill. The detniU of a Niirjirixe may he 

[eo! ivre; but nn <! can a mirk of 

luri , ist on a coil' r of the dtn-ction 

'itN enniOiinKm; and where it docs so. ii la no verj' worthy 

it in tlic mclo- 1 



373 



Merope : a Trageiff. 



<lniina the reader or spectator knows the Mfety thit is in atorvf 
aiid thiit :if)fict)> all his feeling*. His heart kana upon the fB>_ 
tore; liB svmpathii'*!', imircd, with present aorrows; but he" 
is sustained hy the knowli'tlge that llicy are not to ff Tsating. 
WitJiin the uaimw limits of n jiby tlicne is a sort tiou 

between the entotion in the sceue and the siipcnf; 'IcJgv 

iind diflerent resources the apectator pomessca within bix ova 
mind. It prevent* CTi/ir«(f« of sympathy. There ia leai sm- 
pUdtr, IvtM reality, than in tx:igcdy; and this ia pcriiopa uoe ctf 
the main grountu of lli<; sni)cHunty of the loiter. Both on 
l^timftte cxprcnuona of nrt, hut trr^^ly the higher. ?(«(»[■ 
the rercrae in the cane i» tltc novel. The paakitme are not moved 
in the rame way. Tiie intcnnu im not no nnple, rarluaiir, 
BDid swiftly acenmidated. They are spread oat and roned ; the 
tro^c clement is intennitlcnt, relieved, and soflannl, and a 
tlioiuukiid minor sources of oecupatioa to the mind and fcdinM 
nre woven in with it, Trap;cdy rises like a dniid tlmt nprcaaa 
<ltitckly over tlic heavens, ami ^oes down with storm and itigbt 
inti) the sea: a ]>roGC liction dnwns and chines and w\» like a 
whole day of mingled rrsithcr, whether it be April, or At , 
or Di-ccmber. In the minuter detail and grenlcT length of l 
noTCl, wo require tlic n'lwim we derive from our coufidciica 
a happy tenmnation. ^Ve ennnot hear to bo harrowed thr~'~ 
three volumes, am) find no relief at the ood of thi-ni. 
uuiriTsal feeling is iiiidmilitcdly true. A novel that cndi wdl 
ia 04 much more perfect a work of prose Gction than one irikldL 
ouda tragically, as a tragic play is superior to » 
one. 

3ferope, then, ia not n iinhjcct that iiffordaaoDpe for the btfll 
kind of dramatic art. Otir intercut in her story is one not _ _ 
cal in ilH nature, hut of Ininnifnl ^rit'f luut ti^mir. MomoTcr, itr 
ceases when, louj^ before llit- (-v>iiel union of the play, the iBOtbit^ 
daspa her nuinjun"*! aud rronjcnisod child in her arms, lleiii 
fortn Ibr them tlio tale is told, and the play played out. AU 
poasion ati<l life of the poem arc hero eoaccntraied ; the ant 
hn.' I'lllyniid HkilfiiU ill the mntCTinU oftlie pUiy< 

di ■ ■■■ erifi* wilh , and drantnlio rflV^, bmI " 

coiplou-ol Uio n' -nthov of wh!> ' nnrter 

bdiihten the ell ..\' emotions. " (ore 

extniet which will do lullcr juMiue to the genius thai alunca 
the piny than a [uirt of this ecmc : 

" Hrr^. Prom tfe» atlar. Ifaa uiiaYOBff'd liinili, 
I'pteli me tlw NMriftoihaas '— 

(T' ' ■ 1 jHt iiHRinA nW imt ^CanmwTci, ■ 

OHiuImikI, UcI 




Meropc: a Troffedt/. 373 

With tha gnvd'a evcrladdDg, 
All-oaTeriii)[ dttricDcM I Kin^ 
WuU moura'd, bat ill-itvcn^'d ! 
Aopnt^tt tliou thy wifo notr I — 
The ue I — who tniogs it I 

Th ClwiH. 'Tb here ! 

But th; gtatun)) th]^ look, 
ApfMb mc, •hokci mc with noc- 

JfnfM. Thnut b«ok now the bolt of that door ! 

n* Omrmt. Alw! alul— 
B«hol<l th« faslctiiiigs wlthiirawu 
Of the g«<«^cbamher door ! — 
Ah! 1 bcKCch thcc — with tmr^ — 

Jilrr»p<, Throw thu dowr opuu ! 

Tie t'hertu. 'TU doue ! . . . 

\Tkr Joor of Ots hoatt it thruum <y>«n: tht inlrrim of At gmttt^ 
riiambfr u i/itroivm/, rilA /Eptics atltrp «n a tmicb, 

Mirope. Ho simps— tleepB cahn. yo nU-sixung Oocbl 

Thiu p^cefully do yo lot liiinor* tlcop. 

While troublud iimooentit tnu knd lie awoke 1 

Vbai twMter •Iwii tluui tliis oould I deiuro 

For tbeo, my child, if thou w«rt yet alive T 

How ofton liave 1 dretiui'd of tlieo like thin, 

With thy Kiil'i huntiiig-Roni, a.aA uindikln torn, 

Atlui-p in the Arcniiiuii ttluni at uaoii. 

lliy Iwad droop d softly, and tlio goldeu curb 
LdHHeriiig o'tr thv whilu ronihmd, like ti girl's ; 
^^■a Atin pKud lip eho^ci[l|; tliy nee, thy cheolti 
j^^nmi'd mill thiuc upeu-air, fixe, buatci''8 life 

Ah mc I . . . 

And where doit thou slncTi now, my itiunccnt boyT^ 

In «oinc dark fii^ir«»'j ihndow, uiud rovks 

[futrodden, on O^rltcnu » dcaoblo aido: 

Where tnrellora oerer pats, whero only como 

Wild bout*, ftod TuUunw failhtK overhead. 

^<r«, there thou licrt now, my hujiUiu child ! m 

Stntra'd among brier* and rtoaes, the sluw, black ffora 

OoEJug through thy «ouk'd huatiiig-Bhirt, with limlw 

Yet t*Ark from th« d«ith -si niggle tight -cloach'd luindF, 

And vyeballs slnyng for revenge in raiu. 

Ab iBuorablc I . . . 

And thon, thou fnir-ekiiin'd Serpeut I thou art laad 

In a ridi chunber, on a hiinpy bed. 

In a king'a boose, tliy vEclnu's heritaga; 

And driok'it untroubled iliimber, to ueep off 

The toils of thy foul iwrvicc, till thou wake 

BcfmUi'd, ai>d clnim tliy tniutcr'i thanlu and gold. 

Wnko up iu licll from tliiue uuliaUuw'd alevp, 

Xbon aaaUag Fkeid, and claim thy guoHoa thwe I 

Wake amid jSlpom, and howling, aud tba Doiso 

Of sinnen ptni^n'd on tho torturing wheel. 

And the (tanch Kurioi' nnvcr-nilcnt aoourn, 

And bid th« ctiief-tonii«it«rs then provlm 

Vor a pand cntprit okortly oomtng aown. 

Qo tbou (lie Arat, and usher in thy lord ! 

A man jiut atioke than that tbou gavV t my ton, 



27* 



Merojjf: a Tragedy, 



[MtliorR itAtmtrt Uwanlt At alnrpray JF.Vf\vt, vi'd lb 
uplifiMl, At thr tamt wuimnii AkCAl rtiarut. 

Areut (lo (Ac Ownn). Not with him to oouDctl did th« Kidj 
Cany hit tncsMnigcr, but left him lien!. 

OGodsl . . . 

JftTVpr. Foolish old mnu, tliou sjxnl'M luf Horn I 

AfM*. Whftt do I w« 1 

Jfttvpt. A miirdcTor M dtatb'e door. 

ThcrofoTtt no word* ! 

Areat. A munlovrl . . . 

Jt<rm>t. Aud ft captive 

To the ocw ii«xtKir-kin of Mm he mutd«t'd. 
Btnnd, and let Tongf&iico piu» ! 

A rtat. Hold, Queen, bold ! 

Thou kiiow'ct not whom tJiou rtrilc'iA. . . . 

ilfrope. I klMW his oinM. 

Area*. Uiili&ppy one ' ihou sttik*trt — 

I/frvtM. A meat jatA blow. 

Ana*. No, by tbc God*, thou »U)f'K— 

Jtrrope. Stand off I 

Arau. Til J MQ ! 

Jltnpe. Ah 1* . . . 

ISh IrU Ae lur Avp, mAJJU im*M- 

The remainder of tlic [»Iay rests solely on tlic fate oflWl"- 
pboiites. Wc have in this a true tragic clement ; and Mr. Ar- 
nold dops all in His power to raise it up and make it replace i* 
other iiitcrcBt which is exhaueted. But the attempt is fruitltsi;' 
n«t only m>.— it ought not to have been made. It docs not Ho 
to huve two »triiifr« to n trii^-dy ; you may Lnvc suhordinate i 
tcrenti*, but not double, ntill lem ifhining one*. You may »ril«*| 
tragedy of Pi>lgphmle», or a. melodnma of Mfrofte, bat not IxW 
in the ^nic play. As it is, Polyphonies is neither !ttriclly«J>-" 
ordinatcd nor made the main interest. The Electro a bettff >■ 
thia rcapoct. After the recognition hctwcen the hrotker tad 9»" 
ter, what remains, thouf-h essential. i»i cut short ; C'1]rteinB»»* 
and iEi^stlius arc hurrifd brieJiy and swillly to their doom, »» 
.^gisthus never even appears on tlic stage until the Inst scene It 
Mr. Arnold's pinr, where the natural ntrcnglh of the iiiteml e 
witli Merope, be doe.-* all in hi* (jowra- to raise n[i a wibwdiirfoi* 
in Polyphonto.*, whieh lie hnttUas a reserve when the fonncropf 
flags. He bimlK the kiu^ up in the moral ijitcrwit of the iilayju* 
he endeavours to give hira such a character as shall occupy ^ 
attention, and attract our Bj-mpiithics to Ins fate. The diiqi""' 
tional parts of the play are skilfidly niaiuigi'd, and pivc plitfc W 
some tnought and for stately nud eloquent plirosc and poli>l>^ 
vcrac. "When we say that the poetry here has something JB ii w 
coldness and the cloir-ciit edges, and, to u», almost bnld MSU)^ 

* She WM an Oxford womut. 



Merope : a Tragtdy, 



275 



lof hill Orwk iiioilcU, Mr.AmoM will feel flnttereil, liiid 
will feci (li:<tii'iirUriu-il. Tlii' iiiiiiii moral i* niuiplu 
Greek cuoii^li, lluit Itliiud ilenmiid* e\[Hatory blood; con- 
ccu-d with which is auotlicr aoinewlint deeper and Ices Greek, 
dial DO mau can be so sure of biniself and bia motives as to 
' '''tl in makiiLg hiiiiBclf arbitrun* jud<^ of another, and ia 
_ iitcKid nnd a«iuiiiiii^ poner himself for the supposed yte\- 
im ul itlhi'r*. Wc iirosiimt', lit \ci\»\, thut this iiU-Ji is to \k eou- 
icd, (liou;;li it is n:irid«red Komeultol i»»T|>lfxeil \iy the oWurity 
-wo niaj' Buy, thfi Htudkd oliwiirit}* — which '\a ciist over the clia> 
oud actions of Polyplioiitci*. Hin character, Mr. Arnold 
lis, is not Rxed hy the tradition ; and he fccU free to deal 
illi it as h« judges best, " A finer traRic feclinp;, it swrms to 
_ic," he. says, " is produced, if Polyphonies is represented ns not 
rhoUy black and itiexcnsubk-, thnii if he is n-prescntcd as a mere 
DRNtcr of cnidty ami byixxrisy. Aristotle's prufontid remark 
well kiH>wii, — that the tn^c pcrmiuigc whose ruin is rcpre- 
tutcd i^bould bo a jicniuuiigo neither emiiHrully good, nor yet 
brought to ruin by sheer iniquity ; nay, that his character 
iild iuclinc rather to goo<! than to bad, but that )ic aliotdd 
vxv somt' fault whicli iinjxrh hlin to biji fall." 
* enough, Imwevcr, in-itcad of painting Polyphontes 

iiart^_ lid partly bad, the jwet leaves it uncertain whether 

he \» good or is bod. He paints two ebanctcn— the one of a 
aau of a deleroiincd iipirit, aud capable of gcDcro»!< devotion to 
>tber, whom n deep sense of lutriotisin and justice had eum- 
slled to rise iu anas ngainst uud sacrifice the life of the king 
Irlioui hitherto he bad faitlifullv served; the other, of a man 
^rebels a^^ainat and niurdera ma kins that he may usurp the 
fur his own advauta^. Polypnontes rc]>r<w4:nts himself 
llu! one ligbt, .Meropc re]>rcsents him in the other; and tfae 
aler w funiixhcil uith uo clue to judge Iwtnccn tliem, or to 
ridti whether Polyiihoiit^s tpeaks truly or bypocriticatly. This 
ibt nud {icr^dcxity iis to the re-ol bcut of his character is car- 
bnl on to lliL' vpfv end of the play. Hit death does not help to 
r it, mill Ali-ixtpc hcr»elf is luiahle to sec her wav out of tlio 
lit* [ her Ittft words coule-is the enigma to lie insoluble ; 

' What BMautoit tlMu, PoIjpbontM^ what 
Dndrt^'st Uii'U, what tnily jrpurr'il thvc on I 
Wm ^Xkj «f state, the oMcuileiKiy 
Ofltic l<cr»clc*(kuooi><iuvK)«*.astliOuniiUt, 
Indtfvd ihv lifvkng pkMloti aiM sola aim T 
Or ilidat itiMi but, ns cniitiom tdMOins use, 
ClniJc tlilon ambltbit with tlicse ■pcdoo* wonlt ! 
It. .' ; ji»t, ill vitli^T caiw, tlic stroke 

\y ihoo low, for tilood T«<|uiti.-ii bUiod: 

lliii. jti, nut knowing this, I trituupb not 

u 



276 



Merope: a Tragedy, 



Over thy OMpu, triumph not, inuthOT mourn ; ^^^H 

For I find worth in Ihcc, nod bodiicse too." ^^^| 

A mixed cJiKractcr no doubt is fitted to tngcdy ; but ^^ 
dobious character is filti^ to do drvnntic art vrhatc\~er. Hub 
is not the com: of a complex cbiintctt^T not «aMly deciphcfiU^ 
bat of two simple viiough i>ct« of o]>|)OKitc tjitiilitiea ascribed to one 
man; uid tbc piny niuat \x read to a|>])rectate ho«r nieelr tbe 
see-MW betireen tlie two is kept up, and hair di&tracting an in- 
fluence it exerts. From the preface, indeed, wc may gather wlHch 
way the l^alaDoewas int^mdcd to inctiuc; and nc presume (tbongb 
CTCU with tluB aasistancc we walk rcrir uncertainly) that Poly- 
pbonti.'K is intended to lie representor) as a man of noble nature, 
and whose relx-llion was nelujitcd in the main by noble niotiits; 
but in whoKc brcn.st Uy n vein of iK-mina! and ««lA>b anbilMS 
half ooiieealed, and btit half cunci?aled, from the cousciouuien (^i 
its owner. Tlie fate of such a man mijiiht take a tragic intero^^ 
which would deaeno not to be eclipsed even by separate interest*^ 
gathered round another : but if such was indeed the writer's aim, 
he has shot wide of his mark. Tbc fact i«, the forms oftbe 
Onx'k drama »;am!ly alTonl t^popc for the full duvelopmcat rf 
aodi u ehoraeter, wliich demands }rttutt«r detail and variety of i 
cticomstance in ita exhibition tlian c-im thexe be powibly aflbrdtd. 
ladced, in placing snch a character on the stage at all, Mr. .l^ 
Qold can w-arcrly be »aid to be true to his model. The ^enenl 
language which ArbitotJe usch of a man not wholly eood or bad. 
but leaning one way rather than the other, is yen deecnptifcdf 
the amount of human character which the Greek drama rc<juii«l. 
It OSes the men to briii^ out the story. It Aoa not dwell npXI 
or seek to display the sclf-uriginating springs of action. Mui 
stands there as a more or lu»s pasBiTu iustrumim^ on v^iA 
dcKtioy, the gods, aud circumstance play ; aud the chuicia 
asuij^iTd him is only as it were tlui »eltitig of tluit insbtimeol li 
a certain pitch. A clianictor like that which wc have pnmiufd 
the author inteuda for Polyi>hontea confuses a (ireek play; ^ 
raises a crowd of moral questions aud dilemmas which tare n* 
l^ace there. Merope's simple dictum on his death, — 

" ju3t In cither cam tho stroke 
Which lidd thca low, for blood nxiuircs Uood,"^ 

docs hot satisfy us. Wc arc launched on the inquiry wlidi" 
tile blood was rightly shed ; we seek lo know whcthix the i^ 
was tnic to himself, — whether his own couscliskv oxoodtiM i 
him ; ajul these are not queictions either to be Mkcd or 8oh«l * ] 
Greek tragedy. It concerns itiu'lf full little with tlie nsoliio"' 
action. Herein Mr. Arnold has scarcely l>ecn true either lu 'j* J 
outward destiuy-cou trolled morality of ancient Oreect^ of ^ \ 



3terope; a Tragedy. 



277 



acqaicsccnccs of modem Oxford, It is not tlii*, however, 
»c duality of uatiinc wc have before spoken of, wJiicIi pre- 

otir tukinf* an intc-rcst in PolyplioQtcs, or even grasping 
t all by tlie irea^nation. Wc rcMid his spoochcs, and ad- 
thein ; but liave no notion of tlie mitu, and therefore care 
>r his fate. When .Kpytiis hIbvs lurn, wc fed iudiffi-reat 
or he had stniek the Kteer or the king: our only impres- 
i, that an elderly in»olu hie riddle w deiul. Wc Kre griitcfnl, 
9t moved. 

lesc are &ults, and they arc such as were to ho looked for 
Our former cspcrtcuce of the author's vritin^. We sup> 
lie phrenologists would say he wants indiriduallty. lie docs 
ia»p wholei*, or even the larger aspects of tilings. It is in 
tail* we icani bow fine a poetic faculty he really poseesses. 
. not a creative, it ia an expressive ^riiitiH. Hence »ontc of 
vt poems are those in which he gtvea a direct voice to his 
lelings. Uc has not that tranquil and complete ima^nation 

without effort embraces a wide field, and compels it into a 
and perfect circle of creative art ; and which, vrorking out- 
froni an inner conception, stamps the harmony of its own 
! on its work. Few indt-cd are the iwctt tliut possess it, 
lew Arui^d's is a symmetrical rather than a harmonious 
I. He creatcji parts, and adjusts them t^^elher. He wants 
land largeness of artistic )iowcr; but he has an exquisite 
the faculty that detects at least minor disfiroportions and 
paneics. He hat a nice sense of fitness and proportion, and, 
tliat gOCB to furnish beauty nnd finiah of execution, it woidd 
t caay to rival him anions; living [loctB. His poetry « nuts 
';: this play docs not move you d«rply, nor leave n." a whole 
rofound impressiou ; hut step by step it is to be read with 
i degree of pleasurcr, am) of a high kiiul. For the author 
h ill poetic instincts, and not devoid of the true poet's in- 

and itia work U iufonncd throughout with an unfailing 
fimagination and fauey. Ikloreover, bis faculties arc never 
cd — he strikes no note above his natural compass. The 

conception of tlie tragedy perhajis taxes hts powers fully 

as they can bear ; but in the conduct of it lie every where 
ys tlie decent composure of moderate strength, none of the 
iodic effort of weakness. Uc has a rettccnoc which enables 
a eqjoy him with a sense that there is more jiowcr in re- 
I and sometimes a glowing coal breaks out through the 
Int play of imaginative diction nhieh generally characterii^es 
-and it is imaginative, not fanciful. Almost always he 
t from the deeper hold of the imagination, not from the 
tr grasp of fancy. Tt is fancy, perliaps, though in her very 
Bt mood, that speaks of 



378 Merope : a Tragedy. 

" lightninr passion, thiit with fgnixp of fire 
Advanccst to the middle of a deed 
Almost before 'tis plouued ;"' 

but it ia imagmation that gives their beauty to ao many of the 
choruses, and to that exquisite piece of descriptive writing detail- 
ing the supposed death of ^Epytus. He has come nearer, ve 
think, t!ian any other candidate to giving the effect of the Greek 
chorus. Though liis verse wants something of raried cadenie 
antl musiCj and the changes lie within too limited a range : and 
though, too, the sharp incessant ictm strikes with something of 
au artificial sound on the ear, yet he has caught something of 
that warbling lyric effect which is most characteristic of <iie 
ancient choruses, aud makes them more like the singing of 
birds than any other music. 

"the c nones. 

Did I then waver •»■■ !■ 

(0 woman's judgment !) 

>Iisled by eeemiiig 

Success of crime 1 

Aud Qsk, if sometimes 

The Gods, perhapa, allow'd yon, 

lawless daring of the Btrotip, 

self-will recklesslf iudulg'd ; 

Ifot time, not lightning, cAf. 1- 

Not rain, not thunder. 

Efface the endless 

Decrees of Heaven. 

Make Justice niter. 

Revoke, oasuago her sentence. 

Which dooms dread ends to dreadful deeds. 

And violent deaths to lioiont men. 

But the si^al example Iff*'" 

Of iuvariablcness of justice 

Our glorious founder 

Hercules gave us, 

Son lov'd of Zeus his father ; for he err'd, 

And the strand of Eub«a, "-''■ " 

Aud the promontory of Cuuaum, 

His painful, solemn 

Punish IB en t (V-itness'd, 

Beheld his expiation : for he died. 

villages of (Eta *"• * 

With hedges of the wild rose ! 

pastures of the mouutain. 

Of short grass, beaded with dew, 

]Jetweca the pine-woods aud the cliffs I 

cliffa, left by the eagles, 

Ou that mom, n'hcu the smoke-clouil 



Merope: a TVagedy. 379 

From the oftk-built, fiercel^-baming pyre. 

Up the rrecipices of Tnichis, 

Drove them Bcreaming from their eyries ! 

A willing, a willing aacrifice on that day 

Ye witncsi'd, ye mountain lawns, 

When the ahirt-wrapt, poison-bliBter'd Hero 

Ascended, with undaunted heart, 

Liring, hie own funeral-pile, 

And stood, shouting for a Ijciy torch ; 

And the kind, chance-arriv'd Wanderer, 

The inheritor of the how, 

Coming swiftly through the Bad Trachinians, 

Put the torch to the pile : 

That the flame tower d on high to the Heaven ; 

Bearing with it, to Olympus, 

To therside of Hebe, 

To iroinortat delight. 

The labour-relcas'd Hero. 

O heritage of NeleuB, a>a. 3. 

Ilt-kept by his infirm heirs! 

kingdom of Messen^, 

Of rich soil, choeen by craft, 

I'ossess'd in hatred, lost in blood ! 

town, high Stenyclanis, 

With new walls, which the victors 

From the four-town'd, mouatain-shadow'd Doris, 

For their Hercules-issu'd princes 

Built in streugth against the vanquish'd I 

Another, another eacrifice on this day 

Ye witness, ye new-built towers I 

When the white-rob'd, rarland -crowned Monarch 

Approaches, with un doubting heart, 

Living, his own eacrifice-block. 

And stands, shouting for a slaughterous axe ; 

And the stem, Destiuy-brought Stranger, 

The inheritor of the realm. 

Coming swiftly through the jocund Dorians, 

Drives the axe to its goal ; 

That the blood rushes in streams to the dustj 

Bearing with it. to Erinnjs, 

To the Gods of Hades, 

To the dead uuaveng'd, 

The fiercely-roquir'd Victim. 

Knowing he did it, unknowing pays for it, tpode. 

Utiknowmg, unknowipg. 

Thinking aton'd-for 

Deeds unatonable, 

Thinking appeas'd 

Gods iiURppeasable, 

Lo, the Ill-fated One, 

Standing for harbour, 

Right at the harbour-mouth, 

Strikc!>, with nil sail set. 

Pull 011 the sharp-pointed 

Needle of ruin!" 



[ *80 ] 



Art. ][.-STRAU8S*S LFFE OP VUtWH TON HUTTES 

Virick eon Suftrtt. Von Dftvid FViederidi Smms. 2 Tab. 
si; : F. A. Broc):biiii^ 1858. 

Ep**ol<r OhtfTunirum Mrarnm, alioftte j^n Vedmi SktH 
menia raritmma. J?w Brt^t der Fiiu-lrrliuije im MaffUtrr I 
■KV* von DtTfnitr, nrbirt andfm .vhr ttltenen Seiti-uffm tut iif- 
teratur- SiUen- und KircheM^etchiekfe tit* Kteh^rhttlm Jahr^m- 
deftt. Jlei-aiisgeijeben wnd prluntrrt dnrcfi Dr. EnuX Mitmk 
(Lettfrt of ObScure Mm to Metier OrlviuM of Dereytlrr, mtl 
othrr teiy rare ContnbvtlfffU to tie J/ittoiy ofl^Uent, Mamim, 
and fbif Ckureh m t^e ICM Centuru. USteU and cluetdiA^ ig 
Dr. EmeM Miinch.) Leipnig, 1827. 

CoNKiDEBiN'u Uic iiii|)orlikiit juirt which Ulrich von Hutteuplqpcd 
ill Uie history of tlie Keformatinii, singularly little is leon 
coiiwniing him. To men in other respects well inforiDcd Iw » 
acarrcly more than a name. A few paragraphis, a tumtcDW, m 
alluaioi), arc all that Is afTordcd him m the popular historia tf 
his time, Those histories, it is true, luvu bix-u niaitily wriltu 
by theologian*; and Hutteii'*, thougli in many re^jn'cts a inanlj 
and noble character, is not one to find fnTour with divine*. Ub 
fault-H are lho»e nt which thej* are always ready to carf UiefaS 
Atone ; and which the liUtheranLini of hiit latter day>, tbond^ 
like charity, it will cover a multitude of sins, has not been vit 
entirely to veil. 

And yet Iluttcn, more filly pa-haps than any of his dobIcb- 
porarics, might stand as the repnsiaitntive man of his age. Hf 
aid not, it is true, like Erusmos, "lay iha (^ of the Refoivs- 
tion," nor, like Luther, "hatch it." He wa» not so great a naO; 
it is needless to say, as either of these. But while iliey coibo- 
die<l single tendencies, tlie religious and the humanistic, in i^ 
balanced cscess, in Huttcn all Uic contliclin}; forces of the s|e 
were epitomised. In him, we soc his own time, as it wi« ^ 
mierurosm. Scholar, knight, sohiii-r, a ]uirtiuui of the Eai|i'W 
agniiixt tlie Pope, and of Luther against tlu.' ccnruptionf *»■ 
"hereaies" of Home; a vindicator of tlic privileges ofthefrtJ" 
nobility against the encroachments of the •o^'crcign prin(cs,~ 
there is scarcely an .ispeetof his age, political, social, religidO^* 
literary, to which hiti oliaraetcr docs not prcseiit a corre^ionfiDS 
phase. 'When to this we add the romantic interest of W* l"*^ 
whose vicissitudes and troubles St, Paul's wmtIs describe »i^, 
out exaggeration, — "In jonmcyings often, in perils of 
in perils of robbers, ... in peiils in the city, in ncrils in ""i 
wilderness, in perils in the sea, in pcrik among Jaisc bnrt**"'! 



Strmut'MLi^t/Utridiwmihlit^ 



381 



WMrisCM and ^uaMatm, in bn&gcr and Aint, is ooU tad 

JnoM," — we are Mtrpnied tlisi • t h m i meti a nd eaner M 

!orer of tiw woadeifid a«d adnatunMn, M H ii 

[ihilaaojiliic staileiit of histor7, ■book) hftw bcca 

4l to i>r. l»tmu» now for die lint time vortkilr to t< Ibrth. 

It luu flili^vntij- cosisalted ah the matciub wbicfa the mkk* 

'' hi* (irvdcccseon uul literarjr coUcctioDS have made nccnnible 

liidi. Itookitq;, vhii hu lon^ been togignl on a mUectm 

Jjliiin fif ririch von TliitttmS writtnga^ to mponcde tikp •lotmlj 

uiil itc vDliimcn of Miim-b, Hm gaaer o iul v pUcrd •! 

SLr;< iinwil thn rniittn <if lii* tTMwdm «nA rriticunu, 

' tlio iiEcniry *kitl with nhit-h t)tr)u- rIcmcntM kiv Yrcirknl u|i, 

rvailtrr h( uur Butbiir'a funncr tuuicrfpliics will rr«iuirc tii bo 

mirtnl. Stntm is no hcro-vonhiper. No one wtu rwr lc» 

ifivtivl witli thr " /urn H'lrwrUiana, or diwan of Bilmi ration," lo 

iliii'li ail I^H Miu-unlay iiri."'" (mkI in some piu*a(rf« of lii» hb- 

tm««l»li)r«,nliti>r», nil, in 

itiriK tlic li»r-* iir the «Hl- 

oi' otti<-n>, tirf p«iili»rly ex|)(iHMl." Hi* coo) jiMt|ruM'iil utd 
' nnal 1*1)0 family ]>ro«'ct Ititii from thi« ilnitgcr, ■• M'tf-n'tiiuim 
NuH to protoct one it^iuKt ii)n*>iirMl di«tcniper. Dr. SlrauK 
<|t>ct himself ti)(o ItiftMiiiJi-ot. Ilo BtatiiUi-almly nUivn 
it. The ti^tirra do nut brcatlio niul iii<iu> mi tlir 
iVUB. lliey arc disivcUil nii thi.* siir^'im'* lalilt\ and li<i'tiiii'd 
ipon. Xo dotibt, a biogiApIiy orilti'ii in thi* jiidii-iid njuni (nan 
iiilrn'^t, if it gninii in iiiinortiiditj'. Oftbc •nliir nija, it i* tItR 



Il:-bt, of iitl. 
ily upon ' 
riijn, 1 1 
Ml' In ti> 



>viiii-v iif winc, wc arc loltl. to c- 
It, to th« world. ]>r. StmuM r<bi- 
i ' 'i i.iily wilb bill. 

'(• wiirtiiili *i 
. •>!' jiii*i U:\lf. tiir^'.- Ill) 

4M(; tto t 11' ]iii|irur<> lly 

it in iniii^b In-ltrr tltnii tbr liiiYTil " itriiiubiy," llii> •H'atitHl 
BthiKiiLiai, the ttmbitioii jiImjii* iill Ibitiir* tn I" •■•"' ■■' i-t- 
arci><iw, which i« n ffniwiin; Ciiidi of Kit)tli*li I'l 

T, til tlui caan of Ilr ' . mh 

.in to wlirttwT n finr l»i 



IhiIis 01 tbr 111- 

■•■ i-.fal|..;;, 

■■4'» Jin-'.' 

' ctiotl*. He t:iIiji 
■tiiiu niKii' tluui tbr Hibn'". y** *>■• ' >•••<' • ■ 
iatvf- BA iiutmmcal* <rf iiw1iV'«1iial inlimi- uti • 



ssst 



Streius'M Life of Uhieh von Ifaiten. 



and 8trcn|:;th. There is a polemic aim also in the work bdbmj 
ns, though of n Bomeivliat uifTcrent kind, and likt'Ir to ciilist > 
wider ruii^c of nymjiiithies. HiitKjn, iii(k-ed, wuidd h;»rdlyM.-m 
to point Ihi^ moral which vm drauii from the livex of tVisdi- 
Itn, Schtibart, and Miirklin. He did not turn from theolog}' t» 
literature, but be^nniug with the liamanist passed oi~er to tbc 
Lutheran partr. lie was alirays, however, an iatense usertt; 
of German nationality, — of secular righu against ccdenuttol 
domination. The untoward rvcnt-t whieli have called forth Bva- 
son's Sltfjis of the Timrf,- — the iiisiilionti encroach mi- tits of Pn- 
tetitant synoiLt no U-jk than of Papal liierarcliics Ujwn freedom 
of CDiiMcieiice in Uormany, — have evidently beeii inducemeitl* I 
tlie preparation of this book. But Hutteu's own character 
writings tcU their talc so plainly, that there is no need for 
author to appear as chorus, and point out their eignilieancc bikI^ 
application to the pri-seiit time. jVIoreo^er, the ini|ir»5ivc nntiirt 
of the man, — whom Jlt-tanclhon feart-ii and wondered at while he 
csteemitl, — kco|w the biographer more faithfnl than he i» wont 
to be to his ollej^iance, which is [so far as may be) to depict his 
hero in his habit as he lived, and not to moralise about him. Tbt 
foUowin" passage of the preface, and the coneludinK parsgrspli of 
the biography, which is in the same vein, arc almost tW oaly 
portions of the work into which coiitemponuy references intrude: 

" For tlic rest, throughout this book I wish for not ntcr^y satitGal 
and favoumbic, but also right many dissatisfl^d roiiler^ What iatti of 
hook on Ulrich llutten would t/uii be, willi which all the world shonlli 
he [ileused I Would that my mtnioir might ves to the hr*rt tio*' 
whom our horn would vex ir lio wore living to-dny ! Miiy thry d«W* 
to shntter tlm mirror, out of which tlieir own countcnniK-e stnrv* linn 
so nnllntti:ringly in the fact '. It is thi* which is excellrnt in IlDlIti, 
that tlirougliout he called things nnd persons, most of all the IxAhj 
their right names. In thin time of Ooiicordats (to mention but om 
of its evil t^mptonis), the image of sucli a man rises as if iarakfJ- 
Hutt«D was, to his last breath, the enemy of papal Hume ; he kK*^ 
and will tell us why, he was so. Indeed, just ae he pointed out to If* 
ooatcmporaries the Turks Eu Rome, so would he to-ilny And ICodk ia 
more than one Protectant eoiisistorj-. 

He does nut, liowever, in this lintt. vohmtc com« before ui ia ceow 
agftinit Kome. Wtt kIiiiII Hmt sci^ liim at school (cin« ScAuU moduli 
preparing himself, by gkimiislicM with lesser foes, for the gnat "ork « 
his life. The second volnmo will bring us for the 6rst time Mon Ihr 
walls of the Romish Troy, which ho was among the foreinost to «lt*"i 
in onler ut the lust, reversing the case of Philocletc* (ciii wnjt***'*' 
PhSoliM) to die on the island of liis serpent- womKls. But hit aW* 
arc immortal, and wherever iii GcrTuoa lands a bntttc is gnjr.<d sjsi'** 
nbscurantiiim and Kpirituol tynmny, a^iust priestcraft and dttp^tiW- 
there have Hutten's wcsponFi been." (vol. i. pp. zii-xiv.) 



\ 




Straiu^f Hfe <tf Ulrieb nm Hutten. 



383 



Ihmily of Iluttcii Ixul lon^ U-eii puwcstcd of kniglitly 

Irnnk iit Knutconin. Fitniity truilition* triiccd tbcm Inck to tlic 
teiilJi cctitury; doctinx'iit!'. !<'!<» ntiiijiliiceut, stopped nt tho second 
biUf of the thirtt'cuti). Their power was gr«at. In the fe)id, 
bf wliicli' wo shall afterwards have to *pcak, uilh the Duke of 
^Vurtcmbarp, it was the boast of Ludwipi von Hutten that ho 
^uld bring into the field twice as many knightii as hii princdy 
Bnctoy. 1\w dilTereiit brnnchcs of the family had dtspcrM'd widely, 
knd were jxxtM'sseil of ninny rcintal kivji*. lilrich voii Httttcn 
fir>l "lun the lijiht nt StookelliuTg, on tlir 21»t of April 1 188, at 
^^linll'inuit ten o'clock in the moriiing. To the {Kxiilion nf the 
^^Btnra at his natal honr McUnrthoii nttrihutcd the bodily illnen 
^BwhiHi nlllirted hia friend thixxij^hout hia life. But it is too cvi- 
^■ilotit that the cruel malady to which most of his sufl'erin^ wcic 
^■rliii- h»it iti; uri^n in utluT than (-eh-stial influences. They ttrc to 
^■jjc lmi-<:d, lu thi- pvnl-mtrrlfiu cMimiiiiiliun which Dr. SlraiiM has 
^KiUititnlod in hi.« chnptiT o>i "llitttci)'!> Kmnkhcit" ninket pIniD, 
^K)oC to the .\i>hm<lit(- Urania, hut to the .\phr(M)ite Pandcmos. 
^H A* a duld, however, Hmteu w»a delicate, and like most dcli- 
^Kale children iatcllertnally precociowt. Tliis circumrtancc drtcr- 
^ftntned his parents, although he waa the eldest son, to bring him 
^Blip to n priestly rather than a knightly life. At the ape of eleven, 
^Ku tlu'vear I'lUU, he waa aent to the neighbouring Bonexlietinc 
^^^^fey of Fuldu, uitli a view to his tuking upon himself monnsttC i 
^^BHn. The Benedictines have alwny» been eclcbrutct) for tlteir i 
^Heultiviktioi) of leltera, mvd Futda wm at one time in the highest 
^Brepatc among their s«hools. It had alrradv befrnn to decline; 
^Hltul a rigid cceJcsiastieisni was usurping the ptacc of a moto 
^^biberat di«.'!plinc. There was enough of the former to disgust, 
^^kni) of the latter to attract, iltitteti. And nhen the intCiTCuion 
^■of the nnhic EiCelwolf von Stein, whom Slrau«x cclehmte» w tho 
^■fint in (iennany to uuiti; the higher order of K-huhirship with 
^B|>ruf»und mastery of ajfaira, failed to induce Ulrich's parenta to 
^Hnn'i»r their determination concerning him, tho lad took tlic 
^Hmnttcr into hia own hauda by running awar. It is proltablc 
^Bthat he was promptetl to this step by bis friend Crotus Tlnbianas, 
^Hvho l>atBnL'ed his nceounts with the Church of Konic Iiy himself 
^V afterwards csjMuiiug her cause against the hirnianists and re- 
^ftfonoem, to whom ho hitd been instniincnlnl in giving lluttcn. 
^^h more romarkablc coincidcneo uid oontntst ia Uius illustrated 
^■by our outliur : 

^H " Not long after TTuttcn*! escape in this wioc oat nf the doiUor at 
^■J-'nhla into tlw world, Luthir flc<l front ihi- ui>rlil into th« ciniatcr at 
^HKifurt. 'Hiix ('•iiitnut tiriliiugly illuslrnti.'s tliv nature and dinfiuntioD 
^Hor ihn two litrui-H ; the uuo it b«iil ua iutcTCourstt with men, the Other 



284 



BIrtMUft tife of Ulrich ton Hutten. 



on clearing bis mcconnt with Owl. Tt i* true thai Rnvm'ards lie Utter 
•oknoti'lnlgos thnt hc lia* rlnwrn n false pnlh, jinil dowrto tbe doiitcr; 
vithoul, Itowcvcr, being ntilc again to get riil of tlui imfircM which hb 
node of thought and action th«i« received. With nil the bnadtb bdJ 
madear of bis later working. Luther renmned a stricllf aclf-codoMd, 
but yet a derioal, aod tli«r«l)/ fettered and edipoed penooalitj (MuA 
ZivAer cine Mlrvng in oidk attamiiKnge/ajuU, oter atieh eiiM jfturikU, 
daditrth get/Hiuiate und veniiislalt ftnlhdieUbmt] ; nrliile Hutteo's H 
a vorMl}', knight!;)', free nature, cheerful even in luufiMluue; biil,il 
Diuct be oonfcssc<3, inconstoot aI»o, and prcstunptuons in it* activity." 

The four yean (1505-&) which followed Ilitttcn's flight from 
Ftilda were spent in jwatlcmic etudica at Erfurt, Cologne, and 
Frank ftirt -OH -the- Odd-, and in what wc may call u "long-Taca- 
tioii tour" throwgli Gt-miany. Relations were ciitii\-ly brcbn 
off Ix^twirn ririch and his father, wbo iirobahly did not know 
whither hi.* son had bctnVcn himself. The latter, in the imw 
time, %ta« supported by his kinsman Ltulwig vun Hutten (wboM 
faTOnrs he aPterwanbt had <j]>j>ortunity of effectually retunuiflt 
by Kitclwolf von Stein, and liy other noble and princely patreai 
to whom Kitclwolf bad made him known. This period is me- 
morable in Ilntten's life for his nilent proijrcEB in those ImmiiK 
st»d)e> which g*'"'^ *''*■■ colouring to bis whole subsequent rane, 
and which isIioim; through tlic thin oTcrcoat of quasi-Lutlicnn 
Kentiincnt which wus laid on in his last years; for the fbni>- 
tion of tnnny litcrajy iietjiiaiutnnccs whose nnmcs, illustriuns is 
their day, serve now only U^ n-niind tw how (|iiici(1y ei'cn "Ike 
memorj' of tbe just" may jx-rLsh ; and for bi» own fir»t Utniiy 
efforts. These were three I.ntin |)oema : (1) Klc^tes to his fiiew 
Eoban licjse; (2) a cidogistic |H»cm on the Klarchcs of Bn»- 
dcubiu^ [in hudem Marchia) ; and (3) an elegiac eshortittiia 
coiiceniing Virtue. While showing mechnnieal facility and lH^ 
rnr}' flkill, and a study to some purpose of the antique mo^h, 
"they do not," wiys S'trnuw«, " licar the proper rtampof ITattoi|* 
genins." He hiul not yd found him.*elf; no demand upon "• 
Btrengtb had told him ait yet Vfbere that !>trength lay. Twy"* 
little more than rhetorical cxereiBca; thow tentative eflbrt*"? 
■nhieh it is given to most young poets to master tlie mediani™ 
ditFictiltie*, to elcar the enannci for the free flow of the in^w*- 
tion, when at la«t it shall well up ftom its yet scaled firtMtnW-* 

• Th» foUoiring tptsh fropi the porm on Virtur. which MMD to prrfgon Aff 
auUior'* carver, t,n unooih and clct^ani. Tlie icmintcnt (eaanmonfilH' ** f 7 
\» <in<i oflhoM nhlch makM poetry of the inc»t UDiiroinbitf; niil..-ti*1>.«>''*'^ 
euBwi boat* le erary <a>g riun Ui It* miMt lD»ticuI>l* sad tttniaimnj; ol>«**'*- 

"Ipeet^dnai Ttri* inediler diacrimiiu *eniik 
Dgni dublu vitK dUHcllM^uc \'i»* 
DUsrlMqtia adroi-urw hiimimiuiou* iBboret, 
In|«mit «t irittl iimni initii ceidu detrt." 



< 



Btraus^a Life of Ulriek ron llutten. 



S86 



In the early pnrt of the jmr 1509 Iluttcm stuldcolT disap- 
peared from Fmiikftirt, and fur n tnclvcmunth hb friends re- 
ceivcd 110 tidingH of him. What Ix.'t'i;l] in the intcmJ wc knoir 
only from hU own nft«r account, niu] from itic irritiDg» to which 
his adv^nturr^ gave nci^a.->inn. He doHcribiai himself m luring 
suffered much by laiid aud hj water, 

I " Plurima pnsius aquia, et tern plurima passus.'' 

Of his iniithnpH on the sea, wo know nothing. He reintroduces 
himself to us first as a houseless wanderei* on the I'om^^raiiian 
coast, — aick, destitute, bcj;?ii»K bis way from door to door, and 
8k«nii&j; in the open air. \Vhat led him thither he docs not 
explain, and it k uk-Icss to conjecture. Iluttcn's motit-cs and 
impul!;e)i defy analytis and coniputiitiou. lie is one of those 
person;? who arc ain ay» to he found wherv you least expect tbcni. 
What tft it thnt induneii Madame Ida PfeilTer to travel alone in 
Hadagasear aud Timbnetoo? " Uuttcn," says Strauaet, " woa a 
leatless spirit, llie lust of travel [tVanderltijU) lay deep in his 
nature." The spirit of advctiturc posse^ised him, and carried him 
(like the possessed of old) whither he would not. lu two Uucs 
of his own he has snitl all that is to be mid on the subject: 

" Kusquara laabitare miigig qitaiu me deleclal ubjqu« 
Undique siuil patrist rut-d dumiisqae mcse." 

Afflicted with quartan fcTcr, and with suppurating wounds, 
iHuttcn mode his way, in the manner we have de»criljed, to 
[Gn;if*wald, where Ilenning Lbz, "Ordiii;irv Pri)fe-''«iir of I.aw», 
Canon of tlie Collegiate Cbureb of St. Nieulai, and ' Ociioraloffi- 
cial' of the Hishop of Cainin, between the Swcnc and the Oder," 
seemed di!<)K)sed to plav the part of the good Samaritan. " He 
received llutten into his bouse; clothed him, probably out of bis 
fttber's stores," — his fatbcr, Wedog LoJt, was buigumastcr, and 
awealthy merchant. — "and advanced him money." For a lime 
all went on well ; hut the demeanour of the liujea gnuhudly 
chanfre<l. Tiicy Iwcaine insolent and ovcrbeariug; and when 
Quttcn, who represents himself as bavin" been eoncilialon' and 
nbmisstve in the extreme, — though, as Strauss says, he was no 
lanb nt any time, — wished to IcaTc tbem, they dcdincd lo let 
Um go until he had repaid them their odranccs. He rcpre- 
tenti-id that tbey eould get nothing bv detaining liim ; whereas 
"he mi(;bt pcrbnps succeed in makinghi:* fnrliine else where, and 
Would theu satisfy tbciu." With health iiol yet reestahiisbed, he 
quitted Gmfswald. After crosning a frozen bog, he ha<l Just en- 
tered a willow- plantation, fourteen miles diatant from tlic ^ace 
he left, when horsemen oppose*! bim and bade him halt, ^ey 
Were Lo»'» !ter>ant». They stripped him of his clothes, and rob- 



286 



Straiias'g Life of Ufrieh von Uiittrn, 



bing him besides of a small parcxl containing a ftsw books and 
■ome mn^i, left him, with scofts aiid iusulU, to pursue his jourm-y,J 
— it wa« a bitterly cold day towards tbc end of DcwmljtT, "juJJ 
the water, even the sea by "the shore bcit>g frown," — balf-uaketl 
to RoBtock in Jlccklcnhui^-Scbwerin. lie rcaehed this town in" 
a plight not less wrctvlu-d tbaii that in whioh he had cntatd 
Om^nald. 

Hen- lip met with niitcli kind treatn>ont, especially from tbc 
students and pPofessiiiT of thr univer^'itica, and achieved, as "the J 
new |)oct," a eertaiii degree of popularity. 1 

The morality of non-rcsistaiiec and the Christian doctrine rf 
the forgiveness of injuries never sccra to have liad a dirople la 
Ulrich von lluttcn. As a i;ood hater, be wotdd have ntiefed 
I>r. JuhniWn himstlf. lie hnU-d, not without K-ii»oii, Wwlcg a&l 
Ileniiing Lox, and set bim.-^^lf to do tliem all the harm he ccuU, 
with the only ncajioii ho conlii nse, — hist jjeii. Hntten'a 3upx 
did not eloiid, hut r.nthrr cleared ht.i intellect, lie wrote h:< 
when he was iu a rage. He lias more affinity with Juvnul lliaii 
with Horace, Habiea ajTaavit iambo.* lluttcn comptwcd I'O 
books of " Complaints" (Quereia in Ifedcgum Lodz Ciw*aiw 
Grificsualth-n^tm, el filutia tJKS Hermhiffum, &c.), whieh wcie j«b- 
linlinl at Fr;iiikfui-t iii l.')10. That he uinietl at Kiinething more 
tliaii litemry vcn^eanee, in evident froui one of the " elegies," in i 
whieli liiKlui^ von Hutteii i* exhorted to knock down the cldir 1 
Lijs on one of the vi»it« of the lutlcr tu Frankfort, to secure \m, 
and hand him orei' to the ]H>ct fur pnni!<hment : 

" Teiiipus iMiIiu iiotuni net, p&lcr line quoqufi LowiiH ibU: 
Tu prcmo wrvntas olislaiono viae. 
CcfK-ria, iiicliidcH : iifgw ttim tmifodtrt ciMum ttt! 
be viuiiptu (Hcnn* ijise I'octa fcrvt." 

Thoae who Ihuik it neccssarj' to eonic to any juclgment 0J|1 
quan-el, shouhl keep in mind llultcu's fiery temperament, Bud 
the fact that we have only lii^ statement of the matter. Th»l 
be believed himself to have been, and was, gitMuily used, tlK« 
can be no doubt; but that he gave no provoealtou i» a po'"' 
on which we can hardly receive his testimony. His attack* M 
no perceptible efil-ct on their objects, who rose to atiU lujjto 
honours and intltionee in Greifswnkl. 

The Querelte were followed very shortly afterwards by a «<** 
on tho Art of Versification, — a kind of mcH^unal CninAn '^ 

• "Bci Iliitlcii w»r das Tjuhcn nicbt du LcUIf. tandcni do' i^' 

Er Mih in tloti Miulir«iirlii:>n, AW tt vcnpotictv. iikht blon du TMrtchb'. f""^ 
■i>hr niich dux \'rrdurbliuhc" (Sinnta, i p. 18). "Die IIuImdum ran \isO^* 
Goi«l* nur dvr Zi>m. Homo Wnke *lei|[«n ui Bnlcutuiie in dn Trrlull^^ 
■li die (ivp-iiHlUnd« (don Zoran bcdruimdo wcrdra, dlrt«r wHut niatt *'" 
(Ibid. |>p, 6;.S), 



stroma's Life of Ulrich voh Hittlen. 



287 



nMumm,— which became immi'iiHcIy popular, itHB reprinted at 
iooa mats of learning, »nd introditced into mxny schools. 
In the year* which hoA elapsed since Ulricli's flight from 
Ida, the old kiii;^ht of Strckelburg'ft feeling uf au^r had 
idually abated. He maintained the show of it Ktill, bnt the 
lUty was vanisbin". He ahuHcd hia son hinntelf, in order to 
jit the counter- praise 9 of others. By the skilfuj niaiiageinent 
Crotiis BuhiniiUK, whom the Younger L'lrich liad known in 
I convent diiy«, and ^iiiec at Coloj^nc, he was inducci) to ac> 
Owlc«l^ in a confident iul moment that Ulrich would ncrer 
re made a good monk, and to propow; that he should give 
his non»en>ieal hnmauist Htiiilies [xetne NaiYfnujjrMigcn, die 
Das litcras), and ^n to Italy as a Lii>'-Mtudent. " tt nould l>e 
ttcr that he were a quibbler-at-!aw {em Itechtuverdrelitr, rabula 
cttsis). vho might be of use to hia family, t linn a monk in dis- 
vx with his superiors," Next to the proposition that he should 
enter his convent,- — winch v>aa made to him when, with cha- 
iteristic audacity, be applied tlicre fur money to aid him In his 
lilies, — thU of hilt father's was the miwt di«igTee:d)le of «uy 
It could he snggetted to Hutten. He rejected it, and re- 
Bied his wandering life. In wretched crmdition, he travelled 
Olmiita in Moravia, where he was effectually helped, and sent. 
h mon^ in his purse and a horse beneath him, to Vienna. 
! arrirca there about the autumn of the year 151 1 . The one 
line which pervaded the mind of the people of Germany at 
B time, and which almost miscd them to a perception of their 
nmon nationality, was hatred to Vcuice. This feeling was, for 
rions reasons, strongest in Vienna, the capital of the hereditary 
Bsee.'nons of the emperor. The coni|>licatiiin of luiioiii^an poli- 
■ at till.'* period i» dilhciilt to unravel ; bnt aa Hutten's history 
Wmcs henceforth entwined with them, a ^bort statement of 
I relations then existing between the Itahnn and (terman 
itcs Iieeomcs absolutely necessary. 

On the acccssiou of Luuts XII. to the throne of Frnnec, one 
hia first acta waa to lay claim to the duchy of ifilan, as 
ladsoD of Valcntiaa, daughter of John Galwuxo Viscouti, 
wbosc children, by the Suke of Orleans, remainder to the 
chy, on tin; failure of male heirs, hiul been granteil. Tliis 
bdition had long :<inee arisen ; but the throne of Milan had in 
t mean lime been seiMtd by the family of ttie Sforzas, whom, 
cr half a century's iiowefwinn, Jjonis now aimed to expel, 
Police, ever at strife with tliat city, gladly favoured bis pre- 
laions; and the I'ope, Alexander \ I., in the \w\m of gaining 
' liis means an Italian throne for his son, the notorious CosMur 
Wgia, also sided with him. Louis invaded Italy (^.n. 1500), 
d took posscasiuu ofMikn. Sfurza taking 800U S\Ti«s mer- 



288 



Slramt't life of Uhrick von Jluilen. 



ceDtriw i»to hia sen-ico, and regaining his ducb}*, Louis 
tunii^d to thcni for aid, aiid, atrenjrthciicd by a body of 10,000 
of these troops, shut up Sforza iu Novara. Hbc Swiss, bowerer, 
refusion to fi^ht against cu<:b other, Sforxa's mcrccDoncs were 
permitted to march unmolustvd out of the city. Thv duke, dtv 
guisvd OS otic of the number, quitted tho place with tbem, Init 
VM «>ld by >\ iiiiiii of Uri, imnied 'fiirtoaiui, to the Frendi 
monarch, who Nent hiut prisoner to Franoe. Maxixutliua be- 
held the ftiicccseieft of the trench monareh in Italy .... with 
ini{x>tc)it rage, and convoked one diet after another, witbout 
being able to raise cither mone^ or troops. At leu^h, in the 
hope of saving his honour, he luvcsled Fruacc with the dncfa 
of bia brotlK-r-iii-lnw Sforsa, and by tJic treaty of Jtlois (ij 
150i) cxrded Milan to Fmu-e for the sum of SOO,OUO frmc 
The niiLrriiige of Charlei', Mas.imiltan's son, with Clamlia, 
tlnngbter of l^ouis, who it ivns htipnlaled ahonld briu;; Milan id 
<!oirr\' to the house of Ha{)sburg, also fonued one of the article 
of this treaty ; and in the event of any impediment to tlie ma^ 
riage being raised by France, Milan was to be uarondittonaQf 
restored to the lioufC of Austria."* This treaty was bntko^ 
" and Clainhn wim manied to Fnuicui of Ai^ou, the beir^appansl 
of the throne of France." Dr. Stxaiu* docs not tskc these ci^ 
cnmfttanees into accouut when he re pretients Maxim ibaii's ItaliM 
expedition of liJOK a» out* of mere cert^mony, a« n remiuiwcMe 
of the oU) gloriea of the empire. " Maximilian," he *ay*, "in 
whoee lofty but ineoimtant spirit tlie old idea of the lloinan en* 
pile of tlic Qcrman nation once more dickered up, hiul detA- 
mincd, in txmformity with ancient custom {nacA alter SiUe\ » 
make an armed mnreli to Itumc for the purpose of betu;i; tluas 
crowne^l ii.s Cicsar; but the Veuelimi^ forbudc liim passage thro*^ 
their territory. "t I' i--* not quite cfirreet to sny that the Cinpoff 
was refused free juaifsage through tlie Venetian territory ; ca d« 
contrary, this was expressly prainiAed him, t<%ethcr with afe soi 
honourable escort to Home, if only he iroiihl Icure his arisy (■ 
tlie (icrman side of the \'cnctian frontier. But Ma\iiiiiliaii's tj^ 
was tixod on Alilan more than on Home. Tiie \'cuftuitis koW 
this; and, as the allies of France, were bound to refuse adpilj 
tance to an espeditiun directed against the posse«tfioitt of An 
latter jiowcr. The Emperor attempted to force hi* way; l^J 
after a few tmnsieiit xtteeesscs, was obliged to yield to tlic«iip0^ 
powers of the nrpubliam troops; and a treaty of peace wb» t"*" 
cliuled in June 1.108. Louis XII. did not remprocntc iLc iiiid'f 
of the \'euetLius. He was alarmed by their incrcasinz jw**f ' . 
and at his inati^tiou the league of Caiubray was foriiv^.- *" 

• Skaol'* niatory of Oennsii}', Eng. tfuuU a. pp. Sit-). 
t 9mm, i. p. M. 



SiraMty» Life of Ulrich von Huitea. 



289 



he Pope Julias II., t'crtliiiaiid of S|Wii, and Maximiliim 
witli him for the (iismcmbormeitt niid anuthilation iifthe 
c Nothing, of coursf, coulii resUt the coiijoiiicd forces 

coiifudi-raU-j. But the jealousy which they had felt of 
, they soon bi;guu to outcrtain towards each other. The 
tteropted to tletucli Maximilian &om the alliance. The 
ins »tipi>licated for cetwntion of liostilititri!. >futU-ra were 

snspense at the peiio<l of lluttcii's arrival iu Vienna. 
ier these cireumstanccs, Hiilton could have tiad no better 
if iatroductiou to the literary circles of the city than the 
vbich he hod composed dimng the last few <laya of his 
-, in exhortation to ^luximilian to coutiuiu: the war agaiusc 
actians. It was rccei\x'd with rapture hy the fricuds to 
he read it, and }>ubli»he<l by them after his departure, in 
r 1S12. In it he reniindn the Emjicror of the formcf 
lOOs and inxulU of the Venetians, and st-eks to inftame 

once by the Itiat of iveent fttieceweA, and the ahame of 
og defeats. They desire peace, he lu-ses, only that they 
cparc themselves for war; and therefore peace must be 

tbcm. Tw^ther with patriotic hatred, "the ill-will of 
V knight aguinst a rcpTiulic of opulent merchants fidda 
ion,' — u feeling of which, even as Hoarded the free towns 
oatiy, he waa unable his whole life long entirely to rid 

tended to this pocui was another, iuiinuited by the sante 
c apirit, iu whidi Hntten ainui to prove tliat the Ciermans 
i declined from tbeir ancient fame [Quod at ilia aaii- 
GenaaHOrwn claritudine tumtlum degeHerarint nostralev, 
Uteni Kg. Iferoicuin). In it he poiuts out as a " historic 
jat periods of warlike, and of comnu-rciat nnd liKTnrj' ac- 
Jtmiate iu the life of nations. The Germans of iild hiud 
era to record tlic heroic dectU ihev did ; but it is not yet 
It the Ocrmauii of to-ilay can outy describe the achiere- 
)C other*, without being able to perform any thing great 

Te».t 

tea left Vienna before the publication of these poems. Of 
ails of his residence there, we know uothiug more thia 
wing amusing pa^^s^^jc of tlic JijthtoliK Obeearorum Viro- 
hieb Strauss refers to without (|uutitig) tells u«. The 
. can be to no other than Hutten, whose pecidiaridcs 

t IMia;; u ouriutuljr anpannl id Ihc (ti4li.''^u PradimtK wrilWn iubdj- 
ir, in waiah ho mdaruliM la combat il, uid wlrocuc* a onion of tM 
I sod burgher uIsmm BRainil ih* piiacrs iinil tbe ohureh. 
waiitdMi aim dleJgUiKcn DcuIkIiimi nur, (tvaiitt ThMcn in bMohrd- 
mAM Mwu GroMei ihun ah kiinncn, >a wiirD ilu ^llich nsr dta am- 
Bawh^kHl. So Mhlinini jt^uch lUha t« mit iluiea nouh ]»ng» lOeW 

.r.n. 



290 



Strauses Life of XJIrich ton Hutten. 



ore gocKl-humoureiUy deiitotcci, perhaps with a few bct^htenin; 
touchca. 'llio humonr of tlie pas§a^ is as inseparable from iii 
liatinity as that of '■ Jeames's Diary" from Mr. Thackcrajr* 
peculiar spcUinfi;, M. Joannes Krabaciiu [one of the obsctut) 
ts supposed to wntc thu» : 

" Semcl vcnit uuua socius es Moravia, qaaii<1o ego fu! Yitniiav iti 
debet eete I'uetik et flcri|)sit cliuui iiR'tm. ct volnit 1eg«re art«m ntMrit 
oandi, et nou fiiic iiililuktiis (In- wislieJ to K'cttuv on Tenification ikA- 
out lidviii^ n ilcCTL'c !). Tuuv i|j«) Mu^iitur noater Uvi-ktuiut prohibuil 
ci, cl i\>K fuit itA ]imli-nHit.<. qitixl noii volnit eumre niaiiiJAtum e}i& 
Tunc Rii'tor jiroliilniit «np|>oiiitu", <ni()tl mm JdierMit riidtiin: eju« I«tIo- 
ncm (till* Kcctor fiirtindc Ihi;^ ttndmtx to nltiaid hi* Icctiirv). Tvue ills 
ItibaUIuu iiucvi^iiil lU-clorcnt. ct ilixic ci miilla 8U{ioibn dicta rt tibinrll 
euin [lio sniti many insolent tbiugs to tbc Itcctor, aaA tltov'd bim). Tuaa 
ipse niisit pro fnoiutia civilatis, ct Toluit cum iucarccrari?, i^nia (nit 
num sen II dill urn, quod simplex socrius debin'el tibisare ununi Koctami' 
Unireriitatis, (|iii est Mu>,'iatur iioat«r ; cl oiun hoc c^o audio, quod ' 
iocEusiie<tuG e*l Buccakureun, neijue Maj;i8l«r, uec est aUtjuo modoqni!)- 
ficntua teu ^ndaulu*, «t iucMiub Nicut bi^llutvr, vol >iui vult aiubulumtl 
helium, «t hiibuit pilcum ct li>n};;uni cultniiu in InUTc. Sed fa DMjMj 
ipse filiiuvt iiiciLrccrntUX, vi lion linbuiiact iiutON ia civilKtv." H 

Defeated in his attempts to support himself aa a teacher cf 
polite literntHrc in Vienna, Iluttcn surrendcpcd at disnttion » 
liU father's wishes, and hptook himself, in the spring of 1512, 
to Paviu, to he manufactured into a jurist Misfortune, honerer, 
which «iis never long oH'his track, followed him thither. Ui« 
disK'nsc broke out in an aggravated form ; and the pobtteal uiil 
intlilary t'inbruiltncuts in which intrigue h»d involved Italiu^ 
uffnii'S iurolvnd him also. In his iiMv-bom zeal for the YuitJ 
tinn?!, Julius II. had deposed and exconimunieated tlie Duteof^ 
Fcrrara, who refused to discontinue his hostilities against lie 
republic. Tliis cscomnninication exlcndcd to his suppofW)^ 
and therefore included Louis XII. and Maximilian, nbom 
common injury drew into closer imiou a^iiist the Pope 1^ 
uccwMty of iDcvting tliest- formidable opjuiiciits l«l to tl* 
counter- alliiLncc, known m "the Holy Leajcne," between Ji- 
Hus, the Venetians, I'Vrdinand of Aragon, and Henry ^lU- 
of England. Their great aim was to expel the Vrvneh ft 
Italy, iiliicli they uUimately succeeded in doing. Al tlf 
time of wliicli we ai'c now s]>raking, however, the French m^ 
Still iiia-itcrx of Lonibardr, and in possession of Pavia. "B" 
victor)' !vt Uuvonnu (April 11, 1512}, purchastd by the deadi ^^ 
their gidl;\iit young connniindcr, Gaston dc I'oix, was ratbtf* 
low to tln-Tn than a gain. More hml iKt-n idun on their h^ 
than on the eiieniy'tt, and their oonGdence from tbix tiae it- 
clincd, never to be i-eestabliHhed. The Pope's, on the othcrhMU, 



I 
* 

9t lie 
utattM 

,thr 
, Je- 

fnofl 



J 




Sinaigg's Life ttj Vlricfi ron Uvilen. 



2DI 




; and bu mpasurcs becamr, if pnssibte, more rigorous and 
'if. Maximilinii, not bcMtinii; tluttcti's Ej/iorlalum, made 
with UiL* VciictiaiiH n few nionths tiiiljr al^cr that admom- 
poein wm jiiiblUlK^l, and dc)tortc<l to tliv pupal titic. Twi-otj 
ml Svris^ ii)('n-<>)iiirici(, nt tbe Htimmon* of Julius, ajtpcarcd 
ly 15 12 bcfrtTi' 1,'avia. A« a mibjoct of llie Emperor, Huttcu 
nmft uii ul'jeot of iiii<i|)irion to the Frcuch in tbe town, " vlio for 
~ rcc ciitin- days kept tiim prisoner in a narrovr chamber. SuT- 
iii<; at tbc BiiiDu tiniu tiiidc-r fever, be gave himself up for 
III Diift iiioodormiiid lii^ wrote tlic mournful epitaph nhicb 
ta lifw tUiw rt-tiiti-i'L'd into German, nnil wlticb, with the 
ion of » niugic line, might bavc stood m well ut the actual 
of his life : 

'* Dcr iDBi Jaminn- ceieuet, eln nuiackitllcea L«bcn 

Ii«bte. \oa t^fbcTn >i)T.(aid, Uviwlii lu Wmmt nrfolgt: 
II1«T ItMt llutteo'it Gcbcin. Ihm, dor oiditt ArgM TMMhuUM, 

WvrJe von Qalliwbca Sohwwt gmuMun daM Lttwa gefMilit. 
Wnr Toin Oewhldc ibn beuitnoil, »ur Uiigiadcq}alii« ra acfainen, 

Aiib, (lann war «a omftusclit, daM nr to ultq; erliK- 
Er, nm GvTalircn tunriiigl, wicb nioht vom Dieiwt« d«r Miaen, 

Uod in gut cr'i mmocht, ipioch cr ud Liede uob aoi.'' 

lio city was taken within three days. Huttcn was robbed and 
l-lreiitcJ by thr viL-torioiis party, who considcrnl his pi-csence 
Pavia proof of bii coiinixtiou with the Frciicb; nnd with diffi- 
ittr mnnointiig binicclf, be wandered to Bologna. 

Euliticing iH generally the laxt resource of dc:xpcrutc men in 

lir time, and it u-ai llutteii's. Vi'e know nolbin;; of bin warlike 

Kpliiilji. That ho did not abandon the pen on taking the sword, 

book of lipigranis,* " one of bis (resbcst and most attrac< 

~ rorks," ivniuins to prove. "Written at dilTerent times and 

s, the little book folloWH the changing course of tlie pro- 

ctul wnr, and brin^^ before lu, in Ihc liveliest picture, vic- 

lad defenl, hope und fear, tbe gain and loss of towns and 

nc«, tbe funniition and dbcsolulion of alliances." Ucspis- 

•rraMiiLt of *tat<"," Huttcn strikes indbcriminately at friend 

' B, — at the N'cnctiana and the Pope, as wcU as at tho 

pnt'h. 

Itcturuinj* from Italy in 1514, nnd meeting with a eold re- 

Cption from bis family, wbo were dii^appuintcd tlint be bni] no 

lo show IIS the i-esuU nf bi^i stndiwi, he re[>airetl to Menta, 

licre, throii!!h tbe iutcrcewion of bis early friend Kitelwolf von 

|t«nn, hi I 1 fiivoiir in the eyes of the new archbishop, 

Vlberl M wf IJrandcnburp. 'Here, too, he formed ac- 

itaucc witb Krasmus, for whom be professed boundless re- 

Vititkl de naltm &{. Gormuii od CmBrtm MoxInilllMWDi EpifTMUDanmi 

bit UD«I< 

X 



with 



292 Straui^t Life of Ulrich von Hiitlen. 

xcKMX. Tlic ifulxwqiieiit relations of these two men, wlio, with 
nil their mutual admintion, wen- coiistitutionally unable to 
derstand each other, became those of bitterest antipathy. 

The perpetration of a great crime withdrew lluttcn's zeal 
matters of state interest, even from the cause of " good letters,' 
to the rclcntlcsa exposure and punishmvut of the cximinal. Uaac 
Ton Ilutlen, — the sonoftlint Ludwig vou Huttcn who had be- 
friended Ulrich after hw lliglit from 1-^dda, — bad eiitervd the tet' 
rice of the y(utii|! I'lrieh, Duke of WurtRmburg, aiid gained fle 
afiiectioii of hin {irinee, who made iitiu his Master of the Hone. 
Beasonti of state bad oompcllcd the Duke to enter into a marri- 
age tliat was distasteful to him with Sahina, a quarrelsome aad 
reputfiit^ virago, sister of the Duke of Bavaria. But he land 
Urstda, tlic hcautil'ul ditu^htirr of Conrad run Thuiuh, bin bcK- 
ditary marvlial. llaiiii vuu Hutten. ludurttitiiittilv, lured Hm 
lady ton, niul married ht-r. I'lio Duke eonhded Iiix aliaelimeBt 
to the yoituj^ husband. "He fell at the feet of hi& Master ot 
the Horse, and witli outstretched arms, besought him, for Ood'» 
sakt^ to allow of his affection fur his wife; for he neither coaU 
nor would forbear." The matter Ixt-ame kuowu. The Dnke 
felt that be had not only done wrong, hut made hiin*«lf ridicu- 
lous; and liin hatrctl of Ilaus vuu Ilutteu wa»of cour«t^ impbc- 
able. He refused to allow Haus or his wife to d<r|iurt fma 
court, which was the natural aiul cwioit way of settling dw 
question. He had resolved on another mode of getting rid of hit 
nval. Assuming an appearance of frieudliness, ho imiled ium 
to be his companion on a ride to Bocbliugen. Hans came, 
sQspcctitig iiotbiug, unarmed, except with a. small dagger, *a^ 
but poorly mounted. The Buke was well n|uippcd, and lu i 
coat of mail. The utlcndanbi gradually drcir off; and the lav 
entered a wood together. Here Hai» vra.>t set upon unA iJuo; 
stubbed, it is not imposfiihlc, from behind, for of the seven wouab 
from which he perished, five were in the back. "The Duke •d<W 
insult to nittrdcr. He aluog a girdle round the dead man's neii 
and fastened it to a daggi'r, which he thrust up to its hdt ia tbt 
earth. This wtw to signify tbi- hanging which the dead man bw 
merited for hi^^ villnnie?."' Tlic Duke of WnrU-mbuig nci-er ifc- 
Died that he had Ldk^ Hans von Hutteu. He pleaded, now, ilii> 
the deed was done in a moment of juLKdon; now, that it itastkw 
in fair fight; now, that it w,3a a deliberate andjndidal executiim; 
a»d by these conflicting statements confirmed the worst iotrtjtfo- 
tation that could 1m; put ui«>n it. 

I'lte uholo clan of tiu^ IIiitteuE met, and united in devuJ- 
mg vengeance. Tllrich seisnii his pen, detiicated a funeral !"*• 
to hi« cousin's memory ; au<l a eonsobtory letter, modelled aftC 
the beftt classical examples, and full rather of humanist thas k** 



Streiui^a U/t of VMeh von Huilm. 



293 



nuiD Irclinf!, to tbc bcrcitrvd Liulwig. He remiiida him, " tliat it 
was B taoruJ vrliom Ito bad Iw^ttoii, nitd adit liim wbotbcr Iw 
IK now wufM) atS tlinn he ww txrfurc bis »oii'a biitb, vrhcm he 
iliil not prricvc ;" ami nmln« rapntioii " of tbe riamiilrx of Priam 
..•onus, IVricIes niifl Xcnoplion, /ICmiliii.t I'nulun and Q. 
■' Tin" ri'li^iou* sbiiul-]>oint of tli* It-tter in, its 8traita« 
kit, lirftthniiBh. Of course, as Christians, says rinch, we 
ii-re the soul t<> Ik iiDinortal; but if it be not, if it be aiiiiibi- 
ktcd iu thi- {^ave, " drath it no cvU, siocc i» puttin)> aa end to 
iMitinR, it )>utti an rnd to jwu." It i« tJiiii alternative on 
rkieh the writer dwc-llN. Holb tlie pociu and tbc Icttvr conclude 
til t^li.''' 
A t'»i ■* cnxucd, wbioh it would be tise- 

to mimvtrt. I'olitioal and [Krrsnital ct>nMdcratiaii-> Aiitiyt-d itic 
tui batiuico of justice, now this way and now tlmt. I.lrich vott 
attcu isMifd viok-nt invcetire* iigaiust the mnrderer in tbe 
iL-sl form of acotumtory wimtccIuti, prepared a» if for delivery 
tJic diet. The ennnerlion of tbc Duke of Wnrtendmrg, 
'i tbe rri^titiif; family of Unvaria and nitb the Hin- 
:, nlicMc iiiicr be had married, intured tbe virlttal 
doitiition of bin oH'euce. A payment of 10,000 florins to the 
ber of bi-H virtlni, and nf 2000 to |irr>\idc maaM?* for tbc Mid 
if tbc latter, wa« adjud<;rd. Tbe tli^bt of Sabina uf Bavaria 
iBi ber buflhand united tbe Bavarian forces vilh tboet- of llut- 
BU; and this sentence was witbdniivn for one of outlawry, 
f ' ' cbiTN bklcr, in order to avoid tbe war that 

. a |iayn»;nt of 27,1K)I) florins wiw inlHtitiUed. 
til till* ■uiii, Mtii-il'iu'tioti to the living and mitHite;* for the dead, 
:id [layiiu'iit i-t'ilie expenwes nf tbe itoldierr wliieb Ltidwig von 
iiitni hini eulltvted, were sumwfed to be included. 
' ' ■ ■ ' ' ■ ' pm^resH and uligbt interest in juridical kntnr- 
il till' old knight at Stcckclbcrp cicrediiij;!^-. 
i iiiH bini, nho w:is Dcilher priest nor jnrii>t, but a 
1. I , a mere iioNxiy ; dU otinmle wliich wa* the oc- 

ion ol IliittcnV i«xiin eiilitlvd A'lViwnW, tbc pitb uf wbiob lica 
ilI'lv nimn the tunn, taken at pleiLsore, oa if it denoted an 
or BN n awn^ tiniveriial nepttirc. A a]>rcinien of 
r» »iii HulHi-t!. " Nobtxly it frw from errom. Nolxvty is 
love. N»bo<lr eon Hcr^e two nisstcri^ Nobo'Ir i» at lite 
:iiiil a cniiriier. Noliody eomcs to the help of 
,ii frees (lie city of Qnirinus from [>riet>llv do- 
lOR. l><obiNly Tentnn->. to lilnini- the insolctm: and inrtolenot: 
.■h-r^'f ,.r 1,1 i-.n«itre tbr Pojic," Sx.* 
'I ilile thoii){b it mifjiht Ik, did not, liow- 

', mi ilutu'it « iiun<c; be eluitcit, ttivrcfore, witli llic ofTei' tbat 
■ Htrau**, i. I>^ 14*. \UK 



294 



Strauses Life of Ulrich ron Hullai. 



KM mode to ttitn, tliat lie should return to Italy, aiiil renew ! 
law-studies in Kome. He &et out in the autumn of 1S15, viUi 
letters of introductinu from Erasmus to sonic of the mc^ emi- 
n«nt ecfaolan tlierc resident. His imiHncMioiu of the citr «ic 
[oesenred in acrcral epigram* wliich he sent tlicocc to his friend 
Crotus Rubtanus. Ttiu i*eualitT of Rome (" wo, mil den //«/tjK<*> 
mmaeiiier den Gott auek verkauft"), the corruption of the- clerp, 
and the aggre»ioii.4 atid OMortionsi of the V<i\x, are denounced 
with indignant eloquence.* 

At thU period of llulten'a hii^toTjr, it b necessary to recur t« 
the state of Italian poUtics. 

In 1512, the Pope and the Emperor bad saccecded, with the 
aid of the Swiss, in C)L]>tilliiig tlie nvnch from Italy, and had i«- 
storctl the Sforzosi to their dueal throne of Milan. Hcnnipon ibc 
Venetiansdevertetltlieir old alliance, aiKl formed with tiu- French, 
iu the March of the following year, the offensive and defenain; 
treaty of Blois, The fcclinp in Italy towanls that repuMic m* 
much the same as that which the autocratic nci|;bboiirs of Bel- 
gium and Piedmont mar be supposed to entertain towards tlwM 
constitutional monarchies. Tl>e lenguc for its dismcmbrnnMl 
was not forgotten. Its safety, ereu its eu^t<-ure, depended on 
the )>rescrv»tion of the balance of power in the Peninsula. It 
was therefore its policy to throw its weight into the scale of Ibe 
weaker of the contending jtowcrs, provided lliat power were nol 
too weak. The treaty of Blois was met a motith later In the 
counter- treaty of McchUn — the narties to which were the w* 
Pope (Leo X.), Slaximilian, Fcrainand of Aragon, and our vm. 
IIcDiy VIII. TItc C4irly shcccbscs of the )n*>-ading forces of tbr 
l-'reuch and VionncK^, under Latremouillc and lyAhiano wo* 
more than neutralised by the defeat of the former at Xoran, >■ 
Juue 1513. Alwut the same time, ilenr\- and Maximiliaa k"' 
entered the French territory, and iiOK-seftsed tltcmselrcs of Hwi- 
cnne aud Tonrnay. The second expulsion of the Ftench bon 
Italy followed on this double reverse; and their design* on Mih" 
remained in abeyance until the accession of Frauds I., who >■ 
1515 invaded Italy anew. By the trMcbcrr of the Swiss Con- 
federaliiiii, and the active »i<l of the Venetians, be pdned Ike 
imtde of Marignano, against the oli^tinate rcmstance oCthC" 
tlic Hclretic mercenaries who remained faithful to their exip^ 



f "Sm b»nilbib(-n Vrrbot vnA KrlaubniM^ ichliMMii tini] iidhcn, 
irnd *ie n ihava bclicbc, thcilcn dan tliuimvl uc Mn. 

JtUaicrlnncn und liiicncr nichi molii'i vi>ll ['rfpigkrit Ma, 
Allm. nnhln du auch blii-kit, )^>!l dtr mworfraiiua IjhI, 

I'ntl dan Allrs In Itom, wo t'liriim «lii*l iiixl MnUltiw 
I'lid feiaipijiugdli'hl: O cicr i i-nin^i-rlpti 7Mt'. 

Pruni di-n V'vrungm rniMsn, m<-iu Fmind. nni^h itur lieiTigrn Btffi** 

Koimichi'*, wtlctiM du luulitt, Gntlpit in Horn du tiicbl ntphr." 



Sirauas'a Life of Ulrich von Huttea. 

Its. t\ui was on the 13th and Htli of September, " a. few 
weeks before Hiittca entered on liis second joiiriipy to Italy." 
ifaximilian had rt-jcctcd the :il]iaitcc to whidi Francis I., pre- 
pioux to the Italiiin expedition, had iovilcd him, and wa^ noiv 
tnntilg Uf4tii!<^t the I'Vcrifh, Under these eireum stances, Hiitteii 
adilresAed to the I'upo hi.'* Proffiiostic Tor the year 1516,* in which 
he predicts not oniy •' war, liiit deMtnicLtoii to Italy, ou aatrolo^ 
;;ical aa well as politieol gtoiinds." Enrly in IJIG Miuimilian'K 
preparatious vcrc complete; and ho cntci'od Italy at the he:td of 
30,U()0 men, of whom 15,()00 were Swiss mercenaries. With- 
out cncountcrioK any fonnidablc resistance, he made his way to 
~lilau. Here, however, distnistiiig the fidelity of his Swiss, he 
ik from uu assault, null, pluudcriag na he went, made his 
ny bock to his own doininioiLK, rirulliug the avhievomcnt of the 
tythical l-Vetioh monarch w ho " marched up the hill, and thou 
chcd down again." 

"There," says Strauss, "the ridicule of the Itjiliuiis wui it msttcr 
FlBdUfemicc to liiiu. Tbuy muckt^d Uim in the Iht'iitrt-Jt ; «nriciLlurc4 
nd iHUt|iiinBdi.-H nppuired ngniuit him. He wiui piiiiitud riiliiig on u 
, with thr irucription, Tentllmus in I.iilvim. .Mrti hinrllcil torches 
in hriglit (Uyiight, ami »et lhctnw:lvc« ti> luolt for thu Kmpcror. The 
IfrvQch in Italy cspccinlly gave full scope to their iusulcnce on the oc- 
on of their young king's success in war. llutten <Ievot«d several 
BJgranu to this statu of ihiuxtt. which he sent, as it appiwrs, to Kobaii 
wlii^ lowiuxls tliu end of the year IJIO, caused ttiew to be 
Tiutcd im Buppleinvul* to twu povnis, which I sliall aftcrwnrds refer 
to. Subrtcijucntly Hutt<ii iiicorjiornted luutit of Ihcm in his book of 
Bfograms addrc«cd to llic I'mpcmr. 

Aercrthelcss, the French timviulo on the one side, and llattcira 
hcorl and hot blood or the otltci-, could not but cause a 

ene when the first collision of any importance came. One day 

stten rude out with an ae(|uaintanee towards Vitcrbo, just as an en- 
from the king of the French to the I'opc was journeying through 
*T»cc.+ Hve l''rcuchmen, prohubly purl of the suite of tlie envoy. 
I tbcnisdro* incrry on the subjoct uf Mailmiliaii, who w»h still 
litiiig in the iicigbliuiuiiood of Miliin. Hutten took up the cuune of 
cwiicror. The iimUcr proceeded from wordit t» deed:*. The five 
fell upon their solilary opponent, whom Id* trnvclliiig companion left 
in Um lurch, llutten now drew his sword, struck down his nearest 
lUlmsary. and liiiusolf. wounded only in his left check, put the reinain' 
in;; four to flight. Not unjustly did be account this a hravc deed, 
vekbr«to it in six epi(;raais, heast of it to the Eraperor in tlio third of 
*iia KjieccheH Oj^iiut the DuUe of Wurtcmburg, and narrate it to his 
itadt after hm return to Ci-nuaiiy, whither the fame of it, through 

* Ad LeonctD X. P.M. r>rmcii in prtignoetk'un nd niiiium lilu. 

t Ah** the bniiln of &[iiriKnano. Leo hnil cutcnd into aa allianee wiib 
ranciii, wlio, tiowrMT, >ui>fC(Uil lilm of leoretly forouriag Maxiniliari'i tbor- 
re Utenpt on Ilila«. 



290 



Stma^t Life 0/ Utrich von Hutten. 



hi* letters and epigrams, bwl iJrcmly ]>rec«J<Kl bin. For tb* muRc 
Hult«n gBve himself up to Btiidj-, tho more rslne did Im M vjab 
hu liciug of some socount too aa a luiight and warrior. For ibb ra- 
woii, Uur in Uf«, nono of hi* portmita was dearer to liirn thu (hat 
which reprcKeiitwl him iu arms." (vol. i. pp. 164>0.) 

The conwqucncoi of this adventure \eA Iluttm to reniora 
him«i-lftu Bologiin, whvre he coii»civiiliuii»lj devolrd himscirio 
KU kn-itttidies, not neglecting, liowevi^, more eoiigi^ntal puisuJti. 
He |>erii.'!Ctcd liiniMelf in Oreek, and mode acqiiiiiiitattee with 
Lueiau und Arititnphaiies, from the former of whom he aiknlal 
that dialogue form, into wbicb hcncefortli liis principal vritni^ 
yscTc rast. He has liocn colled the Gcrrnaa Lucian; but hf u 
too miifh in earnest to ilescrre the name, whieh, i»ith the requi- 
site e)ian^ of natiumility, voidd better suit ErMmns. TbEie 
is none uf the coul poli.-ilicrl riiillen-ofbia prototype about tk 
Gerniau knight; his :>alire is animated not bv tolerant contempt, 
bill hv intolenuit hiite, and is alwnvs running into the ficrntf 
invectives. 'I'lie (iiaiojjiie I'/ialariamua was his first eSbrt in thii 
direction. In it, Duke Ulrich of Wui-tcmburf; is led ityn,jii 
livin;;, to the infernal n-gion», by Alereiirr, to take oomici of 
Phidnri* in viUunr, mid is proudly intrmhiced by Lim to aO tbt 
tyrantt of IiiBtoTT,-, "from Astyuge* anil Ciiniby»eji to Domitim," 
M their worthy snccc^tnor. In The miditt of hi« cn0iip.-mccta it 
Bologim, Hntten found leicnre nl«o for the conip«)!cition oflo> 
poem* De I'eiwlttm piscatura ^r. and Marcus, in which the ongia 
and character of the \'enctians arc ridiculed ; and the Epitllt (/ 
Italy to the Emperor, in sHl>staiiee a repetition of the exlwrttriwi 
to Maximilian, which we have before mentioned. j 

An outbreak between the students of the different " natu>n^J 
ut Bolu^a, in which Hutton of coime took tin active pvt,i 
it doirablc that he should not be found in that city, for a ieVS^ ' 
at ieaat. He jMid brief visits to Fcrrnra and Venice; mefbng 
with a m^naniinoiis reception in the latter place. Hb d>ii>» 
tm a eitixen of the republic of letters outweiKfaef), at least in tie 
literary circles to nhich he wn* introduced, his political faortiSly- 
Declining there the invitation of some of bis kiuamen to tita>a- 
pany them on a tour in the Eiwt, he returned to Bolojtn*. uw 
two or three days after his arrival set bis face homcwaids u 
" Germany, 

During bis second residence in Italy, in the antumn of 151^ 
Huttcn received at Bologna the first volume of the cdfbr»W 
Epistola ObscaroruM Virunim. It is necessary to fna badi «** 
years in onler to recount the origin of this work; "a »W* 
which," »ayji Sir William Hamilton, " though Eiiropcan in '** 
mfluencc, has yet, as Herder jnMly ohscrrcs, ' effected for Oe" 
many incomparably more thaii Hudibraet for England, orGtf*' 




itOA for Fiance, or the Knight of I.a Manchu for Spain.' It 

the victory to Rcuchlin over the Begging ^'T^a^», and to 

thcr over tlic Court of Rome." In the controversy which pro- 

' this iroHi, Huttcn took the liveliest interest, and bore no 

inactive part. For the »»kc of clearness we have deferred tipcalc- 

ing of the evciitu of it in their proper ehronoiojneal plaix, and 

KMH'ed them for coiuieeted imrnition Iktc, That he wb» udc 

i the authors, at least of the second portion of the satire, •eems 

Mabltshcd on good ci'itical grounds. 

John Rcuchlin, in whose defence the Letters of Obscure Men 
pere written, was the «)n of a servant of tJio Dominican Order 
A Pfonthcim, where he was bom in the year 1-155. The liberal 
atronage of the Margrave of B<iileD iwnt him to Paris in 1173. 
Icrc, under the instrnrtinn of Wcsscl and Hii-ronymu*, he laid 
he foundations of hiA Kiihst'quetit kiionlnlge uft)ieGn-ek and 
lebtrew tongues, which he afterward.^ taiigtit and (<lill further 
ultivatcd at liascl, at Tubingen, at Heidclbeig. at Wurteraburg, 
>nd in frc<)ncnt .ioumcys to Italy. His life, bowerer, was not 
liat of the mere student; this character, in its developed and 
^ic&l form, i." the product of later tiincK. He held hi(fli public 
fficcs under KlM-rliJird of Wiirtcniburg,— lOhcrhard with the 
Icanl {Eberhard im Barl), Forwd to tly from the auger of 
hia prince's sncccsaor, he took refuge with the Jilector Philip at 
Iciilelberg, and ooi'>pcralcd in bin exertinriit, and thnso of his 
diBiic^llor, John of Datherg, to quicken and ex<en<l the literary 
le^'ival which had already begun to spread from Italy to (ler- 
nany. On the deposition of his enemy, and the accession of the 
oung Duke Ulrieli (.ifteiivnrds the murderer of Hans von llut- 
en), he returned to Stuttgart. He held the ofliee of Judge 
fthc Swnbian Ijeagne [RichleramI dea ScAwaAisrAen Bundet). 
ach time, however, as wn» free from oSicial claims, he spent 
on his own small country estate," — the court of Wurtemburg, 
tnder its present ruler, offered Utile that was congenial to him, 
— ttnd, in the society of an invalid wife, applied himself to the 
bsk of " rearing white peacocks." and to Wk literary pursuit*.* 
None gave more |)owerful aid thiin K<-uehliii to tlie promotion 
]f cbsNieal studies in the Universities of Uermany. In tliis re- 
peat, however, Erasmua may perhaps stand on the same level aa 
ic It is as the restorer of Hebrew learning that Keuchliu's 
atpremacy is most clear. It was on this that be moat plumed 
limaelf. No attack seems to have wounded him so much as the 
pulation which was thrown out in the controversy of which wc 
about to speak, that he was not the author of his oun Hebrew 
mmar. " Others," he allows, " may indeed have laid down 
;lc rule* before him, but none lias written a systematic book 
* StrauM, i. I9t. 




208 



Stratut's Life of Vlrich con Hutien. 



on the entire ilcbreir tongue; sad tluragli my sccuser (be crie) 
Hhoiilil )ji¥»k his heart through envy, still I am the first."* 
" Roiichliii'it inUrrcst in lliia loogne was, however, not maely 
philological, nor yet merely tJieoto^cal, as a key to the better 
tukderstanding of the Scriptures, hut at the same time tnjstkd 
in the fancied secrets of the Cabala. In the three lettcn *t 
the Ilchrcw word with which (Gen. i. 1) the diriiie creation is 
indic-ited {<iat ff'itUUche Sc.baffrn iie^ncAiiet ui), be found tk 
doclrine of the Trinity; uii<l according to tlie same mode (d 
tbiiikiiig, ill I'rovf^rbH wx. iil, a pretbction (whieh, indeed, ns 
not fulfilled) that Frederick of Saxony would succeed Maximilim 
as eniperor,"t 

This mystkal tendency, wbidi in part wax due to the natural 
temperament of the man, was in pari also the product of the 
age ill which he lived. When coiitidencc! in external luithoritie* 
begins to dceline, refuge i^ »ou(;ht in tlitr fancy of ^niK-mantral 
illumination, and the belief in secondary Miid allegorical mean* 
ings, latent in sacred texts, but lo be diBccmed only by a viaioa 
divinely purged. liVom the time of Origen to that of Mirandol^j 
horn Fhjlo to Swodcnbur^, the illusion ha« been a faToniiti 
one with superior minds. Under it« influence Bcudilin 
himaelf ma»ter of the later, mon^ especitdly the Cabalistic, Ul 
ture of the Jcw» ; and «» !ic advajiccd in yeais dciotcd bin 
more and more sedulottnly to tlu-sc studies. 1'lic knowh-dge be 
tlius guined, let UE>elci<s, one would imagine, ait any ibat can fill a 
human mind, lie vas able to torn to account, though with |^ 
hazard to himself, in the interests of toleration and freedom. 

Ju 1S09, John Pfeficrkom, a converted— or, to Bjxrak 
eorrectly, a baptised — Jew of the worst possible charadOil 
obtained from iMauimliitn h commii^sion eujuining the Jens 
throughout the empire to produce their books fur cxaniiiiatioHi 
in onler thnt .tuch of tbcni a-i eontaineil bla^pbemiia i^ain* 
CbriKtianity iniglit be condemned and publicly bunit. i^lc^ 
kom bad paved bin way to tbis result by a itcries of libels aguut 
the faitb he had quitted. AVitb the maiidatc in hb hand, be 
repaired to Rcuchhn, whose attainmcuts in Hebrew literature be 
tlionght might be of use to him, — whose name, rather, m^ 
xbelter bim, — in the investigations he wns about to iustitult- 
Rcucblin, however, did him the dinserviec of pointing out ca- 
tain flaws whicb invalidated its niit)iority. He was nfterKsni' 
required, together with Jacob Iluclistraten, prior of the Dcun*' 

• Stniam, i. p. SIM). 

■f Ibid. i. p. IU2. For theological purpnuu. if tath cnald Iw JnTcltcd tiw* 
tLcra wu k luttlcicDil/ near npproiich, tliotiKli Dr. fiiravM im<|^1«^u id rtutft >l 
to tlic fullilmonl u( ihi^ [iTi>iihi:cy. Fri'itnrli-It wat ipinoitittMl rtgrnf uf iba ^V**, 
on Maximilian'* dfRllt, 1'l>i> irnporlsl crnwti wav vj/rnyl Ui hint hj lb* (M*'^ 
prince*) but hv jue(l(i'-il lii» <>va iiuiit* (if" t)i« Viim" by ileoliiung il. 



Stratua's Lifr 0/ Ulrich von Htttien, 



299 



iti« 



And oliief itifiiiisitiir at Colore, Victor voo Carbcn, a 
averted rub1>i, ami i^vernl oftlic Uennnn Uiiivcr^ittf.-', to give 
piniou cm tliP (nu'stinc, wlirtlirr ttic Jews miijlit not to '» 
rvA of bU their llcbtv-w books excepting tlic Old Testament, 
tlic fonncr di-stroycd as heretical. Stich a nitnfitrophc woiild 
tro bwti a* |Miiuful and Hiockin^ to him as to the vcric&t' 
lllohrew of the Hebrcwx." He rettmiod an answer coiidemtiing 
imglj" the course pmponed. 

On thi§ a great micenr arose. Ho vna cbarfcd with jiidaigiog ; 
bd much ink was shed in actnioatory and apologetic irnnpliletiL. 
lie DomiiiiMns, whose lool Pfcfl'crkoni Iiud bocn all alonFr, came 
forwan) now at Retu:hliii'e open opponents. For a time, the 
)M!ace-U)riii^ oh) mnn, who itought nothiiii; better than to be left 
aloQC with hi.t Kiek wife, bi» white peacocks, and hi* book*, tried 
Jialc Ilia op)N)ucnt>i. [lu teiiiixiriiwd axhS ({iinlifiod, avow- 
eubmission to the Oitiroh, and pleauliii;; tlie m-veMity 
10r which he had pvcu the jiuti^ment « liieh wiia nindc a re- 
leli to him. But, tis Slmiii» ivraark», — with the air of a man 
I knows, — " it is ncier pnident to make even apparent oonre*- 
to SXia Hcriry ; they immcdiau-lr think they have put their 
Wiry in fear, and redouble th«ir lihamelossitcss." RencUht, 
'■ oiiy mtn, found it >o : and having nothing to hope from (heir 
ildnAM, boldly dnred their n-w-iiticicnt. In rrfily to the Artkiili 
pi- {troftosili'iiH-x dr judairo fi'mff niml* »nspecl<e fx Hbtlh Irii- 
in) Joaunh Hmitiliti, which nrliclw w«re in number fortv- 
B, he pnblisliod his Defeusio Jo. lieuchl'tn, I'horrcntis, LL, 
offoris, contra ctilumttialores luot ColQuiensea. lu this work, 
pruvot himself siipenor to his ndversarlcs in arginnctit, he 
t he ij> by no nieanK tlieir inferior in the iirt of abiwc* 
of the OoitiiiiieanH knew no lioiind*. Hochfttraten, 
■Sief, cauMCii ilenchlin'H ivritinps to 1>p condemned at 
Icntjt and publicly hunit. KcncUlin appealed to the I'ope, 
) \., whose lore of letters was superior to his divad oOicvfuy. 
rdenx'd the matter to the Count Palatine, (jcorge bishop of 
trc*, who gave Judgment on the 3kh of April 15 l-l> acquitting 
uehliu of hercy, and condrnuiing hi» pente««tor to the pay- 
lit of oostK (111 Khine norinn) and to Hilence. He wm fur- 
■nrdcred, un<Ier juiin ofcxcommiitiicatioii, to be reconciled to 
nohliii witliin thirty days. 

Tbii>, of ooiirso, was a eetitcnce " most tolerable and not to 

cndure<I." Hoelutraten, in his turn, Bpj>cale<l to the I'oik*, 

lio Bp[M>iiite<] a cummtiuion of eighteen hisht^ to decide U>e 



■ > Dock oldiibkit an Grandni,*aBdnra Mohan StklMpfndca wolUa R««rk- 
|wiacmO«Bn*nDu>hlM4iuMlsblalb*a*'{l. imy ' Pttiboaow beMt," nraoitar,* 
l^' • fr»."«.oK* ■ P»J *i«,' *«., 1 
t «a tit* opfontau. 



, war* aoMog iha U^wan of fpanh wkloli bo 



800 



Strauss't Life of Ulrich ton HtUlai. 



matter. TLc iuuk] means for obtuuing a verdict at the '. 
court irete rewated to by the l>oniiDicaiis, — gold flowed tndj, 
— ^ut without the usual result. Ou the 2d of July 1510, tit 
case wait detcrmutod in Bruchlin's favour. Bui Leo, much aa he 
haled the rooulis, feared them also, ^tisticd witb pratecting 
Beochlio, he did not care to give him an open victoiy. At 
forbade tlH^ prom uigtit ion of the judgment, aud qoaaltod tbf 
proceivlin;^ bv n miiiidiitf de sujter»edend9. 

During lliifi ]>rolr>c(ed Atru^le, Hutl^n, aa hi^ letten bear 
wititv^t, bad felt the Uvcliesi sympathy with the penecntd 
Hcfaolar. His inBucnoc was not i^reat among cardinals; but k 
strove to use such as he liad, or fanciol he bod, with Cardinil 
Iladhftn (afterwards the Pope of the sime name), and dedicatal 
an iiilerceMory poera to him. More eongcTiial, donbtlra, wv 
hilt diatribe against Pfeflerkorn (/n aetifrat'tsiimam Jo. fefoi- 
eortii vitata Ulrielii ab Hutleit Kq. erctamnlin), in v\aA he 
ingeniously confounds tbo promoter of the Ueucblinian procw 
with a namesake as bad sa oimsctf, and loads fai>( bead with Ik 
sins of both. It is the same in the t»ntroveisy of letters *« in 
that of arms ; the lan-s of honourabk- warfare are a compantinlf 
Intv invetitioi). At fir^t, the combutants recognise no nslrictioa 
to Uieir rijcht of doing cacb other iw much I»arm as poHilile; lix 
Homeric heroes have no idea of fair ti^'bliiifr. Dr. StrauM con- 
Daren Huttcn (as we have »eni) to I'hiloetcle^ The ix>ni|iuiK>D 
holds in so far as he did not object to use (MiNOiutl arruw). "Hic 
bolt, however, is rather that of his time than of hiniwlf 

In 1514, while the issue of the contest was still in owgrtix, 
Huttcn submitted to Erasmus a poem prematurely enlitlal TV 
ZWun^A «/ Ctipnio* (TViunt/iAnjt Capntonis), ubich, at the bl' 
ter's atlriec, wa» Mippr(-»>(-d until the triumph thus ocMmtt^ 
hod bveii actually acliieved. Hiat Hutttn hnd some th»c in 
tlte com)>osition of the poem, which was not jniblishcd till li\% 
both internal aud external evidenec unite to prove. An aft*- 
sioa of Erasmus's, who elsewhcrr unequivocally attributes it I* 
him, makes it doubtful whether he were the sole autlior. Ik 
title of the poem indicates, what titles do not always do, iU to- 
tCQts. KeuMilin i* piotunxl n-tumiog to his native toim lA" 
the foshiou of a Komnn couqiaTOr, ^victor oicr the malice «ia 
ignoranoe of hia cm-niie», and leading tliv principal oflkd> 
Hoehstraten, Pfefferkom, aud others, who are vtt; unooffipl'- 
mcntarilv described, in chains behind him. 

In the same year in which this work was fir»t siowo '* 
Erasmus, there appeared another, destined to have, thou^ i"' 
directly, a great influence on the result of the struggle. "^^ 

' So Rwulilid'* name wu Giavued in ihv fiuhiuu of IW ■(■• S^*^ 




Strmus't I4fe <>f UlricA von HuHen. 



TaritiiLB rw!»lticit of thcolo^ in Gcmuuty, and erei) 
ut Parin, liwl folloWMl Utr Iciul of ttic Colu|;ocr!t in 



'i\ixh 



tbo Sorboniic 
in condomnitig 
■cliliii; but tliCKym|)»tlttL-ii of tlif culuvaUm of tbv new kan)> 
tlirtnt^ltout Htiri)[K! wore iJlogrtlicr on his sidp, and were 
fcl '^ai to him in their Irtt<Ts. Not to Iww «hot?oc»-CT 

IjI attach In tlicHr " U-Klimouiiibt" of hb> nuMt di-ttin- 
iiiii contempf>raric8, a edectiini fmin thcin wjw piihlixht-d, in 
ill, miAcr Ihc title o( K/nalolip llluflrium Virorum ad Jitmch- 
nrtON, viruM nostra letate dt/ctiaaimtim {" Letters of Eminent 
len to Roiichliii, thv niuet IcaruMl mun uf our time"). 

It wiu to CrotiiM Uuhimnis, IliiltcnV c&rlv frioiul at Fulda 

id at CologiH', tlint llift Impjiy iika owiirmi I'T ' 'ng thin 

i{)undriuv in u xL'rifA of lic-titiuuH Ic-tlcrw, j .. ; ^ to l>e 

)(| to Orttiiiuis (ii-ahiH, tuif of tlM> mont n<-tiTv of Hcuch* 

iu'e advi^rsarics, in tvlmli obsfurit^', (Ltii|iidity, mid iirdiiutic ig- 

loritnoi- »]i(tuld Iw ahoirn ua the 8ii|>]iortcra of the UominininH, 

tJte liL-lttTS of llhistrimis Mva had cxhibili'd the oppontc 

ciiliKt4:d in Whidf of Ri-uchhn. The t-riiicnce of thiH 

ioli n^ts u» Hii iinoiiyniouN letter to Crotuv, wnttcn after 

slum to the riitholic C'hiii'(;lt. 



I as 
IticH 



" The Icrttcr-vriler," mjtb SlrauM. " uncnlu at one wlio i«Iou^d to 
>bnl vaa at tkkl tltiic Crcitiiii'H I'irdo. He retiiiitilx Itim ofllK-ir con- 
JL-Ittiii.t culivcnultuiis, t\mr wxlkn uud mciils togctlm", iti wliirti CnttU:( 
nil with liim lii.i work tbim iii i>n>grcs8, bikI wil ofvfhicli lie mwl ptf 
In clinrchm nixl Ircmrt-roonw, li* carried with liim writing- 
it, ti) oriirr to nut« dowii Mirli ditivi^iraD as fe«incd l» xlmit of 
: «Ut<on>lMl for his work. In tliis way li« liad not n liltlr )>ctK- 
fliitiiMiK , kn<] ibo Ictter-irritor tclla tli« aiiiMtato to biR fnn; that 
crct li« slill lovca )ii« hook na t«ud«rly lui an s{ie luvca ilti yoang, 
nd would rntlior tiiut llouii-i'a //('oi/ aliuukl |K>riA}i, tlun Cmtiia'ft plra- 
ttt J*al« and imtuortal Uu);hter ut tlio cx|ictu« of ibc rtijiintA." (vw). i. 

Tilt- oideucf uf Tlntlcii's tdiurc in the book, to far at least 
tltr KCinid [Mirtof it is ronn-nicd, rcitt» u[x>n his own OSMT- 
>B,* and utiou tnauy rxpn-Mtioiut directly itidicatiiiK him lu the 
%Titintr* of liiM fricndN, an of KraHniiiN, I'irrkheinier, i:c. Hi* 
]iartiri[>ation in Uie tirst mhimn of the KpiMles in more difficult 
to be ftscertaiiicd, lli» Icltpr from [iolojfiiii, on rcciei\"iiiK it. to our 

tcountr^'iunri Uidiard Cmko, who then taught Greek at Leipzig', 
)uu> hix-ii t)ri>ii:;hl to u(-i;:itivir the supposition of hi? coopernlioD: 
f' I ha»r niivivtd ihv Olmcwe Men. Good gods! what generous 
■nirtli (yufiiH non %llibcrale» joeet)\ Btit the MphistM not only 

* - lluumaa •< baimvui, DwnbsrsKv 31 Jalii M\'. . . . Ydf, m lauM Iliil- 
unitoi Bnan n* dnfaw^ ruBBpAnlar ul itia ^Iwrwn* iuVm, qui J«in. qnl itM noon- 
tauaUninur. ii>u''nlcin tltpumfriunt liiillam (nfcrrine lo iW MpM brief •c*>ml 
IW EfJ.iUw O.V.) . . ." (SmiiM, i. f. 3«3.} 



302 



Strauss'* Life of Ulrich tOH llutttn. 



(tuspect me to be Uie autlior, but, as 1 h«aT, openly prod* 
that 1 am mo. Take iiji ihc caxaa of your absent friend 
lh«in, and let nie not he [Killiited with this dcSlcmcnt. Writ! 
to mc at length on thr mattcj-, and infunn mc wliut their i 
i»."* ThiK passage miglit seem to be coudusivi;, but tliare a rtt-"' 
son to think it one of those politic evasions or rcwnalioira (to me 
iinofien»ivc vrords), which the niomiity of autlinrabip has not^! 
discarded. Ilutten hiid (-JKnnio..% enough, withont making moir. 
And if his temperament «:!.■• not of a kind Ukely to be impnncd 
by cautious nersonal consiideialions such as this, it yet was aBd^ 
«irublc that nia name should be too prominmtly brought fomn) 
a» a partisan of Rcuchlin's. Kcucbliu iros a licrvuut of Ulrich ti 
Wiirteinbiirg, whom HiittcD had not yet cca-scd to attack; inl 
who, in his tiini, had twice, ut Home and at Bologna, arpmnA 
attempts on iliitteu's life, — M), »t leaiit, it uas suspected. It 
was ooDsidered inexpedient that llnltcn should even write v> 
lleuchliD. Sir William Hamilton, on internal ci-idcucc. nalioi- 
tatingly aaeribes the 5lh and S5tli letters of the find \oluiiie to 
Huttca. Uc finrls there many of the kntght*s habitual expro- 
sions, and with characteristic cmpbastist " defiea any one to dis- 
cover an etiuai nuniber of equally ftignnl coincidences (phgnr- 
ism apart) from the wurkit of any two authors, allowing his to 
compare as many volumes b», in the present ca*e, we ha« col- 
latctl paragrajilis." The following sentence is perhaps liaidly 
an instance of cautious induction : " Uuttcn's cooperation ii 
the first volume is thus evinced ; and his euo|>enit(oii tlMrE, IW 
any extent, is proved by establishing his coc>)KTatiun at aU."t 
Strauss is much leas jxtsitivc, and decline:* dugnialically to »■ 
sign their Hevernl parta to ciK-h of (ho juint-authors of the woA- 
Ktranss'it nuTinte aet|naint:iuei! with ihc literature ofIii»»ub- 
_ieet makes the ab«euc(:uf all ailusiou to Sir \V. Hamilton's m^ 
wmovhat remarkable. "It was translated," says the aatluBr 
"into German, by Dr. Vogler in the Altcs and Neuet of 18SJ, 
after being largely extracted in various otbcr litiavy joumak ci 
the empire. I am aware of no attempt to gaiii«ny tlic proof ofn- 
tborsltip here detailed, or, in general, Ihejiisticc of tlie criticiaa-' 
Sir W. Hamilton viinii(ratc« the exclusive authorsliip of boti 
volumes of the Epistles to t.'ratus, Hntten, and Hcrmaiia n* 
Buschc, with whom here wc have nothing to do. Strauss, urilt 
out venturing to determine any thin^t, mentions him, with sen** 
others, ax a possible contributor to the work. In such a eocttro- 
versv we do not claim to bavc any voice ; hut it murt be ck«r tp 
the lea«t initintcd reader of tbcir iteveral csNnvs, howCTCr iM^ 

■ Munob, Kpial. Obi. Vir., KiolciUng. ij. p. 43 ct ngq., wticra Ika quuli* * 

ditoumsl Bt l«o(;th. 
' i DiKuisioRt, p. ±iC. The iulicf arc oiur own. 




K/mwttrV Life of Ulrith von llutten. 



303 



*' 



tttonutl) bim, thnt in nindcmtioii, not to My modesty, — 

^;nnl to iii{1i«]iiiUbIi! fttCtM, — in tlio aMcncc of vio> 

' i! |ir<>bal>ililioj« and Huccpitig raiijectiirf*, — tlic bo- 

ka\ nuthor of iXv; Leben Jenn -(tnntU in a<tvaiit:L)ti-c)U» vonlrost 

tho wtrictly " sound" ami urtlioUos Scotcli critic* 

To tlin work <rc Imvc hcfuiK mciitiuacd, cntitkcl ArlUlea or 

■'^•tiofiiJew'mhhaning.from the Cermati Aodk 

wliicli Arnold ofTiiiigcni, Dcua of tho TUco- 
I i iuiulty nt Colo)i;iif, hud dr:k;vii ii|i tiiiil |Mibli«lit-d iu 1512, 
liii i«x-iii, ill tlte wiiiid iultirttt, l>y Ortuiii von Gnwt, who 
,U^1lt (Hilitc lctIci-8 in the lii^'b school of Colo|i;nv, ]iiu] Iwm 
etl. It ifi to this Ortuiaus Uratui, — Portuinus Gneciu, us 
ua iiaucs him, in wlmt (sirelchinj; a ]x>iiit) we muy ctU 
.8C wil of the age, — that the letters of tlic ohsciirc men are 
amxl. Wiy he, i»bo wiw not ci-rtainly the prime mover in 
tlir 1 liau |>cr«;nition. h:is lliu» Mrlecled for prLvmineiico 

.ill ill y pilionsciiipfiJi- bis iKirty can onlrbe oonjectiired. 

B wan lcs» powerful, Strauss thinks, than Ilochntratcn or Tmi- 
m, ttout contemptible than I'fcflerkora ; but tlic nay in whicli 
loclwtniteu and Tun;;ci'n »xe treated in the opUtlcs fthows that 
il ' lilants wci-e little inttiicueed by fear of them. ItBComa 
i: it Ortnin was sih-eletl as the most mincrable of his co- 
rn by the u't-ii[x>ii» to be cinployctl against thctn. As a 
tint vithutit Huiiie tincture of U-ttert, be would better anpre- 
intc the bai'l):u-isuis of ntylo, tlie deiuu ignoniuee and istnpidity, 
nil the peilanlic folly which his imacinaiy oorre*pondeiits are 
^c to exhibit, and to which be is lietd up a» a party. Purtltcr, 
<'it.4aumcHt9,tbc incongruitvofhis claims to tic cou&idcrcd 
. iiJAt and M (sprit with biBitefeuee oftheoUlseholasticisoi 
rvd bim a lit anbjeet fur comedy, wbilo his a|)0)itasy trom 
mil' cause earned him hatred as a traitor. 
With queetioitx and di-teuivtions in ca»ui&tr\-, in literature, and 
ihilnlnsy, tbo episllea contain rectirring rcTcrcnoes to the can»c 
f Rciii'bliu, then pending, llie writers relate their jounierit 
:) thi-ir encounters with dilTcrcut members of the humanist 
mrty on the rondti and at inns ; they Ixitray ererj' variety of 
lOllv, and ^ct into every kind of sera|K'; they art^ beaten and 
jCKcd tu an extent equalled only by "low-comudy" men on the 
itage ; they make free confeMioiiK of their love-adventures. Cou> 
ideriuj' their lictitiou.t ebaracter, this is iit wont a fault oftatte. 
if ut their i'ontidcn<:e^ arc poured into the ear of Ortuiniui, who 
oa a litin^ man, and iu a way which impbes the liveliest «ym. 

• Thi' r, :tiinir.L- "'Mrnor.ttoai Kr W. IIudiIiod'i n<iU<'enf Heroin ih* now 

//n'MiiiiM. nillbw tliOUKbt tujoiliry (haw opltk*U: 

r : I , lUiHT, llKca. U«f Unaaii, VM*r, Da tTftW, mmI ■ hpu 

all .'■. hull' lir«n pnnuvil «lih % Ivtmlnc aorf ■c« H %i«i 

\h ■ 111 kuilai-iij' uf Ihotr c«nr)u»iunt" (tolxt p. 9C0), 



SM 



Straut)^* Life of Uliich von HuiteH. 



patfar on bis mrt. Indeed, little U left to tmplicatioD ; fanuKv 
aUuaious to his cxceascs nbouud. Nor <)o Hw^listratea, Pfcffcr- 
korn, uiid PfefTerkorn's wifv, nciipe more easily. No one cui 
rend the letters without feeling comttuntly the truth of Sir W. 
Hainilloti'n remark, that, "morally coueidered, the satire is an 
atrociotts libel, which can only be [ralliatcd on the plea of retalia- 
tiou, neocssitT, the importaDCc of the end, and the consuctodc of 
the timeft. Its victims ore treated like vermin, hunted without 
lair, and extcrmiuat»l without mercy. ^Vhat truth," he add^ 
" there niuy be in {lie wicked ncuida] it rctuiU, we are uow unabfe 
to determine." 

The qiicHtiona and cawn of oonscienec which Ortuiniut's earre> 
»pondeiit8pro[X)6e to him present the u^uat caricatures of scholar 
tic quibbling and casuistic scruples. It is eohrranlv discussed, fcr 
example, with many argumeuts pro and con, whether b tnan who 
is a grmiuute can properly V* said to be a mwitAer (meminm} tt 
t<'n miiversitic, — finw tlioiigh one bwly may hate many mran. 
bent, one memlKr eannol U'long to many bodies :— whether if * 
nmn on n l-Vidny uueou.tcioiu>ly eats an eg^, in which the ino- 
pient chicken is already discernible, he is guilty of breakii^ hi* 
fast, any more than if he had eaten a wxirm iu fruit. In tlic Ultd 
caae it is ohjetrtcd th»t the instances arc not parallel, siacr de 
worm is a kind offish. Off their oirn ground uf seholasticini 
and easuistrj', their niislakes arc yet more Itidtcruas. "Tlieyam* 
found the gnitnmiiriiui Diomedes with the Homeric hero. Hct 
coni])liiiii that Reiicblin (whofc iitime in Ihbretv is Capnio), «* 
another person called I*rot?frhia Eratmi, wiiih to introduof^ u nev 
kind of liatin into theology." They eulogiw llie pood old \wi 
of poetry, in opposition to that new-fashioned style which \afi 
ana Pliny, and other recent authors, have broH;;ht into vop» 
Master Philip ScLlaiu-aff [in whose itinerary poem Strauss trans 
Huttcn's hand) writes in rliyme, without attcuding to qnuU- 
I'kh, and thinkx it sountli better sa* " What do I care bt 
teel" {Quid ejfo euro pettes ?), says Master William Storcli to hi* 
critics ; " I am a theological not a iteeular iM3et, and have refiwd 
to the sense, and not to the triflea you care for." Tlic i>»w>^ 
quoted a few paj^s Iwck will give some idea of the prose oflU' 
work. The following; poem of blaster Jodocus Sartoris nwy 
sen'C M a »i)ecimcn of its vctsc. It possesses imu&ual mad*" 

'"Etiun iciatu quKoomponii rkitlimicp, nnn nltuidcitiqauitiUtwi'MrM' 
BiU quod •ooBl melius tio." SffitL 0. 1% Miknch od. U. 9. TIm futat bt^: 

" Chrisic Dcui odmipoieni, in quem tprrot conas ba, 
QdI «! Dcni Umrum. prr omnia wcult Mculonm; 
Tu TttlU nllii mc prujniiui^ quutda iHbiilM DC I ' 
HltM luiuED diubuluia, niii iliicX ad putibiihin 
PtMUs vt JurikIM, ^ui UHlvnml rnilu rraaA," tee. 



4 



Stnaa^t Life of Ulnek von Ilutlen. 



305 





It w onnnblo, us thv author proudly dlcgtu, uf bcbg seamud,* 
tbougti uanlly in coiironnily with iiny known metre : 

" AatripotMitin Dei nutcr Tcncnbilii Cliristi, 

Im pTMiiliuii famuli nurta iNmiffiiM tui 1 
(Jiii to (irul, iMtttia. pro miicUi Tbralogia, 

Coutra qiMiu icribil R«u«Min, JunaU nudiii : 
Kon cinrincntiu, >i«o doiuper illumtiuUtt, 

Qunlitvr ewe debet, qui vu]t plaotro UbL 
lirvu tuuoi DotuiQ maiMiiUi tutlicn: ro^tnm, 

i't sulivetiire i-elit huifi fuouluU tax." 

Tlint till- ie:numn<'c and titupidity nttrihnUHl to thv rabble of 

tbc utCi-ItcuehliiiiHt {inrtv u iwt cntggi^ratul, one ortiiu ncll- 

town Atris |>rovc. In Kii;;lmii1 llir Dotniuiom ttud rnuuascMi 

rt^ix'isi'd tlic qitstka nitli CRttiuai3.-iiii, imnginiiig them to 

nitiv prvxliicttuus in tlti: interest of the monlcL-tb party (in 

^htini coniutoftiam et monachorunt facwent aerio orodUaa), 

Bmhant, n prior of tlic Domininuis, and doctor of thcolooj 

^' :*ter), wi*hiii|$ to get himaclf a n&mc among tbc 

lit n )iilc iiftheae lx>ok)i with a ricw of presenting 

tit ittv- r]iipfi« of the (ird(!r ; nothing donbting but that Huy 

cm Hrilu;n in its honour. "t 

Tlif imincdiuu.- effect of tho satire nua to discomfit friends as 

ell aa foes. Itcuchlin hiuiM'lf was mtber alarmed at the vigour 

itlt whie!i bis couse was c'lpouH'd, and seems to bare thoogbt 

lat it vould provoke n rcitetiun iinfarourabic to the quiet in 

liirli h<- Ii(>|ie<l t<> >:{H-iid his declining years, Enjniiu», in con- 

■n;i, in nbioh tfan encacu of his tcu- 

M^d, that "the most disailnmtogeoiia 

i« |irrt"erable to the jiistcst war," was annorcd by so uu- 

mproniisin;; u de>claration ot' hoatilitica. He thuuglit tliv tone 

III tciii|ier of the tetten likt-ly to iiijiirv the caoM of humanixDi. 

1 at (lie introduction of hit owd name, tliough this 

riu> 'i iju:dirioiition, na a coiiieinner of the scholaslje and 

y. He fcnrv^J tlii^ iut:;ht involve hiiu in the eini- 

I lie trutililt^ ubicb he drcadi^ woidd spriHjt from it. 

) tumult and (lliturtuknee of auy kind. It ^ve him uo 

,re (in enntrudietion to the well-known lines of Ltieretius) 

tile r3(,'iii^ Ken of human pafoionii from a safe nud clear 

; but lie unuld rattier mo view it than be tOMcd Ujjon it. 

iL*» noble dtw-njpiitiii of Lord SIiAlkahuri', — 

A itaiag iiilot In ndnnily, 

Mautd with tbo daiicar, whan Uxt mra ToUad U^ 

Ha tought Uie Mono, — 

* *■ & «at Blgnfaram. at toanJIlnr. -i noDwa in Dnrllo. Iarl]il«lu: 

mil-, •\im nwumhin Mmlio. fcc." / , Mbidi tj. IL It, f^ Itm. 

t T I' oMttU TC*l oa Uw kul-.iii^) vi braMM*. tJM tbr jwiMgM ia 



300 



Slrauts's lAfe of Uiiieh wn IfiUUn, 



h&a no ftpplicabili^' to him. On Itie contrary, forUter oervp^ 
portum was the principle to which he adhered through life. Ict^t 
this time wc may date his estrangement from the more etrcnaon» 
rcformcnt, and Lis increasing tciulciicr to aixommodatc matters 
with the Church of Rome. 

On the other sJdi*, Die e|>t»tl€s called forth u rejily, which 
was the moat uiic(|uivoca] acknowledgment that their nhaiU liad 
pierccfl home. In March 1S17, a jutpal brief appeared forindd- 
tofT, under penalty of cxcommunicatioa, the sale of the work, and 
orderinj; all possciwors of it to give np thctr copies to be burnt. 
Nor mu^st wc oinit to mention, that Ortiiin von Gracs came gal- 
lantly forwani in a book in which he retorted the title of thdr 
nork upon lii.-i oppooentis* who sheltered themM;lvc» under l)^| 
oi*cvritif q{ t\x anonymoua. If he falls short of the wit ofh^B 
adversaries, he rivals them in his imputations on character. It 
is, perhaps, a sense of bis insuHicicney for the conflict that leads 
him to si^h for the more suinm.iry methods employed with be- 
rotics of old, and to demand the intervention of (he secular ani. 

Tiie influence of the satire n}>un the cause of the Bcrurmatioa 
has been made the suhjcct of vcrj' different cstimaie*. Wc hit 
already quoted the opinions of Herder and Sir William Ham; 
ton. With some reference perhaps to the overstrained lan^ 
of the former, Mr. Hallam remnrkM, that " in the mighty dhw- 
mcnt of the Itcfonnutiou the Epiilftlte Ohscunyrum Vtronm ]aA 
ubotit a* much effect a» the Mariai/e (Iv Figaro in the TiaA 
Revolution." It i.i impossible from this shiirt sentence tojader 
of the gronndn mi uhich the assertion eoiitiiiiied in it rest<. AVb^ 
will only say, th»t the nnpiUarity of the epistles dclenniiicd tbc^ 
triutnph of the stmgghnK literary revival, which an effort it» 
made in the person of Uctiehlin to crush; and that with thii 
literary revival, with the dlfl'usiou of intellectual cnltture, tk 
ctmff: of religious reform was iusejmrahly bound up. ThcMtin 
also was the first serious blow to the prestige of the Churci rf 
Rome, by turning public opinion a^iiist a eaiu>e to wluch d« 
Church had at that time virtually committed itself. Tlie Befor- 
matioii, again, using that term in its narrowest sense to tlcDUtc 
merely the outbreak under Luther, began slmplr as a proW 
against ecclesiastical eomiptiou and immorality. The af^mnnff 
of the first volume of the letters, with their cxijosure of ptwllr 
depravity, in the \erj' year in which Lnlluys attention •* 
drawn to the preaching of Tetwl and the sale of indidgeoA 
caiinot but have prepared men's minds for the denimeisliou ^ 
efforts of the reformer. Again, by disembanassing the huiwio'* 
and anti-Romanist party of timid coadjutors buoi as EranBi^ 
who were not prepared to " go so tas" those who remained WA* 

■ L^meKtitiiMti Obicuroraiii Viromm nm pie^Ailx j tr ttJtm npttttSt'^ 



Straws'a Li/e of Viriek voa Uultm. 



90/7 



Bful vrcrc ted frc« for Iras fettered action. The Epittoltr ObteU' 
rvrum l^roruin coiitnbiUcti not ii Uttlc to render compromwi^ 
■Willi Home imjwiwible, and ibu'* to help on " the iniglily iiiovc- 
nient of tlie Iteforru&tioti." For thcM; and otlier ruaHOii^, Afr. 
liaJlam scenu to ua to err as much in depreeiatioii, as Herder 
and Hamilton iii exaggeration, of the effects of the fiatirc, 

KNor is !iis literary estimate of it more favourable or more 
mi. " Few books," he says, " have bccu more eagerly receivcid 
than Uksc epi^tli-^ at tlicir fimt iippearjuiec id 1316, ubjeh surely 
proceeded ruther from their Huitublciiess to the time than from 
mueh intriiLsic merit; though it must be presumed tliat the spirit 
of many temporary alluHious, whirh delight«d or offended that 

S-, is nov loat in a mass of vapid nonsense and bad grammar 
ieh the imaginary writcra pour out." This is surely an cx- 
traordiuary criticism. The wit lies in the vapid nonsense and 
bid gnunmar of the iiniorniit pedants and simpletons who pour 
it forth. The same objvetiou might be made to the humour of 
Dogbeny, and Slender, and Holuferue*; in one word, to Shake- 
speare's fooLs and those of all great writers. Their folly is tlieir 
author's wit. On the subject of the style of the letters, including 
iheir " bad grammai-," Strauss has some escellent remarks, wim 
^ vhich we shall take leave of this subject ; 

^fe" "TlKHigh wc hitvc liiiuCHl.ly Midcavourrd to give tin' tchiIlt an idea 

^■bf tlu) Rcopc and cootcutx, tlio furm and draigo, of tttc I.eUm» nf(AtMn 

^Ll/w», wo Riasl yet in cuiiclusion make the dishoartcDiDg ccnfcRRiou, 

|~|jia( wc have uiidcrtakeii what it is iuipoasiblc properly to perform. 

To point out, in one word, in what precisely llils impossibility cuiuuets 

■^l lies in tbe lauKUs;|,'e of our q>istl«s. As it is the obacui-o men uf 

the ODDUncDcemeDt of tli« ni\i«i-ulli ccutury themselves who ti|>eak. 

they do su in the laugiiagu of tlivir tiiui- — tbut is, in u aurt of Latin (if 

)t con he so caUed)sudi as lind uriscu in the eoursd uf lli« middle age*, 

bom tbe grafliDg of ceduniiwtlrjit nnd vurunculur rl^niuuts of sjmicli on 

llic original dock. ThiK ilinlcct is c»inic in tliix, tbut it !« iti fnct at 

every step ia contradiction to the laws of cinxsicnl Ijititiity, nad yet 

it a language which, as one eau slill ]>crcciTo at the present day, was 

MOO living and actually spoken, la iho same way as rcspecta the 

(itnagiuar)' 1 writers of the letters, tlicy arc. in spile of the glaring con- 

iradicliou in wlituh tlieir procedure stands to reason and cultivation, 

}t{ a» Hulf-coiisistent, us well pleased with Lheitiselves and witli cncli 

dtter, a« a Fidstuff or any utlier geuuine subject of comedy bos ever 

beeo. Tliis comic clmrnclcr, however, is in*n|Nmblc from tlic Ijitinity. 

il «4<»pe4 in trntulation. The Latin laugnngc ha* undrrgonu this 

ridieulous kind of eomiption in ita passage through the miikllc ngcn mid 

thnnigb nations of different toDgaes. No form in which the translator 

naay handle tbe Uennan or any other language can rq>rodu<»: the im- 

pnwKui of the original." 

Our failing space waruit us to paaa more rapidly over the re* 



SOS 



ft^ 



Sirauit's lA/e of Ufrteh von Uvtlen. 



Immuing jreara of Ultioh von Ilattim's life. Oa his return £roia 
Italy in 1517, liia poetic and patriotic services rccrircd imperial 
wtkuowlcdgmcnt in the laurel crown with which, on the l^tli of 
July, Moxiniiliun'K own hand diTcoratcd him at Augsbiir^g. In 
the some year he vutcri'd thi; tcrviei; of the enlightened, though 
worldly prelate, Albert, Ardibitfhop of Mentz and Elector of 
Brandenburg, — soon, na cardinal, to be a ])riDce of the Cliurdi as 
well as of the empire, lu 1518 he accompanied hia maf>tcr to 
the l>iet at AiiiJ^burj;, convoked to consider the Pope's deai^ of 
a Jiuropcan war a;;aiu!-t the Turics, who^ conquests under the 
cruel and ambitiouii Selim jravc good grounds for KUrm. Hut- 
tcu'e voice had already been raised in vaniing.* He watched 
the prooeedings of the Diet with inteotc interest. His di«p- 
pointment at it'* pacific concttiKion vns- pmbabiy diminished by 
the &ct that it involved tlte refusal of tlie tithes which the Pope 
demanded for the proscention of the projected war,, but which 
were sure to have Wen spent in ministering to the corrupt splen- 
dour of the Roman court. 

Iq the following year lluttcn took up arms in the war vhidi 
the SwabiiiQ league carried on successfully ngninst his old enemy 
Ulrich of Wurtcmbitrg, and lamiohed against him a fifth of thoK 
declamatory inveetivcH of irliich we have already K|tokcu. In 
this campaign he fonne<l an afleotionate and scrviceaMe friend- 
ship with the celebrated Frnnx ron Sickingen, half iiulepeudoit 
priuoc. half robber chief. Even Hutten'a reslle» spirit, hoirerer, 
to which action was as nceessaiy as the air be breathed, bcgSD 
now, after Inhoun and trials so exhausting, to feel the need </ 
repose. He indulged in day-dreatna of tranquil litcrarr Icinin 
and married happiness, lie had already given cxprc^on to htf 
annoyance at the rcntrnints and formnlity of court life in a £*■ 
logue entitled Au/a.f Tlic nuinifiMiiw- ofhi« x«itron Albert rf 
Mentz relieved him from the iieccitHit}' of serrice, while continniag 
to him the salary of his office. 

His dream of domestic quiet and literary retirement wai MM 
dispelled. The coutcutiona for the impcnal throne which H- 
lowed ou the death of Maximihan in Januarr 1519, opened ott 
many questious of polin,- and patriotism aSectiug the rt-latiooiii 
Oenoauy to the Papal court. The Lutheran controversy, wtei 
Hutteu had denpiHed w n stupid monkish qiuurej, now pxewnlrf 
itaelf to him in its true light. It was imjMMsible that lie sbwti 
remain long a mere spectator of the strtii^e. The restrfl* 

• UIHctil dn Rutleo mI Princiiim Gflm«Ilu^ ut bcUum TnnU ioTcbwt O" 
htinatHrin. 

t The titI(*-pBgt M qaiiat onoogli to Im) i^vrn ntlenzth: it ihtiwt ti*"' 
«« of puffing ucconipimicii the reiiv*! of lotur*. " iniidtTd* Uutlm F^- O"*- 
Aiiln, Dlulii^ui.. Bet nl nora, itcrUiT, r>'in<>[ jiii'iiiula, I iiiiu jwruriMBiU cl )•'(■'' 
ilitpcrFtm nisi logiut toIm, Valo. Cum privik^io itapotfaL'* 



Strauaa's Life of Ulriek ton Hutttn. 



300 



1° 



life is, as Stnuiss culls it, a bntllc againxt Home. Wc can do no 
moro tluui brieflj^ truce thuknighl's ]>cr»oual fortancs to his ctaAy 
denth ill 1523, four years firom the pciiod at wbich wc hare sow 
arrived. 

By unocasinj! attacks, diiefly in th(? fomi nf satiric ilialogiio, 
in the coiTui>tioiis aud aggressions of the ('hureh, Hittlen <ircw 
down upon him&clf the anger of the Pope. Hearing that onlen« 
bad Ixx'ii i«»iKil to send him in chains to Itomc, he took rt'fugo, 
ill Svptvmlicr 1520, with hia frirud Fnuui von Sickin^en at the 
Caj<tl(! of Elicrnbui^. From this safe retreat he renewed his at- 
tiu;kit in ver«ie and jirowc. 

The Gnthusin-nm which Lnther'a boldiie«K, CKpcciidly in Ute 
burning of the l'.-i]inl hull that con(Ieinn<>(l hbi writiiigit, had 
roused, allowed that the qnestiona on which the lUfonnation 
depended had taken deep hold of the papular mind; the victory 
or defeat of the good eansc hung on its gaining and keeping the 
sympathies of the people. To them, and not to whotar* and 
prinec« merely, the appeal must be mode, iliittenwait tooquick- 
nighted not to perct^ivc thi», and too prompt not to act upon his 
perception. IIi> hml hithcrlo written only in Latin; henceforth 
be Iwgau to write in (ierman also, and translated Kome of hia 
earlier works into the vernacular. The poems, dialogues, aud 
letters, which he poured out with such astonishing rapi<tity from 
lib retreat at Ebcrnhnrg did not cxcluBively engage him. He 
read Luther's works with Sickingcn, and raised his friend's on. 
thusiaj^m for the great Kcformei- and his hatred of Rome almost 
to the height and tritcni^ity of his uwn. In st^icriil of Hiittcn's 
later dialogni^, Siddngoii, like the Socrates of Plato, is the in- 
terlocutor to vrhoin the author's own scntitnenta arc intrusted, 
and through whom, as in the Hobbers {Frtfdottet), bo urges the 
siiioi) of the commonalty aud peasantry with the equestrian order, 
in roatstanec to the ei^-il and intellectual tyranny, and the greedy 
extortions of the priesthood. 

Huttcn's re«tlcs« ^jiirit, Iiowc^'cr, pined under his enfinved 
omfioement. It via» better to he u prisoner at Ehernburg than 
a prisoner at Rome ; hut to be a priaoner at all eliafed hiin be- 
Tund the limita of endurance. I'd be obliged to i>it down and 
write, when he would be up and doing, was Iiard to l>e boma 
violence and extravaganoe, natural as they were to him, wcra 
aggerated by the denial of a proper field for his actiiity. He 
OS for imnicfliatc recourse to arms against llome and the inn- 
rc. Happily these headstrong eounsils were ovemilwl. 

During SiekingenN senice in the war with France, in )')21, 
ottcn songht another concealment, where be was so well con- 
Kalcd that hiv hiding-place t-t to this day unknown. Kejeeting 
liberal offent from the French king, he wandered to Dasel, where 



310 



Stratus'M Life oj Ufrieh i-oti Huttea. 



3iC, 



i 



Erasmus thvn rcsidetj. The Isltcr, afraid of Uie oonAeqaencrs of 
intimacy with one so little ia favour in high pLoiCes, refused lo 
ftee his former friead. Au aogrr personal controversy wait tbe 
consequence. Tlic magistracy oi" Basel, fearful of barbouriitg 
him, requested him to leave their city. He procce«ied to Miihl- 
hauscn. Here he hcnrd of tlie fuilure of Siekiui^ii'e frccbootitig 
expedition ai^aiust Kichiird, Arclibinhop iind Elector of Treves; of 
his rctreiit to LumUtuhl; of it» iiiveittineiit and eai»turc, and of 
the hero's <U'jith. HIh otay at MiililbaiLsen was sJiort. TItr rabble, 
incited by the jiarti^aiia of tbe old ccclesiasticism, threatened 
safety, and be was compelled to make his escape by night 
Zurich, where, at the hands of the reformer ZwingU, *' he sougl 
and found protection, bolp, and eousolation." 

Presently he retired to tbe little island of tTfnaii, in the lake 
of Zurich; and there, not unattended by friendly ministntioin, 
brcatlted hiM butt, after a Hhort bnt violent illnev, towards tbe end 
of AugUBtor the bediming ofScptcmberK>23, being then tlur^< 
five years ati<l four months old. 

The faults of Uutteu's character lie on the sur&ce, and 
requires no particidar acutencss to discern them. Tlicy are thi 
of a warm and passionate temperament. Bnt his merits are aa 
eoiiHpicuou«, — courage, xuiHclfishuesx, a ready enthusiasm for 
what be believed to \x true and rij^ht, ardent patriotism, sad 
quenchless love of liberty. He lived for pR-at and worthy end^ 
for which he was Mitiafied to sjiend and be spent. Mr. Hallam 
thinks that Uutteu's early death \» more likely " to ha^'c spared 
the reformers some degree of Htianie than co have deprivctl thtm 
of a useful supporter," It may be so, Ilutten was one of a 
class of men needful at the commencement, often daiigerouK in 
tlie subsequent course of rv^'olutions ; pou'crful to set the forces 
of change in motion, but little vkilful to couti-ol and guide their 
movement. Such men liave their place, and do their work; ami 
are to be judged of by what they are, ratiier than by what tWy 
arc not. His life, to use his biographer's words, '\» u ichukc'^fo 
those who would without a struggle again hand over to Bomf, 
and to a priesthood in the interest of Rc«ne, the keys of the oi»- 
seienee and intellectual cultivation of the German races;" aid 
yet more so " to those who Avould plant n new popedom in >kf 
very bosom of Protestantism itself, — to the princes who ma^ 
their will their law, and to the scholars to whom circomstaKn 
and motires of prudence arc more than tbe truth." 



[ 311 ] 



Art. m.— recent CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OP 
LATIN LITERATURE. - 

iiitiotAftv Clamea: vilitwl hv Gcorifc Lcmjr, M.A., and tlie Rar. 
A. J. KlncluiUK-, M.A. — Publii 'IWmtii Comovlia- ,SVj-; vith a 
Conimcnturv by tho Kev. E. St. John Paiiy, M.A.— y«i«wi/M et 
Prrni Satirft; with a Commentary by the Rev. A. J. Macleaae, 
S.A* 

\3^ Speech of Cieera for Aulu* Cbtefithm Jfahilu*; witli Prolrgo- 

mprift and Nut**.* (ly Willimii Hninsiiv, M.A. Ti-in. Col. Cumb., 

Professor of tlitmnn'ity in tlic Univcwity of (iia*gmw. 

Jjeeturvs ot» Jimnan JTtmhandrt/, rfclivrn-d boforo the University of 

^m OxfiMil. By Charles Paiihcny, M.D., Professor of Uotany and 

^B Htiml Economy in the Univrr<-ity of Oxford. 

HThat till irithin the last few years the Greek and Latin lan- 
^gniigcs have been cultivated in this countrj", ench after a dis- 
tinct fushioD, ivc suppose will be generally acknowledged. The 
Cftuse, or at least one vcrj- ijuflicicnt cause, is plain enough. 
We do not often poRsesifl a familiar and a critical acquaintance 
with the same thing. The process by which the former is ac- 

■ quired blunts our ardour for the latter. We do not make a 
psycholofrical study of out father and mother. We do not get 
op ibc Timei Newspaper with a Razotteer and an atlas. These 
are things to be enji^yeil as parts of our duily life ; not to stand 
off from us, and Im tTitically probed and disweclcil. Latin, ac- 
cordingly, under the oM-fa)*ftioned system of education was not 
leuneu scientifically, because it was learned so easily and so col- 
loquially ; it prew up with us, and became as it were a second 
mother-tongue. It was not then one of several accomplish- 
ments which make up the educated man. It underlay them 
ill. A i)ruf<!g»iir of Latin was deemed as superHunus as a pro- 
^lesaor ni Knglish. Greek, on tJie contrary, was a specialty — ft 
to be pursued, if a man had a turn for it ; not othenTisc. 
I to this the confessedly greater difficulty* of learning Greek, 
ich rendctcd critical commentaries indispensable when it 
came to be generally studied ; and we shall tiave said all that 
: is uecessarv in illuslratiiin of the fact laid down. 

But of late years a change has come over scholarship. The 
■ trailition, which lingered on through the first quarter of the 
pre.icnt century, is fast dying out. The habit of Latin com- 
position is no longer enforced with pristine stringency ; other 
tmuicjies of knowledge divert the infant mind from that ex- 

• CooC De Qaincoy'i EtHj upon Bi-aili:;^. 




312 Recent CwtriMioat lo the S/wfy tff Latin Literature. 

clusiTcness of diet which is ncceesaiy to cren partial assimiU* 
tioti. Latin, therefore, is taking iu place among ullicr objects 
of study ; and is becnming a subject uf curiosity ratlier tb»ii ul 
love. Aa wo say of men, tbat it is only after iboir death we 
can fonn a just estimate of their characters, so, now that Latin 
has ceased to bc spoken, und is fust ceasing to be written, we 
begin to investigate its e)cinvnt& It is becoming that fonnid- 
ftblo aflair, ''a tn»tl«r of history.*' Our annotations uc be* 
coming philological and idiomatic: Madvig i^ becoming gea 
rally known, — Oxford has established a professor; and we 
almost say that the transition state of Latin acholarsliip is 
eluded, and that u new em ha5 commenced. 

This is the first point to be noticctl. TIic second is, thci 
completeness of tho equipments with which nil new cla»icJM 
editions are now ushered into the world. Uray, who tumeiilca^ 
the multiplication of Lexicons a centuir aRO, for its tenden^ 
to impair tho quality of Knglish scholarship, vrouM lifi hn 
hands in horror could lie witness the growth of diiscrtatioii^ 
introductions, exeursiiscii, uppetidices, and other aids to the 
indolent, which these latter duyii have brou^rht fortli. The 
poet's objection was well-founded. Such auxiliaries, faoveTer 
valuable for reasons hereafter to be mentioned, have undoabt- 
edly bad ouo ill effect. Our scholarship is comjuirativcly cnule. 
And ifanyyounff aspirant would know the reason why, let him 
take eomo portion of a classical author with which he is wholly 
miacqunintcd, and endeavour to moeter it thorouchly without 
VXJ «xtenml assistance. Tlie process will be nnulogous to ihat 
of chewing the bodily food; and he will find ihat m>t »nly luf 
he digested this subject as he never digested one before Lul 
that ne has gained a real step in education, and at the smm 
time invigorated iiis intellectiutl powers more than ten liiw 
tho Mtiuo amount of reading would have done, pursued undtf 
the ordinary system. His progress, we admit, will be slow. AH 
those little words which he is apt to pa^ over a» uiiimpottul^ 
when his I^exicoii has supplied iiim with (he leading idea of tin 
sentence, will now be, as it were, put to the torture, and «* 
pclled to shed their quota of light upon the mcaaingoft^ 
whole. As an idiom which he could not comprehend in tw 
third page, recurs in tho tenth, and again, perhaf^s, in d> 
twentieth, under difrerent combi nations, its radical ngnjficti^ 
will gnwlually dawn upon his mind, never to be again foip** 
Ihe moods and voices of verbs, and the raiying force *f*?f 
pounds, will now become matter of serious consideration- vl 
the technical allusions, some, as he reads on, will csplaia t^^ 
selves, and others he will carefully set aside for separate '"" 
quiry. Till at last, by pursuing this exhaustive proctft w 



Rntni CoutrfbHlimu to Ihe Study iff Latin lAtentme. 9IS 

will be KatoDishe<] nt the cumpsrativelr small residuum of real 

tUflicuUIvfi ; ttti'J frvm lliu iininobility of iho kaun-Iedgu liu lias 

ftc<)iiiri»] ill tlic incitn timv. will l>e liblo to fonn somu c«timKt« 

^of tbc roAtiltN ittiititiiMl hj tlioHo wlioM irhols education wma 

Ttnductod [III more or less tho sam« sj^ttem. 

It mi;;lit he tliuiiclit, that of the two new features in modern 

clioliinhiii here [Htinted nut, the oneiroiild coiiijieimitt.' for the 

■tunt tho scienliBc study of Laiin will do ereii more 

.\a 111! vxcefj of fiicilitics can do hann. That thuso who 

Jy atudy th<j laii^'iia^o fur tbcniMlvM will tind this to bo 

f-ciuiQ, in vory tin>hiilili.-. But the rcralto of philulogtcul in- 

iuiry are wsily eiiitoini»e<l nnd tiibulnted. It is, in Tact, OQc 

Dfthe chnractcmtics of the a^, that tliey shoiihl be so pre- 

bnte<]. And llic cunstH^uonco is, that the changed method of 

itudy will iii:t!;u no difiorcncv to the mass of lenmers; while 

the vni-ri>U(-)tiiiL,' growth of oniimeiitAricc will supersede creo 

ihat liltii; itxli'iiviidtfiU exercitic of thouglit which Ktill i^ nc- 

FceA-iary to tin- comprehension of some portion of the l^lin 

cliunics. 

lint our best consolation for this state of tlunga is, that h 

vos inevitable. It is impossible that yoong men should con- 

jntiuiiu t<i <l<.-v<iC-_- the i-.imu ii)>ac« of timi: to the uci|uisitiou of 

^Bcliiiiait.-Al tikr.itiin: whiLli thi^y did when that, and tlint alone, 

^■wa* tliu li;-^ iif a lilKTal ediicitton. •Scholarsliip, therefore, 

l^inust cither (wrish or clinnge its chanicter. And, as vertuinty 

it will not be denied, even br those who do not appreciate a 

luiniliarity with the subjunctive mood, that it is for tho good 

ofiocii-ty that a knowledge of ancient history, nod a taste for 

' -v! models should attU flourish amongst us, we must ad- 

necessity of making the ascent of Parna«us easier and 

umti: inviiinR at the outset, even though we sacrifice something 

valuable in the process, To chau^ our metaphor, scholarship 

ii now in its old »^v, and must bo austniued by artificial mcuia. 

Thia is a truth on uhtch tho editon of tltc works we have se- 

loct<Hl for illuntrution have certainly acted, whether they have 

HBeouKii>''i^<l it or not. And, in fnct, all thi? Latin volumee of 

^K^ tiUJinih/Kti Claasiai wliich we hare read are even more re- 

^^Kr' r tho care bestowed upon aceoBSories than forcritt* 

^^H • titry on the text iteolf. 

^B Mr l':irr}''H Terence is an udmirnblc case in |wint. For tlie 
^■bjt flfty ^KAT)^ or so, and ]>crhapii lunger, Terence haii nut, with 
^■tno or two well-known exc<^ptions, been included within the 
^Hwdr i.rrtculum of schoid or oolle^ reading. What waa 

^^K^ His works are a magaxine of Latiniiy. There is 

^^^^■Mfueiiua in nil his ttix comeilies tlmn in a single satire 
^^^^^Bod or Juvenal, lie is wiuy, and gracd'ul, and human. 



814 Recent Contribtttioni to the Sluiij/ of Latin Literature. 

We can account for it in no other irnr than hj the (kct, th&t 
he lay a little out of the buateii trai-k ; tliut there were diffi- 
culties connected with the comjwsilion of his pluys in vhicl] 
eolleffC tutors did not care to inrotre themselves; and Ustli| 
that ois Tersiftcation was a. stumhlin^-block in the eyes of tbo 
■who would have shuddered at a boy rcadini; a Latin poet irh' 
ho could nut scan. But now all tlicsc dillicnltic-s have heei' 
driven from the ficlJ. Terence is i)luiTd before us in n [wsi- 
tivcly appetising shape. The hialor)- of bis pluvs, his metres 
and scansion, and his position in Roman literature, are all am- 
ply discussed. The young beginner is positively pampered with 
commentary, and is coaxed inui reading an act or two throu»h 
sheer shunie of allowing so much learning to be wasted on fatin. 
While his inslnictor can get up almost all that it is needful 
for him to know in a single morning. That tbi» cslition, there- 
fore, xvill lend a wholesome incentive to the >tndy of Terenee, 
and act, through bim, upon the general ]>opularity of Latin 
literature, wo sincerely believe, We trust to see him placed 
on a lovcl for educational purposes with Vin^l and Horace, and 
his cosy idiomatic Latin us familiar in the mouths ofcchool- 
1>oy!i Its the flowing periods of Cicero, or the artful conplett 
of Ovid. 

Although, however, it has fallen to Mr, Parry's lot to be the 
chosen instrument of editing what we do not aflect to doubt 
will be tbc standard edition of Terence, we cannot in josticq 
award him any higher praise than that of industriously cubl 
Iccting, and skilfully employing, a mass of scattered commcs- 1 
tnty previously in eslKtence. 8ome of this, he tells us. he hoi 
not wvn till after his own waa iini.died. and has arrived at the 
same conclusion with ]ireviuu8 investigators by an indcpendetl 
line of thought. We willingly give him the benefit of thi* 
avowal, and will now briefly nin over the various imponaat 
improvements embodied in the present volume. 

His essay on Tercutiini metres derives its principul intriasir 
value from being vrrittim in Kngli»b. Hentley had done tberctl 
work ; and. in llio chief points where Mr. Parrv lia< iinpniTw! 
on that great scholar, ho had been anticipated, as be adiait^ 
by Professor Key. The modern theories embraced underlie 
heads of synizesis and »ynalcepha had been enunciated in ti^ 
Journal of Edwation. They rclnte principally to the systttn 
of Roman pronunciation. For Bcntley's dictum, that such wordi 
as liabent, cave, &c.. at the beginning of a line, shorten ll>' 
last syllable even where it is long by position, they substitulf ■ 
contraction of the word into one syllable, pronouncing io*** 
'ha cut,' like tbc English 'han't' for 'have not' and 'eaaVfc' 
' cannot,' and in the same way making cave into caw ; and mort 



Hfcettt CimlribtiiiQns to the Studi/ nflMtm Littraivrf. 315 

liif tilt) aac* wliicli Itontlcy liod cx[>Uiac<l hy hiatus their brmjr 
liindor the litrai of synulu-pliu, or coalition U-twueti thu linal 
Iviini ' "able eniliiif; in i» ami the iiiiiiiil vowel ol'lhc ful- 

|]ow . I , "for elision," savM Mr. I'arry, "in our son«c of 

fllio Word, was unknown to the Itomana." 

A more intcrostitii; qucxtion to tlie scnemt roader will Iw, 
iv vxi«nt to which Tt-rcncc wiis induhtod tu his (ircek jirc- 
UecesKom. Vi'f. Imve litllc doubt that Mr, Parry has adopted 
).\ie correct theory. After bringiiijr tojicthor in a compact corn- 
all the fragments of Mennnuer which IVrnnrc itt mid to 
uavv imitated, and observing that '"a close comparison willslioir 
that hu did nat, at all event*, servilely imitate his master; 
Jiwt if ho copiod from a Greek oricinal, he drew with a Rotnaa 
[>oncil, and k«pt in view hiH own thmry of dramatic excellence 
M well aM the ncccsiiity of suiting a very diJTerciit audience to 
that which listened to Mcnnnder, ' — he pr(M:«ed:t to argue from 
Ihn abundance of tiree): literature which exisled at ilome in 
lis time, that he probably drew hirucly from other suiircefi as 
Tell as from Memmdcr. Thus it is the very extent of his pla- 
^ariiimH which priive^t him nut to have been u ningiarist ; and 
^e illustrates bis opiniuti by the analogous frce^iom with which 
i^bakr^peure heliwd binuclf to the niatcriabt which lay rendjrto 
it haniL 

Vr'u havn no donbt, we any, that tbla view 19 in the main 

OTWCL It ha*' been alrcaily adopted by Kmnigbof)', in bis 

fsnv cnlilleO De f-atione f/uain Terentitts in faMis Grirciit 

Inhne cunrtrrlfmUa mc«l>is vst, eommettaho.' Sot are other 

itm« Wanting, both (> jtriori and « po^frriori, why Terence 

pitiiit have I)«cii a very much more original writer than is coni- 

lionly suppiMc*!. 

Tiie ptrrjod of Roman history in which Terence wrote dif- 

i'rH widely from the period rd" Athenian history in which 

' r was popular. Tcrcnci; wrote in the flow of nntional 

■: Mtitiaiider, in the ebb. Hie one addressed himself 

I an audience buoyant, vigorous, and full of animal life ; the 

IHher VM listened to by critics, philosophers, and dreatnets. 

The Roman's was the era of unconsciousness and hoixi; th« 

lian'o, of self-soi-kin^ and d<-ti[Hmdcncy. Little did n 

le with the alfairH of the wurtd upon tlieir handa caro 

rnit the moml or religious pmhloms which occupied the 

luntrymcn of Mcnander. The unpolished centurion, fresh 

mm Pydna or the Tngus, would luugb hts liorso-latt^ at Uio 

ring k'tiuveries of the Greek slave or parwite. H« would turn 

IWay in disj^t from the sententious rhetoric of the flcepticol 

iutleman. ' Thus wc find in Terence little or nothing of that 

■ Culonias lH4:i. 




316 Recent ContrUmthm to the Study of iMlin Literattire. 

melancbolj- and reflective tone which would seem to have clia- 
lacterised Hcnandcr. We IlU^'G few upoplithi^nis, but plenty 
of "good business." His comeilic*, in a word, are tboron^falj 
popular titul iti'irthful. Toned down hv liia intercoorse with 
the most cultivated soctetj in Rome; out such, nevortbclcn^ 
as the most ordinary society could enjoy. 

In the next place, the fact that he shook himself free from 
the trammels of the Greek scnarius, Uioiigh condemned by 
Quinctilian, has been gencndly approved by modem critics 
and undoubtedly should hnvc ^rcnt wetcht in detenntninfr out 
Judgment on the question. While, thirdfy, the very small num- 
oer of parallel passages cited by the ancient wrilcra afiVinba 
strong prcsum|'tion that Terence ought rather to be rejiardtt) 
a« of jfenrtndcr's schoul than ns cither a copyi.tt or a plagiariit 
of that author. Tliis iwiiit has been well put by K<etiigheff: 

"Bed La9c inBi;;:iiis cujiudaeu ioter LattDUm et qacin hie imiUli«M 
eflingubut Uni-cuoi Foelam aJnuUtudinis cxcuijiIa iMud scto an ta»l^ 
aball ut, T<-rr»li» uSiciant, ut (uiigiicionera ilium ubiquo w paot« qnot 
iatei-|irct«tur iu Krvitiitttni quibd adtUxiue ah eo rcuiovere Tidcanlnr. 
Adverlit aralitxl tcholiutam ticulii Gra-ca et Ladiia utlul fen mtcrw 
dijr«Tru vidit. iu ut <[uad cum iL-cturibus cmnnmniuurctur digailiD ha- 
beret. Pouta autmn i^tinu* n huiic mcrcin ncniper tcnuisKl qui t>a* 
dam causnt excogitari pos^it ut tnlta liic illtc adiiolare, plenilBqW 
negligcrc scliolia&tio in incntcm vcnerit 1" 

Considering, therefore, that the spirit of bis pluys is Snmu, 
and not Oreek ; that he has followed his own taste in the» 
loction of metres; and thai the instances of imitation, wlwn 
we remember the inatcrials at his command, are remarkably 
fe\r,^we shall not ho far wrong in believing that Terence b« 
been unduly depreciated : and we trust, as we hare abtwiy 
said, that he will itoon resume hts jiriiper place in the fnst 
rank of Latin literatnra 

As 0. critical scholar, Mr. Parry's performance does not«eia 
in any way rmtiarkable. He is very careful, and has evidently 
not neglected to fortify all his opinions by reference to lie 
beat authorities. He is entirely free from the ()isagr«eahlt 
do^atiam of Xfr Macleane, or the tendency to irrelevant £» 
eertation which is a fault in Mr Long. But he has no prt««" 
sions to the scholar.>ihip of the latter gentleman. His noM 
however, arc useful, and, we should tliink, correct; wliik i" 
every Ihinjr relating to the framework and form ofthepbn 
he is certainly all wc can desire. Wo should add. that Uc 
Parry has fidlowed Uenlby in affixing a copious index «»**■ 
rum tt jihratium to his volume. 

Mr. Maclcane's principal fault wc have indicated. He >i 



KtaiU Omiributiotu to the SUtdg i^lMin Literature. 317 




tm road of dogmftUsinr on Ooultlful points, sud of lulling 

riviil cilitoD) on in?i({i»incant ones; but in nil oUtor n'-^pccts 

hU wwrk is worlliy of the series. Ui* short life "f JutciirI, 

put toffotlicr wholly from the OTidcnco furni&hcil hy the Satirea, 

ta ingniiitiiin, lucid, and prubahlu. Thg alntracU prefixed to 

eitcli wttira arc hucIi iuj to rob tlic mo»t unwilling tmvcUcr 

[ftlong ttic clanio road ofan^r «xcuu! for loitering. Tlioy ore 

'Vtiry (.tflon Almost ss serrioeahlc as a proHo truivlatinn ; and, 

barriu:; the evil vtfccts bcToro alluded to, mukt Ix! accepted as a 

' ■ uid toward porpetuatio^: tho study of Juvenal. Tbey 

uporsctlc ihu necessity uf dictionury ami ifninimar, l>uC 

: v^: thtt clue to lliu »iitl]i>r'ii incaniii^i and if they do nob 

li\ .; .11 a \niy'» tniiid »tj tirinly lu the old-fiutliioned procCM, 

:y at least provent his Wins disouuragcd m readily. We 

bid to BCQ also that Mr. Macleaiic is nn enemy to expui^ 

_ 1 editions ; indeed, in the csso of an edition like the pre- 

it, which, wu presumu, is intended as a monument of Enjilisli 

•cholnrshtp, it would «e4;ni uniiocfssary to ar^rnc the (juestinn. 

r. Maclciuie. liowevcr, hns thouglit it admaUc in his prefoco 

tnaku the foUoving brief atlu.sli.>n to the luhjecl : 

''I iHin) not tliought it right to omit any [uut of Uh'M Satirm. 

ier of tli« writer* i> nrcti tliran^bout, ind tko iptrit ttnm of 

it part« M niiuiifr-Ktty thnt of virtue. 1 have hud sumo «x- 

lU atboytt Mid 1 belioro tlut tliosc are (■xccfittona on wliom mtcb 

OS are usually cxpvtigcd nrv likely to have nn ibjurious effrct. 

leM b one ih'tan. lunl iIm slirn reproof of wantoiineia iu terms 

underotaiidd In uiulbt-r ; luiil fi;w iiiimls ful to sm liie dinbvnce." 

rthit). vre think, there can be no doubt. Bttt the barm- 

icu of ancii<nt writer.t does not, in our opinion, dciiend 

any diatinclion whit-h cxisls Iwtwcen wantonness and the 

I )f of wantonness." No doubt there is such a dif- 

11 II it is •■no which inlliicncct; rather our estimate of 

iti wrilvrH clmracter tliiiu the elVcct produceil by hix writin/ti. 

far inntanco, nobody would deny that C<nigreve wrote waa- 

uly. an'l lh*t Richnrdwn intended to "reprove wantonness;" 

" >o take the most liishly wrotisht scene in thi; J3mu'« 

i '«. and compare it with a well-known jtarullel passaeo 

it will lie impossible to di>uht that the hittt-r in the 

nis of the two. .Sinnll.-i, iigniu, alway* prnfewtcd 

' I _■ wantonncfiN" in fentinmul Co»»t Fnifi'»u, yet 

' ,-^.1 : and cornipting narrative does not exist in 

literature. Detincationij of vice, whether moral nr 
have tittle ba<I eflcct upon hoya when conlinod (o re- 
tons and unfamiliitr scenes : what i.^ to be dreaded 
nptiuns of vice which repri*cul it a." easy, accessible, 
ti^ous.— which are inc<»ii»i»tcnl with the firluo uf 



Mil i 

lOI''- 

bfi 

P» in-'' 



318 Recent Conlributiota to the Study <^ Latin Litemtttre, 



people whom we meet evety day, and insinaate tlie com^- 
bility of depondnnts or inferiors It is not thv ancient &atirifl, 
but the modem novcUtit, vrliu i* iiijuriotis to the morals of tfap 
young. A Iiid of si-xtceii or sflventeen might re»d over «J» 
Sixth Satir« of Juvenal twenty times without any loose vidi 
being awakened br it. Vice is t)tere presented ift him in such 
a totally stmnfrc dress, that he knows it not. What have the 
filthy orgies of the Roman Ki.-iietresNcs to do with him { It \» 
like rcadinj! of the Yahoi^^ What feclitif^ can iw roused in 
him by the monstrouti and distorted »)ii(]>cs which onlinaty im- 
morality assumes in those pages, but a mixture of wonder and 
loathing ? None. But probably not even these emotions m 
excited iu one case out of fifty. Wo appeal to all our public- 
school readers, if they did not take Appia and Catulla too much 
as a mattvr of cour^ie, to give even a [wising thought to the 
nature of their proceedings. Do they remember that these pssa- 
ages were ever made the sutiject of indecent jokes, or serrei 
OS a prelude to obscene conversation ? If so, their experience 
is very diSercnt from our own, and from that of all our >^ 
r quaintances. Wc believe that these de»criptionit arc grouDil uf 
. in a common mill with the rest of the lesion — that they excite 
nobody, and suggest nothing. It is therefore, we think, asatU-j 
fiictory feature in the present publication, that it repudiatest 
theory of suppression. Nothing is gained, we are certain, 
"driving vico inward;?^" It is bettor to have it on the snrftcf- 
Familiurity breeds contempt, hut concealment excites interW- _ 
And M we are quite certain tliat a lioy who is proof agaioft ■ 
nil other influences will never be corrupted bv the Classic*, w . 
trust that this stupid old system of expurgation i* expk>dt<l 
for ever. 

As a critical commcntatiir, Mr. Mncleane is, of course, vaJo- 
ablc. Yet, uf nil the contributors to the Bibliotheea Ctatiiti'. 
he is the one with whom we feel oflcnest inclined tn fliftr- J 
Ue seems, to us at least, to Iiave a special knack of taking lbs ■ 
least plain and straightforward interpretation of a <lijpB«J " 
passage ; while his positive manner of laying down the U*. 
and affecting to ridicule his rivnU, is a clumsy caricatiue ■''^ 
Uentley. We must support lliese nnsertioiis by a few exampitt 
premonishing our readers that it i.4 not upon any quctiioDftf 
technical scholarship that we enter the lists with Mr. UacletK 
but solely upon points which common sense is adeqnaU "' 
decide. 

In the 93d line uf the lirst satire, Juvenal, speaking 
tbling mania at Home, writes : 

— " 1liInplcxnl^ furor M«t«rlia centum 
Pcrdere «t honcnti ttmicam non reddere saTo." 



U up 

:ctte H 
Bti«-fl 



Recent Conlribtitiotu to Ike SUidg tff Latin Literature. 310 



H)it wbich Ur. Uiu:lciitic's note is : 

f " Tlie more tlinn niiulnc^ Iny in tlic sclfisbscs* of tite mao wtia (as 
HniDricUcxpliUDS it),afl«r losing tktl Wts money, slakes his slave's jacket j 
uid ItMring that tiito, never rt«ton?s it. The coiamentators oompue 
Pcnius (i. 54) : • Hcis coiiiitem lioriitlulum triti donure LtcerDu.' Bui 
r«iUere aumna bcro to resUire, aud 'a never equivaleiil to tLa situplo 
form dare." 

Now it flccinii to us that this interpretation, hcsides hcins rather 
iitrftincd, ilcKtroys the antitlic^it) : "To lose his huDdreds at 
ihc ^'aiiiinj^-tiihle, while his scrvantst go iit ragu." The word 
reddere, thoui;h not «(|iiivaleiit to tlie eiiiiijile dare, is cunLmonly 
used of fulfilhug an cngaccinciit, aa i-eddere proniUm, prtumia; 
and wc may easily suppose that a Roman master was under 
some sort of eni;agctncnt to supply his elavci! with clothing, 
"nie word may not be useil here in the sense in which I'orsius 
I vatadonare, ie. to make a voluntary present. That, indeed, 
I would weaken the force of the puasaKe. But it seems much 
^^inore reasonable to understand it of the ordinary relations bc- 
^■twccii iiiaiitcr and servant than ha iVIr. JUclcuuc cxpliuiis it. 
^B At line 95 of the sume satire, Juvenul says : 

^P ". . . . turn uportTila (niiDti 

^ Limine parm ncUt-t. turbic rapiuiifln wgatic." 

I Tlie aportula being, as our readers will remember, a dole of 
I meat scn-ed out by the rich to their dependants. Mr. 5Iac- 
^'icaoc eajE of the word toi/at<c: 

^H^ ■* Rupcrti says this ia »\nike,a cout^uiptuously, bocauae, uutlor tbo 
^Kfamperors, ouly tliu puorer uud vuI>[Ui- sort wore the toi;a. Tliis iit 
^nliou*en«e. He refei-:! to Hor. S. L 2. (i3, 82; wUicli uuly abowa that 

women of Lad duiracter wore u tngn iuat<-jid of a stolu. Tlie te>)ta wu» 

Worn out of rc*pRct to llic grvAt luaii, and it wiu counlcd bud last« for 
I any p«r»on of i-Mjiectatiility to go nbroiul iritlioiit it. At one time it 
I boaunc common for persons of family to go to tlie thcntrc williout tbo 

togft ; and Augustus put a stop to tlio practice. Turba tv'j<Ua, pou 

t4)gata, were commonly used fur the Itixuans.'' 

We helievv that toi/tUtts was a distinctive epithet of the poor. 
XIow often, or on what oecasions, tl'.c toga was worn by the rich 
we do not know ; hut evidently so seldom as to make it an 
unmistakablo mark of inferiority. The order of Augustas is a. 
sufficient proof of its unpopularity ; and there i^i n couplet in 
kMutial which would seem to imply that its use was Btnl cou- 
^Bfinfil to the theatre Of white cloaks he says: 

^H " AmpUtbeatralcs nos ooBiB«Ddainur ad ums 

^H Qaum t«git algcntcd albs laoema togas." 

^ But Martial is full of allusions which show that the toga wu 



820 Reeeni Ctmlribtttions to the Slady of Latin litcmtsre. 

spoken of "contemptuously." In sending a large vfooUco duk, 
caUed endromi*, to a friend, he saj8 : 

" IWicrii «el tounus, wd con Mt panporis wui; 
£Udc liU pro togiilk aiittiinus eodroauda ;" 

impTyitij; that tlie endromit was for the rieh man, and tlie I 
for the potir. 
Elscwhurc : 

" Exigi* a nobu opiirom (iuo finu tvgalun. 
Sou no, liburtuiii an) tiU tuilto lOMim ;" 

le opera togata being suited to a iiheriua. 
Agsin : 

" Vec vocat act (xeunni M^uiua. nee mnnent mlttli, 
Nee apoudet, n«c vult cn-'Jere, eed ncc babei. 
Tutia lamcTi noil dcot. tterilom qun cuixd amkuai. 
Khra, qunin fntuic miut tibi, Rama, to^." 

i.e. your poor fortunc-bunturs. 

In the only three passages in vhich tJie word occurs iu Ji- 
venal, it is coupled witn some de^radin^ association (Tid-mlSS; 
viii, 49), Ana after an attentive considcraiion <if tlieac pus- 
sges, we cannot tm how it chii be doubt«d llint togatua U tistJ 
of a ]>articukr class, and not of Kuinans genemlly. Thether 
this nos because the upper classes had lefl off the toga, which 
ecetns the most probable, or only because the lower class 
were seen in it in particular situations which more espcci^f 
invited ridicule, wo would not imitate Mr, Slacleane by licoi- 
ing positively. It siv:ms likely that the toga continued tot* 
the " best clothes" of tlie ]mor after it hud gone out of fashiM 
irilh the rich ; and, at all cTent,<«, there is no excutiv whatcRT 
for ]llr. Maclcane's imputation of " nonsense" to his ^dectcMt 

In sat. liL 31, wo nave the well-known passa^: 

" Quic fucile cat tcAn conduoen!, flumiiia, povtos, 
Stocaudaui etiiviem. ixiriuudum ud binta oadaTcr, 
Et pnobcro caput domiuA vctiale sub haat&." 

On this Mr. Macteane has : 

"A ulc by auction on the ]>ublic eccouut, aa ofoonfiscated {'■'^I'''{j 
Of (or rrcovcry of fines, or oi the jiroiierty of it niaa dyiiif; niUioiil «" 
or h^rs, or any tliiuj; else, waa ciilleii teOio. It wna coti(IucU<d tf ' 
pftKO ii> tfae presence of a public t-fficer, nml a upcar waa Ml ■? <* 
the spot where the auction look place. It may liavo bcca ealltd^ 
nttna in this place, bccnuxc tlic mUe tmiuif<nx(l to the panbafcr ib^ 
nittm, or owncnJiip, in the thing piirchotcd. Itupcrti's eoiy*daR * 
riomini* is rrry tmd. The Kpenr ii ssid to have been ilcrifed fmli' I"' 
practice followed in old tinu* in the selling of prisoners and bocCT** 
tlie lidd of battle.' 

Now Uiig note is inadequate in itself, and, at the fane tim^- 



^ 



Jteeent CoutrHrulioiu to t/m S/v</y of Latin LUcrature. 331 

trr uurair to Uu[icrU. A tnx wait paid tu the stuto apon 
rt-rjr lliiu^ »M in tlm fomm. Arturiiu undCatulus fiirnicit 
Ux. Vafjut renulc = oi}iila venalia^Mrvoa ntnaW The 
b) was tbe signal of the auction; and it was valloil don\ina 
I it regulated, an<l, eo t« speak, presided over, (ho pro- 
is. Mr. M At: Icii tie's cxplaiintiuii uf tliia word scenis far* 
in thu oxirctnC' Rupi^rii, in whoKc iMlitiuti uf 1.SS0 we 
no <i{fns til' a rvadin^ Joiuinis, Un*, >i'c think, uxplaiued 
bi'ttcr tUnii tliis. lie lakcH it to nietui Juuita domini, and to 
i^l'or to tlie " magistrate," whose presence pive validity to the 
r«u!utctioa. There are passages in Ovid, one of which he cit«9, 
rhero duminua 'i» used m an adjective in the same sense, eg,: 
' 8wi>iu( kJ doinuiam Dvrrm rowtn loram." 

It tlio ximplcr and more Juvunalian intorpretatiuD iti tu niskc 

on vpitltel uthanUt, witli the meaning wc Uaro here assij^od. 

In til 31.V/». Umhricius, in taking farewell of hi* friend, 

1 wlien nc\theruns down t<> Aquinum furaUttte fresh 

lid over fur himself from Cunia; ; adding: 

" ^tinuvai ego, nt pudet iUu^ 
Ailjiilor gijliijus rtniian cali(pxl(u in mgri*." 

low mUgaUis has always hcen aoflerstood to moon " etjuippcd 
>r war.' But listen to tliu lofty contempt of our editor : 

" 32u, Xi vndtt tV.'it, ' if tliey are iiut acltMued uf tnc i' lluit l^ if 

r Mtire* will curxlnccnd to uowpl ntj help, I will put on my ImoIm 

GOimi til ><iu. Tbu tWi'i/fC were thick bobmilcl Hbixw irum by 

ililMira. lirn; it apponra tlio name wn« gircn to rcrj- Uiick eliocM, mm 
a Rina woul^l wear in tlie ooantry. 1'ho notion of tlio contment. 

lira »tioat tiis going to JiivcbdI drcMcd like a soldier U woinlt-rriil.'* 

i^e confess tliat our own wonder arises from another source. 
Thy, noiiody ever meant that the man was actually to put on a 
liiform.jnck-boots and all ! Docs any body 8iip[iosc, wliwi the 
"iinentary cttnipaiirn \i talked of, that the dehitteH arc tu 
nifat Al'Iersliottf When Mr. Diitmeli iit called u gladia- 
:ii that he eatd raw hevf, and conu^" down 
i.iiins with a short sword, and drcasLil in a 
oat and heiinct I Or, lastly, when Mr. Macleane " took 
I" axainst all these eUIv eritics, did he ever in rvality 
loV« out of his own library? We cannot comprehend the |iro- 
jifiM of mind which dictates such a note on lX\v above. But 
■jdu* tliQ inlivn:nl lieauiy of the imasv, there are two other 
p)od rvOMlij why oi' 'i.mld bare a martial meon- 

fn the lir^t piucc, I' < lc and Juvenal deK-ribe the 

■ition oftbeir satires in metaphors drawn fmrn warfare; 
al osiwcially at the end of the firtt Mtire. in the lines 
ling "ciuM wJtiJ «(n'rta" Socondljr, Mr. Maclctne i» driTtp 



322 Receni Coiitnbtitioiu to the Slud^ of Latin Literature. 



ne tlie 
occtnH 




'^_1 

^ 



to assume a new mcaninfc for the word ctdiga solely to salt thi» 
passage. And thirdly, tu xay, ' I will come from one country 
place to iui<jtli<.^r in cuuiitr^ ^liocs' » utterly vapid, ruins tlM_ 
uiitithu^iis, uiid is ([uitc fureign to the style of JaveoaL 

We may tibscrvc, in pa^n;;. that at sat. vi 15:t, occt 
another nniablo instance uf Mr. Uaclc&nc's unfairness ton 
Itupcrti, who is included in the general censure, though 
quotcH at length the very scliulitr who, according to Mr. Mac- 
leaue, has alone given the riglit meaning of the pa-t^a^fe. 

Fa.ssing on to tlie seventh natii-c, whieh deals with thestttui 
of literary men at Itome, we anivo at the famous passage alxwl 
Statius and Paris : 

" . . . . se^nmini {mpt »ub»elligi verm 
Emirit intoct.-un I'lu'idi tiixi vcndat Aguwii. 
Itic ct niilitiic mullis Inr^itur ii<itiomn 
Scmcttri vatiuii digitus vircumli^L auro." 

" 88. /He et nuUtia:. He ^i^s on to aay that Fam used Iiii id 
flaeace with Domitiuii to get udvaiiecmc-nt for the \>oeU. Rupnti 
•uys, ' talte hax dida.' Il apitnm U> mc tu bo kiniUy iMid umI HoSj 
m«(uit townrils rariis wlione eoiidiict i» eoDtnutcd with tlint of 
proceftt.' 

Now are not these word^ spoken " «ifa» /" Mr. Miicleaoobu 
hero been led astray hy hi.4 anxiety to sneer at Uuperti 
sense of the passage xecuiN ])retty etear. There might be 
personal satire aimed at Paris in it, who of course was r^ 
to get as much power as he could, and who seems to have lurf 
his influence fur the bencBt of the literary class ; but tlicnli 
bitter satire against thu state of things which made the patrc- 
age of such a man possible. 

Further on in the same satire he says of tlie tkvyen: 

" Ipsi itugDa souaut. Bed tunc iiiituii creditor audit 
I'nrdpiic, vol M tcitigit heua uurior ilto 
(Jui Tciiit nd dubiiuii grsiiJi cimi codicv uomtu." 

Mr. Maelcano supposes ^'creditor" to mean the law^-cri o»ii 
client. We entertain little doubt that Madvig is right in n- 
fcrniig the word " creditor " to the speaker's own victim. Th» 
is no valid reason uguinst such a cuustruction, and it isK^ 
taiuly more in accordance with the {;rim humour of the pastt^ 
Wc can easily understutid Imw u needy advocate would es** 
himself if he spied hi.-i tailor in court. There is real fan ** 
»uch u point OS tliis. To say merely that he ut more vlodvciii 
when his client is present, than wuen he is absent, ii K*^ 
and frigid in comparijHin. 

Hero i.* a note, aiiparcntly introduced for the sake <t* 
stiarl at Addiiion, of which we can make neither h«ad oort*^ 
Juvenal is speaking of early Komau simplici^: 




I 



Jtectni Contributiotu to the Study of Latin Literature. 32S 

*' Tune rudii et dniu minri ncadna arte*, 
UrUbua ercnb. paodantm in parte r«pcilii 
Mi^oram utiticDm fniiKotwt itocuU mUea, 
Vt phalcrw ^iidcrot cqnuSf onttUtqiM euds 
RoibuIhd linniluiB fers iBanmMOero jtuMc 
Imperii Giit4^gaitiiioa mb tii|)e Qitliuot, 
Ac BUdani efl^om clf p«o vcnleutb et lastk 
PcixUntiKiao Dd pcrituro oftoidctvt liostl." rr. 100-107. 

\a wliicli Mr. Hacleano delivors liinuciras follows: 

" 106, Ae mutam fJS^fittn. 'llicrc in Bttppomd to bo on tlw hdnwt 
ft naked 6g;iro i)f Mars coming down from hcareii, with aliidd and 
pciir, BDtl filill in the air, ju«t as li« le n;|in!Mnt«d in a hknUI of Auto- 
iiiua I'tus, wlioti ho is visiting Ilia BslMp. TIte BcboUuitl. wlio Ivtd 
lilMlily seen thin i^roitp, Mja that tliia is wh«t the eDidlor Iiu* on his 
]m«t ; thau wliicii tioUiinf; »n he Ics* probahk. Adiliiton {Trat^, 
182) takct croitit fur tliia inlcr|n«tation ; but lie miglit have got it, 

' he tiiil not, from tlu: »ch<^ia«t Tlicro lias bfscn n grmt deal 

'-.lUt lilts ]iAKia(;<-, but I hoc no great liiRicnlty m it. JuTcnul 
' >ccn sndi a tiguro as he describes like that on tho abovo 
i>oU." 

tiovr whiit ijt the cditor'tt mcnninef He only t«))s ur that 
the rclidtinsi vms vrrong, ami timt AadUon vai doubl}- wrone; 
ml llicn adiln, that he kp«s no difliculty in tho pnsiiage. No 
oro dii wp, at jiresent. Hut if we agreed tn tin- two firet pro- 
UotiB, ire sliould bo at our wit's end. If it does not moau 
Ftliis group was on the licliuct, what can it moaii ? This 
ofeonloiniituous nirele^ncns is very objiv;tiuiin)ite. It U 
aost iinKnt!«fHctur}' to be t<>1d of titc only fulutinn oflered, that 
butliins: " L-AU be Icso prohaltle:" and then U) hear nothing fur- 
icr, but thnt thci-e i-i no "diflicnlty" in the pawij^ SucU 
course ccrtninly digplays au otld iioliuu uf tlio duties of nn 
litor 

Wf have not notici»t so many as half the pa««tgcs wo had 
tarko'I, but we tnistiwe have done enongb to substantiate our 
We say that Mr. Maeleane must condescend to tlte 
■'9 ofoniinary men, and give a reason for his ccMnlric 
iuus, if ho really wi^hv» to be useful. He has far too higlt 
timnte (if his own powers of sarcasm, and Ki-enit to have 
ttt«n that the world ha« reaK«<l to care for the <|uarrclii of 
'in as it once di<I. Ijot him prune hU next cditii-n of 
.10 of Iii« faviiurilo epithets, and write a little Icsa iw cath$- 
ird, and his volume will bo iinprovod very much. 

Tho next vdlumo on onr list is one from whose merils we 
l»B"ri» u" ib-iii.-tion* to make. It is a model example tif the 

! iriticism. It is well known to scho- 
I'f Cluetitius is otic of the most diffi- 



S24 Recent ConirtbulioHi to the Study of Lalin LUeraltirt. 



cult and technical of his speeches ; ire nuke bold to say tbaf 
Professor Ramsay has rendered it one of the easiest and most 
intercsiiDg. lie has carried uut the idea) of* modern editor 
to its ftdlcit extent ; and in ito doing, has cerlAinly robbed lus 
eobject of that " painful pr«<fminence " which Kiebuhr assigned 
to It as an instrument of education. This, however, is, as «c 
have already stated, only what wc must i-xp).>ct Tliv singiiUr 
lucidity and conciseness with which tlic pntfes^r unravel* the 
tasked threads of the ca.s«; the dramatic power with vhicli 
be plaoes before us the conduct of the principal actors; tht 
thorough mastery of the subject, which enables him by a stroke 
of the pen to indicate motives which Cicero has neglected to 
explain ; his clear exposition of law, and well-timed vxertioDf 
of schulumhip, — liavc each in turn elicited our wunneHt admita- 
tion : and as we are quite sure of the service we shall render 
to the cause of education bj eontributins such aid as we nii^ 
towards a general knowledge of its merits, we shall make eo 
apology for oSeriog some considerable extracts to the attentHB 
of our readers. 

The prosecutor and the defendant in tliid famous trial irere 
two iionian ;;eiitleiiieii of the eipiestrian rank, natives of tlis 
town of Larinum in ^iamnium. The defendant Oluentius, offA 
tJiirty-scvcu, was dialed by Oppianicus with an attempt ts 
poison him. Clucntius had some years before charged tii ft- 
tJicr of Oppianicus with a like attempt ngaiuvt himscK Mil 
had obtained a conviction. But, owinjt to circumstances nen( 
sufficiently cleared up, it had come to be commonly belicnd 
that the Terdiet had been procured by briberr. It was upM 
the odium under which Clucntius had laboorou in conscqiMin 
of this suspicion that bis present accuser principally kM, 
the direct evidence of the ofiencc charged nguin$t him htSf 
very small. To the dissipation of this injurious calumny Cico*> 
devotes the greater part of his defence. ,And the gist ofit *i 
that the character of the elder Oppiaoicns was so notorionilj 
infamous, and the jury who convicted him so far comvittw 
by certain prcviuu.i verdicts, ns to hare rendered conai*"* 
enperlluous. The whole hitttory of the life ofOiipiunicus sew 
had therefore to bo raked up ; and a more appalling and bHl>' 
l»lo revelation of social depravity than is here present*! •• 
us, it is indeed difficult to imagine. Murder, the procurini 
of abortion, forgery, and perjury of the most a^igravatcd <hA 
bribery unhhi^Iiing and systematic, and sensuality of thegw*" 
est character, recur in cliOerent coinbinatioiis tbrougli m^ 
pages, in various individual, Ixxh male and female Om <" 
the very worst amoug them was Sassia, the mother of Clsa^ j 
tius. ^e was stained by almost every one of the abov»-BatPW i 



Wwm/ ConirihiiHtma to the S/wrfy of l^tin IJleraHire. 825 



imeB, nnd twice sought th« death of litr own son. There is 
HiiDcthitiii Titjtnic in the wickcdncM of those times. Pope 
itl Carttiiinl, Uodicl ami Borgia, nnk into insignificance be- 
uri! ihv coliiMsnl critninntitT of old Rome It wiu th« rapid 
>wlli cif tliewo evils after the hocibI war that led lu the 
tmoiit of the statute under which l>oth Ulnentiiui and 
jticiia were indicted ; and we must here appeal to our 
Aathoritjr : 

" SiiUu. M Mou ns hU power wu firmlf aataUiihccl, muJe great 
Kertt(>iu lo reprras tlie oxccmcs for whidi l>c hinisdf wm iu nu xmall 
.^ I rtHmuiiailil« ; oikI among many otlicr weighty meamres, enacted 
be taw wtifiir till« we liKve j^vcu above — n law whieb must tie tv 
~ <<t 01 i>r lliD liij^twt iu)|iorlaiice tn tlie Uitorj- of tbu Reiuun code, 
■taee it acrvral mi the iHuiia of all tuibaetgucnt lugulatiuu on tlie aame 
cliwa of iifTrnirM, nnd iN, in eon*V4iienoc, re]>vatcd1]r refcrrrd to and 
,,,(. > I.,' ii.,. jiiriata of tlie empire, \\m pfovinoni can be ascertained 
^•ertninty from the omtioi) i»ow before ob and frwrn tlie 
")i^'- J ""ii"ugb the slatcmcnls iv>ntnii>rd ta the Utter niwn be re- 
ived with n terlain amount of caution, ta the original HlotuTe is not 
giiriitly confounded with, or at koat not distiiiginahed from, tlie 
I udilird to it at dilTerciit |)erio(b. 
Tint ehiijiti-r Ireaieit of roblien and awinrini, compr'^iended 
drr Ihi' gencml term Hif^ni; a nonie derived from nea. a short 
kcd ttw'inl or dagger, wliicli wm ngardod as th«r characteristic 
'T\\o pcDolties or llio law rxteBded not only to tliosc who had 
committed robbery or mtinlcr, bot to every oue who tsotdd be 
to have ^ne about nrmed with the intent to commit ntitienr 
' murder— fuf euw Itlo ainbtthtierit AeoMRU nKondi Jvrtire /aciendi 

UHU. 

Hie nrUi ehajiter treated of iiobonlug; and the |Mma1tini extended 
rvnry one wlio could tie proved to have compounded, aold, bought, 
lu hi* }<oMe«noD or adtninuit<'red, poiaon with intcat of causing 
ih — ^<J /fvrit, Vl'tirln-it, roKrU, futbiurit, tMmi. 
l.Xlirr ebn)>lors trmtetl of anon, and probobl}- of parricide. 




I'. 

BUT 



a\- 



hi 



lo lliese there was a chapter which treated of what 

ii.-ial mnrtler, extending tlie ]>cnidtiei of the law to 

1.1) ijc proved to have given tolae cridcnoe, or iodacnl 

fidae evl<[enee, or have combined or coiupirol in any 

iviire the cunvicl(i>n of an imiuceul mau when cnuuiully 

nr, ifih-liii^ in lln- (Ttfiiidty of a judge or juror, have re- 

f'tr itiiit (lurpoHi.-. 

u rcmorkiii'Ii- speciality in tlits chapter; for while in the 

in iiswsjiiialiiin, pmbon'mg. ^c. Ihe jieuidtiea of the luw vrert 

i 1,'aiii-'. nil whu inr;;!!! Iw prureil j^lltj', witliotit diiitinction 

men and women, bund and trtx, the |>aialtie<i for 

I ...1 ;,, i;,.;.,i murder *■■■"■" r"*'''*' ■-' '-■ 'I-^mc who had 

' r fiiim w). < ' oidinaucH 



r Italia, lite jiiivm 111 >.i iiiiiiud trials wvtv ■ricv-ii-'i i-^-.-uiitdy." 



326 Recmt ContriAuJims to Ihe Studg of Latin LUeraiure. ^ 

But now comes the Rincular feature of tlie ewe — nngular, 
wc mean, to s modem Engtiahman, but perfectly familiar to a 
Roman. Cloentius did not come within the provisions of tK« 
act ; he had «U a seat in the senate. Under our own qrstem 
tho flaw would have been fatoL But m a Boman cnuit was ac- 
customed to reg<ird the spirit of a statute ns well as the letter, 
and 09 Uw Cornelian law had been passed when none Iwl 
senators could Mt as jurorH, whereas now the equites had been 
admitted to this pririlcge, the jury would have had little scruple 
in stretching it so as to corer an offender of that rank. 

" Tho fact IB, lliat, acconiing to the letter of the Uw, Clocntiac wm 
exempted from il« operation, but not according to the spirit Tbe 
object of 8d]I* in the diaptcr was manifestly to check tbe comptin 
wliK-h had, for a loi^ pefiod, notorioosly preraHed among tbe fdga 
and Jan»s on criminal triab ; while, aeeording to auolber of hi* oMi- 
nanoeis the right of Nerving wt juror* wa* restored to llie «enale to ibi 
exdnsion of all otbi-T onleni, mhI Ui«Tcforc the word* uf tbi* porttMi (^ 
^ statute were made applicn1>l<^ to Ibcm only. Some years befon tk 
trial of Ouentius, in ilc 70, a change had taken pinoc, nnd by tbe Xff 
Avrdia the juron upon criminal trials were a mixed body. cboicn&i)a> 
the senators, tlic membrrs of tho equeetrian order, and tbe IVibuni 
Aerani. Hcdci', although no alteration had, at the same jMsiod, l<m 
introduced into tho Ltx ComtUtt tk Siearii*, it uii^bt liave beta Inily 
aigue«l tlial tlie ctuitxes in that law which were evidciiEty introdootdta 
rcprcM corruption nmong tlie l>ody of criminal jurora, and thenfint 
were made Applicable to those who st the time when tbe lav ru 
paB>cd were alone ijunlHicct to act as such, ought in faimcts to spplf '' 
all who were eligiUe to perform the same functions, altboegh a nuici> 
larger body of men would now be inolnded. 

It id extremely probable that tlie jurors npon tbe trial otOantiH 
might have ))eeu dUiiosed to take tbis view, and t)iu» Cioen> fomi ' 
Rccetiwry to- concentrate all bia forMA upon what be knew to bt Ik 
weakcirt side uf hin punition ; white be at the nunc time ^MtatA ^ 
bis dicnt the credit of marcliing ont into the open field, and eU- 
lenging bis opponent, when be might have remained in perfect •motiI; 
CRtnnehed behind an impregnable bulwark of legal tecbnicalily' 

Cicero elinmk from staking his case upon its li^l ncriti, 
and covered his unwillingness to do so by an affected KOia 
of forma lilies. These clear and precise statements rcmoTtiB 
difficulty from the latter part of the defence, and conref i^ 
necessary information in a much more useful shape tlM "• 
assumes when scattered through the voluminous notes uflh' 
Long. 

Alt the crimes and all the criminals, either detailed W*'* 
ludod to by Cicero, arc brought together by Professor R»o>»! 
in a couple of pages, with u few words of comment upon coco. 
ItcUtioHithips arc carclully c.i:hibitcd, and people of tie s*' 



i 



^1^ Receni Contrihuiions to the Studi/ of Latin IMeralure. 327 

name distinguislied from each other. Here i& one fp'eat source 
H of embarrassment removed nt once. Wc can now take a binl'a- 
™ eye view of the huhictous and perplexing dramatis perswce, 

and keep the thread of the oration from getting twisted with 

■ Tery little trouble^ 
On the subject of disputed reading.'*, — a source of great 
vexation and fatipuo to younij students, — Mr, Ramsay has the 
following soothing observations : 

A youDg scholar wlig tiikc« up what la called a complete critical 
Icdition of a Greek or Romnn writer,— ^)nc namely in which all the 
various readings HUpplicii by Mss. and «arly odltious, or derived froui 
cDDJocturo, arc enumerated t>ad diecu&sed, — Vfheu be observes timt there 
is scarcely a Une of the original iu whicli all our authoritieii ubiolutely 
ooiDctdi^ and that tiot uufrequcntly « diiuse of three or four woni* i» 
pnaented uuder bulf-a-duscu diflV'reut foinis, in a])t to believe thiit tlio 
text of tbu cliuuiot iii involved iu doubt and euiifuxiou ; tlmt wc have no 
Ruonabte ccrtniuty lliut wl- ar« reodiug n singto Hcntcncc exactly iis it 
iosurd from the lip* of tlio <imtor, or wiw indited by the pen of the 
hittorinn; and thatwceannot even feel eonliih;iit that uic gcueral scope 
and force of their cxprcs^^ions has been correctly transmitted to uu. 
But Upon tnoro close examination he will discover that his first impres- 
aon is altogether erroneous; that tho great majority of the varioun 
readings are eutirclv destitute of importance ; that of the rcmutiidcr a 
lai^ nunbcT, although pcrlinpit occiMiouidly involving Homo delicate 
point of granunur or eriticisin, du not Kcriuuily affect the meaning of 
ihe pMsagc in which they occur ; mid thnt the residue, consisting of 
Ihote which produce a marked vnriittion in sense, is, eoiti<i(lering all 
rirciuustances, woudcrfuliy small. These, moreover, have been so care- 
fully tufted and wluuowed hy the [latient labour of acute and learned 
men for ceuturies, that it is not too much to say that, with the excep- 
tion of a very few wuteueea which are hopelessly corrupt, — and of these 
in the pleading for Clucutiua there are not more than three, or at mo»t 
four,— -the Oralioni of Cicero are, for all pruoticul |>urpo3us, as correct 
as tbe n^rts given in our tH.-Ht tiew^s]iupi'r^ of the npecchcs of our 
■enatora and lawyers, while tlie text of tho Grci^k trugedinnji is more 
certain than that of (>h,ikcspcare. 

We propose now to divide into clnssot a large mass of the various 
agt f^wa ill detail by the etiitors of Cicero, and to point out that 
may be regarded as of no consequence in so far ai the meauiug of 
the author is couc^enied ; and it will theu be fuuud that when thi^se are 
•truck ofl*, and when those which, altbaut;h they caimot be regularly 
cUHiRod, are at onee rejected by any eompetifut m^holar have been 
elinunatcd, the number which rci^uirc cooaiueration in comparatively 
trifling." 

Many a boy will "bless the useful light" thus poured by th« 
professor on this disnial and diBcouraging topic. The toils of 
those baneful commentators who have ruined the peace of so 



aenat 
Kcertai 

Ir 



838 lieceni ConlribtUiona to the Stwljf (ff Latin LUcratttre. 

niaojr A collu^ frcsliman will henceforw&rd bo estinuUvd At 
tlii^r true value. We cannot help likening the professor to tbe 
SQddess Sabrina, " helping" 

"AUiUInehrigM M 

Which the nhniwil modilliiij cJf ddigLu to malcc ;" ^ 

and wc commit ti^ lii» benignant inAuence the spirits of all sharp 
boVN made stupid which aro about to break thcmselres on this 
celebrated oi-ation. 

The professor's notes upon tbc text arc short and to the 
purpose.-. His explanations of uarticular word* and idioms an 
more scrTiccablv than Mr. Longs, vbo sometime)^ as in the case 
o(penana (cap. xxix.) and loc«s (cap. xx.), passes over points 
which certainly require comment. Mr.RamsaT^s notes on both 
of these words are excellent. The former is interesting froai 
the many controversies to which it bus given rise, cspeciallf] 
that between Milton and Salmasius. Ur. Kaitisay's opinion i^ 
that persona 'u never used in the purest irriters to express "an 
individual," but is always U) be explained by the character or 
part which a man sustains before tbe world. — that whicb be 
ae«ms to be on the stage of life. Elsewhere Mr. Long tdb u 
that it is (rcnucntly uacd in its legal sense of " penou' » 
oppose<l to"tm«gs;" and hence, with the true lawyer's rae- 
(lilection for regarding men merely as creatures agaioft •Don 
legal pn>ceediRgs can be taken, he would always transhlc the 
word simply as " the man," or " a roan ;" an explanation «fcidi 
Mr. Macleano has applied in Juv. iv. IS, 

— " quiiui dira «t faMior omni 
Crimine persona ctt," — 

but in our opinion erroneously : Juvenal rather means that li» 
character in now siicli that nothing can disgrace iL The [«>- 
fessor's notes on pyasiKoieyiii (c. xxvL) and committo (c.xxxiv.)in 
also good specimens of bis easy and unpretending scholarshifk 
In the interpretation of disputed passages Mr. Ramsay's 
knowledge of the language and excellent judgment slio* (■> 
great advantage, lie has attained that happy medium brtwten 
obscurity and diff'usone.'ts which nnlhing but a sound intcl!<e- 
tual digestion can ensure. All his argumenta are well-pn^'ir" 
tionwl, and pervaded by a kind of equable noonday brijmmcft 
which never leaves us ut fault for a single instant He is vs.- 
hauslire, and yet never tedious. As special instances of bo* 
macli can be done in a small space when the workman is madtf 
of his subject, wc would mention the note on aUwttot (^*^ 
xiii.), on aixerunt (cap. xxvii.), on the words at ia eri mm jw"*" 
hoi (cap. xxxiiL), and on litia aetHmatio (cap. xli.). Tb' '^'•f 
is so good an illustration of the professor's powers, as »w 
u so interesting ia itself for the light it throws upon BontU 



Rectni OtntribtUions lo the Study of Latin Literaivre. 



I 



criminal procedure, that wc iniiflt quote it cntbe. The Latin 
stands thus : 

" Ilic profcrtur id, quod iudiciiim (ip[>ollari uon oi>ortet, P. Sepd- 
uio ScacTolae litem co nomine esse ae^timatam. CuiiiN re! ijune von- 
BDe4udu sit, ([uoniam apud boniincs iwritlssinios dico, ijliirilnw vcrlii* 
dooere nou d<l>«i. Nunnuam euini ea dili-rentin, iiuao nalvt. luihibcri 
In eet«ris iudicIU, catlem, no damnato, udliibiUi eat. Ili>. In lilibiu 
acBtiinandia fere iudice*, aut, (luud aibi cum, qucm acme) condcniDOr 
runr, iiiimicuin putant cshq, ai qua in cum lis cnpitio illata est, noD 
odmitlutit : nut, ijuod sc imrfunctoit tiuii cw orbiliaotur, quum dc reo 
indicnrtiiit, iicgligciitiuH attcndunt ccUsra. lta<iuo et luidcatatia al>ai>- 
[ati sunt pcTiiiiilli, quitiUR dnmnatia, dc {Kcuniia repoluudts, Iit«a easecit 
RMtiniatae : et hoc qaotidis fieri videoius, ul, ten (luiiiiiatu dt- pouuuiia 
npetuodia, ad quos porvenisae pecuuiaa in litibua uvitlnmudis stututum 
■t, eo8 illi iudicca alisulvsnt ; quod quuiu Gt, uuii luilicia rcxciudiititnr, 
•ed hoc aUtuitur, aeatimationeui litiuu nuit cmu iudicium. Sou^volii, 
tiondeuuiatuK eat aliia cricuiuiliua, frequcutiJuitiiiii Apulinu tcntibiiB. Omni 
WntaitiuDO ])uj^iatuit) c*t, ut Da have cnjnttH nc'timnretur- Qune res 
■i rci iudicaUie noiiduH Imbuivict: illc piistcn, vul iied«u, Tcl aliis in- 
inuciw, rcuii bnc lege ip:in fnctuM tascU" 

JhtoteeaoT Ranway SB.ys : 

^B " I. T\it I'tlU A alimalio, iu criminal friid«, bcl(>nge<l. ulTictlj' >p cak- 
ing, to thoN cniic* oidy in wbicU tbc mittnpprnprinlion of money by 
aome public eerv&iit Comicd the main charg«. Sucli w«rc inipeacbmcals 
Jie iZqMtanifu and De Ptciilalu. If, for example, a provincial governor 
WM ftrandfju'Ity Wider tht Lar Sfrviliti ofhaviu)- extorted mouey from 
thoN under lua sway. lie iras uot only cumpullcd tu go iuto exile, but 
sbo to make rcntitutiuu of wliat be luid uulun-fuUy neixed. Tli^ jiuii- 
iabmciit ya* tbuK twofold. The jury, afUx tlioy liud bruu);lit in tlirir 
eencral verdict of guilty, prucced<^d to detcnuiite tbe amount to be re- 
nmded ; and thin na^ llic Litis Aalitruitio. 

9. Id fixing tlic sum* to be rrfmid<Ml, flipy were required to Kpccify 
on what ground or score (tjiio nrxninr;) eafh mim vna fixed, olating tha 
jwrticulara of tbo offence for which rrt'titution was to bo made. 

3. In performing this part of their duty, tho Jury had frequently 
•a Oftportuuity of modifying' tbe jtunialimeut of tbe criminal. It ia 
fnieni tliut wbeu a charge waa bruu;{bt ^euenJIy D« Maieatate or De 
Jin, tlii'rc must liuvc been uti intbiiw number of degrees of 
and allliough canli of tbue oHcncm vttut nominally a Crimen 
tunny ca*** might ocuur in ivhii:-b the amount of guilt wa* 
I amall, or the ciiViiniElniici'Ji no extcnnnting, tbnt the infliction of* 
Poena CapHaiia would linve been linrsli and unjust. Ro, in our own 
VoUrt^ a person may be accused and found guilty of .ffitruLiuijJiter; but 
ittia tenu ooinprcbcnds all degrees of culjiability bctwcim tlie cstreine 
nit ii( an act of bouiicidc vcr;;ing upon wilful murder, nml one in 
vlucli (he cntualropbe IS the result of it sligbl imprudence, Ilenci^ the 
F^nmi^micnt varien fnnn penal servitude for lift to a mere admonition ; 
tlie amount of ptiniiihmcnt, aceording tu the praclicc of English COdits, 




830 Recent Contribtitions to Iht Stvdy of Latin Literature. 

botng <lolortnin«d by the judge. Now it wonid nppcsr tlutt the ludiee*, 
when thej stated in the Litis Aeatimatio od whail ecore (^wr nomine) 
tbef fixed th« smount tu be paid, might make tlie offence oppor o( 
the moat seriutiA or most reuiat deBuiption, and tbej mif^lit ereo ex> 
peMd tlieiu!i«lvfN iu such tenns as to lay tJie ctOprit o|i«n (o a aew 
unj) elicit PI tut fur ou offence tnoK aerioua tliau Uiat for wliicb lie via 
uudtr ti'iul i but gdicrnlly spenking ibi-y wrv in thi' luibit of Imtinz 
to the »dc of mercy, nnd »uving him from the [i«iuhie« of a Lia C^f 
taltn. In point of fnct, wc mny infer fmm the exprcMiou tised in 
chapter with rcgnnl to SciiovoIa — omni cemtm&mt paffnalunt ttt, vt J 
hano eapitu aettimarelnr — that vrhva an individual was found KUil^' 

Senerally of *ny offence which Admitted of nianjr gradations of guih, it 
epeuded upon the ufituro of the tUU AtMiinalio whether tbe yoma 
ms to be CimtaUa or uot, the ludices dlacboTjfiug tlio duly wbicb <!(■ 
TolvM upon tne judg« oecordbii; to our ayatein. 

. . . tntVfiicum imtant cayn.] Two rcaxoDi are liGre aangneil wUtk 
'tended tu rvnilcr Jnion lenient or enrelexi in the LUi* Aaiimatio. 

1. They lirtirve tlint the )>crson tbcy have found guilty will lode 
upon thcjn as hi? pcrsonnl CTiemiM, and therefor* they dcnrc to prow 
that they arc willing to befriend him a» fnr as they ean— n jua m om 
lit cayUi» illaUt est xoit tubnitluiU. 

2. Tiiinkiii;; that their dnty aa jurors haa been dtscbargcd bj bRQ- 
iug in a vertlicl, they are ludiJIereut and canle^s about the satM^noit 
proceeding— j«v;/(jm/iui aUeiulunl ctUrra. 

Ila/jue a ii,aifJiliUi)i.] Thi« ik the most de«])Cntt(! ftenttBM iD ^ 
whole pawnee. We hnvc given the text of Orelli, whidi in •uj^ortri 
by all Mhi. except A. It ; but I am unable, without great rioleno^b 
twiat aoy sntisfaetory meaning out of the word?. 

A, B iosert viiaii-ttafig before asent, and the text stands tlitD m 
the edd. of Class, and Buit.; 

Itatjue eC viaiciitalit aiiitulall mint pennvUt, ^Unti dapnudu «f 
fieevniis rtpflundlt UCr.t maiailalia ajicni acMmiUae; from vhteh ^ 
followinj; meaning ih extracted : Very :niiny jm^^oiis having been tx^ 
guilty wlien impcachc<! /> llijtdujtdit.antl the jitron in thtLkitA^ 
matia having implied that they were guilly oi MaUMas, hare, *)A 
broiiglit to trial for Maiestaa, been aei]uittejl. 

There ean be no doubt that this ia a distinct meaning ; bat 1 b** 
tate to adopt it, because it appears to me to bo eonipletelr at miaoce 
with the tenor of Cieero'a observaUom. The orator, in tbe prwri"'! 
sentence, if I imdcr^taud it aright, liiu usserled that the jutortK*** 
for the most part loose and lenient lu the f.itia Afaliinatio. Jla^ ^ 
contiuuea, as u proof of this — and then follumu tlie *eiitenee Ixtore *• 
but tliiK, according to tite interpretation of C1u«Ken, Cir from beinS ** 
illustrntion of the careless leniency of jurors, wonld be rather a f^' 
ofrindictive persecution, siuec by the terms of thdr Zi/w j(«rf<"*'" 
they laid open the accused to a IVesh charge ofa most serioui (^ 
racter ; and this had happened in the case of veiy many in^riJiw' 
(/WTimfti). , 

. . . Oil quot piTvaii»ti! jtentnian.] VTlien »a imlividiul vU *•" 



I Recent Conlribuliont to the Study <if Latin Literature. 331 

Irictcd D« peeunii* rep^ututt*, nnil order ml t« mako restitation, if hia 
I propeiir provcil inadv([tint« to yield the buiu fixed, un inquiry was in- 
' t-tiUttnA to discover the persons into whose lianda tlie uiMiu]; property 
Wl passed, and these peraoiia became thetunelves liable tu tui inipeadi* 
uiCDt De Se/xittiuli/i. Ciceru here udcluocs ait uit iidJiticiual proof of 
the leniency or juron, that, a(UT having, in a I.!iU Aeatimatio, Gxed 
npon the uer^cinst iutu whose hundi the pnigivrty tmluwfully iicijuirvd 
lud pOMed — lliu rl»ett(^r3, as it were, of thv rtiilcn goods — tliey had 
refused to convict these persons whrn brought to trial. 

. . . vil'u haw eapUi* ntdimaixtur.^ 'i'ho meaning seems clearly 
to be th»t which wp hnve tntUeateil above : Bi.'aevola was found giiilly 
Igr the twtimony of very many vitnoaac^, upon a charge altogether un- 
connected with tho trial of Oppianicua {aliiii irimitubuti). The greatest 
exertions were made that the I.itU AaiUmatio stiould be in auch tcrm.t 
U to render hiiu amenable to a Pomia CapHttUs. Few will be disposed 
to adopt the iuterjiretul.ioii of Miiuutiun : ' The gi'eute^t exertionii were 
made that the Poena Cupitalis iuvolvoil in this charge (uf liat.e lU ca- 
piti») abould be commuted for n fine' (arMuivirftur). 

However much wc may iliflrr with regard to the true interpreta- 
tion of some of the above clauses, the argumcat of Cicero u perfectly 
intelligible. 

' One of the facts adduced to prove the guilt of Cluentius is, tb&t 
the jurors who cuuvicted P. Septimius Seaevola slated exprcsaly, in 
their Litia Aettiniatio, that he bud received » bribe on the trial of 
<~>ppiwuoUN ; and this,' oontiuiict the orator, 'my opjionenta call a legal 
decision (iWiWum). But f need not tell you, who arc »o well versed 
in procccdtngit of this sort, that a Liiii AetHmalio is not a legal deci- 
sion (tWtciuiri). la the first place, it is notottoiu that jnrnre, after 
tl>ey lukve brought in a verdict of guilty, are disposed (o be lenient and 
canlesa in the LilU AejiCinuitio ; and that even when, in the course of n 
£,iti» Aeirtitnalio, they have indicated the guilt of a third person, they 
oftta refuse to cvnviet that person when brought to trial before them. 
I Kroin no point of view, themore, can a LilU Aesimaiio be regarded a» 
I a ludiemm, and it ought not to be called by that imuie.' " 

^K Wo hare never until nvw sccu this pnsmgu vxp1»iiic<] en- 
^■tircly to our ^a^i5fuctioIl ; for the slight hesitation evinced by 
^Vtlie prof«S8or at the words itar/ne et maiestatis nhsolnti sunt 
■ J*«ni«oW, scarcely detract from its completeness. AV'e tliink 
'fie word maiesiatis before eBaent ought to stand, as it does in 
'^ng's edition. Cicero has said that the jurors were for t]ic 
l^ost part loose in the litis aestimatio, and sometimes lenient ; 
hut clearly not always. He says that sometimes, wlien a pre- 
^'*>ug capital asseHsment of damages wiLs brought up against 
* man whom they had found (tuilty, they did not allow it to 
*eiyli in their present assessment (won admiltunt) ; and then 
*«d8 generally tW they were negligent on this point because 
ihey thought their work over when the" verdict wa.s agreed 
*^ton. The inconsistencies in their conduct sprang sometimes 



332 Recent Coniriiuliota to the Study (^ Latin Lileraturv, 

from mercy, and sometimes from carelessoesa. As ao instance 
oftbe latter, he cites ilie ireU-kaovD ikct, that men (evaA 
gaAVf oi repetundae had had damages aoeascd for mmtttas; 
and then says that this assessment vas ncrer regarded as a 
l^al declaration uf their ^ilt, for nhen hruught to trial for 
maietta* they were acquitted. The words aeytiiientiwi attra- 
dunt cetera do not at all preclude the idea of tne jurors mroe- 
tnnes erring on the side of severity ; and Cicero seems to 
have f^ivcu the two sentences, ifique et maiesbitis and et iec 
qwtidie, as instances of each failing. Mr. I^onp's note on thit 
jMUSOge is exceedingly ohacure, and hiit expfanatton of t&e 
words ontM cotiteiUione pugnatuw eiA tit lis htuc cupitit tulA- 
vMretar far from so uhvious and reasonable a£ Mr. BanuayV 

In conclusion, wc would call attention to Mr. Ramsar's 
notes on cap. x[vi. relative tu the punishment of soldiers, nad 
cap. Ixiii. on the slaves who were put to the torture. In t»A 
of these passages he contrasts farourably witii Mr. I^m^, from 
whom he differs ; and though in the tatter oftbe two ve raa- 
not aerec with bis explanation, yet be states his own case mm 
clesjly aud strongly tnan his predecessor. 

Bat the vacation has airired. A truce to the qntrlu anil'f 
quibbles of our learned friends, and poets reciting in tlie 
diw^days. " fortuvaiox Jtimiifum, itua n bona itvrittt, Am- 
com," wc exclaim. We will put on oar calii/ae, as «i 
Muclcaiic would say, and go to Dr. Daubcny, — to a land af 
com and wine and oil ; and so will wc glnddcn oar hearts 
and make our countenances cheerful, and fui^t the bunon 
of murder and the dusty mysteries of the law. In trvA, 
a pleasanter rolume than this one of Dr. Dawlieny's « 
should not care to look for. It is a peculiarly English hoik, 
and appcal.f strongly to an Knglishman's tastes. It wooU 
not come within the scope uf our present article to exa- 
mine it ia detail ; but we notice it for the sake uf the om 
feature which it has in common with tlte other works upon 
otir list; we mean its illustrative utility. Tlie pleasne of 
reading Virgil is very greatly increased by a more accunW 
explanation of the trees, herbs, and flowers which he mo- 
tions, of the axriculturiil jirocesses which he describes, u^ 
the maxims which he enjoins ujKin the fanner; while, s" 
the other hand, any difficulties presented to young he^nM'* 
by the technical terms employed are here completely levclW- 
His chapters on live stock are most interesting. The lt«inii>' 
bad many di'iicacicK at their banquets from which mcitttt 
taste would shrink, though whether wisely or not we taoW 
«ay. Dormice were strictly preserved; snails, peri 



e wnut^ 
riwioktoi I 



^ 



Recent CoiUribuiiona to the Study of iMin Literalure. 333 

and otiier concliifera, were carefully fattened io the coclileario. 
The Roman fishponds are faini>us: they seem to bavc stood 
in the same relation to the Roman geiitleiiiaji as hi^ coven 
to an Eni^liah squire ; tlie lampreys and mullets weru his |ihea- 
sKOi* and partridges. And perhaps the story of the man who 
fed his fi.vli upon xlavcs may he in the uaturc of an allegory, 
and |M>int only to the consumption of gamekeepers. Cicero 
dwells with indignation on the cunduct of these piacinarii, as 
he calls them, wlio were so wrapt up in tlieir preserves tJtat 
^ey would not com« to Rome to organise a conHerratire party. 
"And what the mutlA was, arc foxea now," may be said perhaps 
without any riolcnt cxaggcratmn. The fish were often very 
tamo, as wc read in Martial ; and would swim up to the cdsrc 
of the pond to be fed, jiut as game, where it is plentiful, will 
come up to the breakfast-room window. The pleasant good-hu- 
moured noble, feeding hia lampreys and talking to his humbler 
neichboura, recalls too the image of the last English king who 
bad the habits of an En<;lish gentleman. 

The Doctor makes h-ts use of Martial in his pictures of 
country life than we should have anticipated. Martial has left 
ua a gonial and graphic description of the sights and sounds 
which encountered a I{oman jtroprietor as he stepped into hia 
outer farmyard on some fine day towards the close of autumn. 
The ti-ibuia (threshing-roachinaB) are hard at wort. The vine- 
dresser passes him with a load of late grapes. The meadows 
below the house arc dotti.-d with cattle, and their lowing nltcr- 
Botcs pleasantly witli llie ctmingdfthcpijrcons from the turrets. 
At hijt feet strut the wiioie people of the poultry-yard, as va- 
noua in their voice as in their plumage : — the goose, the pea- 
cock, and the flamingo, — the partridge, the guinca-hcn, and the 
Ebeasant And as the vUlicus omcs by witli a lapfuJ of ncorns, 
« is followed by a crowd of importunate porkers. Kmm the 
ahcepfotd in his rear ilie master catches the bleating of the 
Iambs separated from their motliers. Inside the house the 
children of the slaves arc huddling over a good fire, while their 
dders are out in the woods and on the lake to replenish the fish- 
pond and the throsh-house. 8aino ncighboure from the town 
are taking a stroll in bis garden : oud presently a countrj'Rian 
tppTiuGhcs to pay his respects with sometliing better than mere 
CMnpliments: "Will his honour accept this fine ]>icce of Tir- 



gia honeycomb, with this cone-shaped cheese from the pastures 
ef Umbnal" — or perhaps a few couple of dormice, ora live kid. 



Li 

W <)rabrace of fat capons, constitute his humble ofiering, which 
I is doubtless accepted with all grociousnetis ; and perliajFi too, 
^M l>efoT« the day is over, i<oinc buxom dark-ercd Phyllis comes 
^H trippuig up to the " iiall" with a. " basket' from the worthy 



534 Reeenl Conlribation* to the Study of Latin lAleratnre. 

couple, her parents. One cannot faU to be struck with the sim- 
plicity and Kindliness of this rural picture, — which we stronglj- 
rccunimciid to uU our rvadcrs in the original, — written of a 
spot but n shurt dixtance irom the voluptuous uratering-plue 
of Itaiie, and by one to whom none of the indulgences or vi«k 
of that self-indulscut and vicious sge were imknown. fl 

It is the unaffected atfachmoiit to a oountiy lif<^ brcatliinf 
through such psesages us these, which has contributed more 
*aitu any other cause to the perumncnt popularity of the an- 
at literature. It is the salt of tlie Classics, which has lea- 
dered their baser elements innocuous Throufli the grosMSt 

Eictures of vice and the most degraded conceptions of religion 
y which their paces arc disfipured, runs a vein of purity and 
tenderness whicti Ivavens the cuiirc mass. Amid the fetid >f- 
mosjiiicre of cities we catch the fn.'^sh breezes of the hills, and 
up over the "smoke and roaring bustle of Home" floats a pitf 
sant murmur of the country. The Athenians were litigious to 
a proverb, and as fond of public life as Lord Palmcrstoo. Their 
law-courts and political assemblies wcri^ next to the theatFt^ the 
favourite amusement of the people. Away from Atbea^ one 
would have supposed there was nothing in which thcoaunlr^ 
men of Pericles went interested. Yet it was not so. Wean 
informed by Thucydidea that the principal cauite of thoibts- 
tility to the Pelopoiiiiesiau War was the necessity of leanflf 
their country-houses, and exposing their gardens, olive-poBodi, 
and orchards, to the devastations of the invader. In Arisb>* 
phnnes, a genuine man of the world, we dud the same senti- 
ments illustrated witli as much force as limnour ; while Xemi- 
phon, the scholar and philosopher, was at the same tint* 
country jjentlenian and a sportsman. 

In Latin literature every other page is redolent of this rurJ 
spirit. We need not mention the professed writvrs on agrifu'* 
ture. Whether in the philosophic studies and deep poetic sym- 
pathies of Lucretius ; in the flowers, aud festivals, and lover* oi 
Tibullus and Prnpertius; in the literary leisure of Horac«,»ii« 
Martial, and Pliny; or cUnj-ing to the rough song of Ju»eniJ' 
like the moss upon an ancient wall, — we ever see the nJiof 
instin£t. The old Roman character was exactly suited to »P" 
predate the dignity of country life, and to value the miay 
pleasures it afforded, without permitting them to sink toU> 
mere luxuriousness. The Roman was still the man of adioD* 
Law, and conquest, and legislation, were the work of his m'*' 
sive nature : but still he looked to the country as the sW** 
of his purest delights ; and, in the senate or the camp, had J*^*" 
bably ever some wclUlovcd spot iu his memory, of which !>■* 
would exclaim with his favourite. Sit mcae sedes wiiwani •fl»K**^ 



Kecmt Contributions to the Sdtdtf of Latin Literature. 335 



» 



It ia l!kcly that much of the peculiar zest with which tho 
Classic!) have bccii cultivated in EitfrUnd is due to this predo- 
ininaDt characteristic. Atlicns wus novvr to Attica, itur Romo 
to Italy, what Paris has become to Prance: but they were 
eminently what London is now to England. No scholar, how- 
ever deeplv learned in roots and particles, can catch tho tona 
of the nncicnte so completely as ttn En<r1ish scholar. The ur- 
bana rusticila», ns it has been Iiappilv termed, of the cultivated 
Komun, has never been so thorfj uglily roproihiciid utt in the 
cultivated Briton. iJurke at IJeaconslield was quite the Roman 
ideal. And perhaps there Is no one relic of antiquity so highly 
prized, or so frequently perused amon^ist us, as tne Gcorgies of 
Virpil. No one remembers tliat sud second eclogue as he reads 
thcKc. The close and alTccliiMiatw -sindy "f nature evinced by 
the first and third hooks, and the beautiful little country pic- 
tures in the second and fourth, have left us an impression of 
their author which no less favourable traditions have been ablo 
to impair. We forgive Horace his prurience, and Juvenal his 
coarseness, as we read the description of Ofellus, and the 
invitation to PfirMCiis. And Martial's oflencea are condoned 
as wc revel in his hearty description of the poultry-yard, the 
dove-cot, and the pips, at the villa of his friend Faustinus. We 
feel certain that in such men this license of language could not 
have meant all it would mean among ourselves, or necessitate 
their banishment> like some writers of our own Augustan ngc, 
to the shelves of the antiipmry. 

To the concluding chapters in Dr. Daubeny'a work, which 
relate to Itoman horticulture, wo con only refer in the well- 
known lines: 

" Atnue cquiduin extrcuio ni jnm gub fine Inbortiin 
Vein traham, et tenia fatitiueia advarlttre prorauii 
Ponitau ol plngaeB hortos qna* cura colen^ 
Omanit, Cftnorem, hifcniiiie roArin pMtti; 
QiicHiiiQ modo poUs gnudi-rciit intulia rivig, 
Kt viridet npio ripitc, tcrrttiiiijuc per lierbara 
Oresc«r«t in ventroni cucuiuu ; iiw Ktt, Gomantetii 
Narciftiuui, aut rkxi tncuiaiom vinieu acaatbi, 
PlUoiil<4i^iic hcdcr^i <^t nmiuiU-iL litom myrtoiL 
Ttnim tuicc ipau cijiiidciii tpnttl.t rxcIuiun iniiiitit 
Praelcrco, atquc aliis post me inciuorandn rcluiquo." 



C »36 3 



Art. IV.— SWEDENBORGIAPiA, 

Artana Ca-iestia. The I/eaifenly Arcana omtaitKd in tit 

Scrwtures, or Word of the Lord, mtfoldid. JXy Eoiamid S«»- 

deouorg. 12 vols. 8vo. LoniioD, 1848. 
Tlu 7'rtif Chrittian Relig'tan ; containing the Umvertal TTteoioM if 

the Xfw Church, Jbrttold b*f the Lord m Lhn'ui and ta tieAf^j 

raltfpw. Hj EiDiuiu«l Sn'eduiilKirg'. 8vo. Luiwlon, IfiAA. 
Bnofn and IMI ; attn the IntermMntte State, or World ofS^ 

a Itflafhm of T^ina* hean! and tieen. By GtnaDuel SwecUsl 

8i-i>. IvondoD, 1850. 
CmtfVf/ai Lore, ^. Bv Emannd 8wed«i)bai^. A bsw editioo »• 

Tised. 8vo. London, 1855. 
JBmanuel Smedenborg : a Jiiographi/. iij 3. J. G. AVilkiueon. 8m. 

London. I8i9. 
LiJ'e: it* Xature, VitrietieK, and Fh^momena, By Leo H. Griste. 

SccKiul eiiiCJoii, impniTed and (.i>naulerablj enlarged. Svol L» 

don. 1AJ7. 
Swrtlrnlmr/i'^ Wriliti/f* antl Catholic Trurhing ; or, a VMttJrom tilt 

XcK (%ureh Porch, in anfn'cr to a Stries tifArlieU* on tit Sne- 

drnftirt/iaHA. Bv the Vicur of Pnioaio-Sclirooii, in die OldCbnni 

Poirli. 12mo. " London, 1858. 

SwK HEN BOKO U moTc of a myittorv and tn tame impoitaBt ptf-l 
tictilan Icaa of a mysCic than any oilier founder t^a sect. lU*] 
opinion, which is thn result of the perusal of a good injBBThwto^ 
by and nbont him, is exactly oppnciite to the opinion whieb '» 
commonly held, anil which is probably the result, in tfaoM ^ 
hold it. of tiicir not haviti!; rwid oiiy ssiich books. Wc projxi* 
simply to present our rcuulerit irlth tliv myttui^' of Smdeabn|, 
^ f;ir as we cou in n few pft^tn, without any attempt to soln il. 
^ur readers may try, if Ihey please, to do tliat for tliemsclMi 
it they will probably find it a harder task tlian they mayjnp" 
pose, wliile tlicy arc as yet unacquainted with facts snd wriMp 
which mitke it absurd to call him sn impostor, and which, if 
they prove him to have been ini'sne, prove also that inaiutj v 
compatible with iKimcr* of ititellt-ct which, in certain dirWtito^ 
stand almost unrivalli^l. We will not go so far as Coicriilsr' 
who called him " the man of ten cenluri«s ;" mdcc tl»e l**! tw 
centuries, to say nothinj^ of lesser lights, have produced SW*-! 
Rpenre and Dante — the latter of whom was, in some reqi«*>| 
extremely like Swcdcnborjr. and nearly if not quite equal to l"" 
in nlmt constitutes Iiin prt?tit and unquestiouablc intdlert™ 
daini, namely, the ]M>wer of ob»<,T\-ing facta conecming the n*- 
turc, capacities, and destiny of the human Hpirit, whidi, »'"• 
tlicy are stated, — or rather poetically saggc«t«I — for freqiw'"'? 



fluuillprtiBjiil 



as7 



bey do not admit of <lii-ect Matcmcnt,— we by one act of hcaFcis 
t oDce rejected, not aa faUe but am simply uniiitelligilili: ; while 
y another set, not the least rcapcctabie iu point of ailiiiittcd cul- 
ire and capacity, they arc welcomed as traths of the liigliest 
nportauce, snd of sueli a nature that they arc not opined but 
Mcernef/. To this extraordinary power in the Swedish seer vre 
dall not attempt to do jiiKtiuc. No luk^iuutc idea of it can bo 
btnincd without a soniowh.it deep uiid ettewnre study of bis 
fa tings. 

r Kmanuel Swcdcnbnrg was born in 1688, at Stockholm. He 
■as the second sou of the Bishop of Skara, a man of much in> 
acncc and high fnmily. Tlic bishop gave his son on eicellcnt 
lora] and secular education, but seems to have left him euriously 
> himself iu the matter of doctrinal in^mction. Very little, 
owcvcr, is known of Sweileiiborg*H olitldhond and youth beyond 
'}tat lA contained in a letter uhicli he nrote late in life to one of 
U friends. " From my fourtlt to my tenth year," he aavs, "mT 
liou^hts wore eonetanUy cn^^rosscd by reflecting on God, on sal- 
ation, and on the ispiritua) nffcctions of man." At this period 
e informs his friend that he often revealed things in his di«- 
ouTBe which a?i(oni«ln«I hiii hearer*, and made Ihem di^lorc that 
nc angels *poke throu|;h his mouth. " I'Voiu my uhlh to my 
n-cllVli year it was my greatest delight to converse witJi the deigy 
ODcenitng faith ; to uhom 1 often obaerved that ehurity, or lorei 
i the life of faith;" a doctrine which he lived to teach with an 
loomjtnrabte power of persuasion. " 1 knew of no other faith or 
elief at that time than that God is the Creator and Presencr of 
aturc; that lie emlui's man with utidcrstandiug, good inelina- 
ions, and other gifts derived from liiese. I knew nothing at 
iiat time of the Ky*tcmatic or dognnuic kind of faith, that Clod 
be Father imputcn the righteonsneoa or merits of hi^i Son to 
ihonMoever, &c." l>r. Swedbei^, however, was a serious and 
ameat man; ami iu April 17S!), he thus writes of his son: 
'Emanuel, ray son's name, signiticM ' God with ns;' a name 
AaA shonld constantly remind hlni of the neumess of God, 
ad of tbat interior, holy, and mynterion^ coniieetioji in whicli, 
through faith, we st-md with otir gocul and gracioos God." At 
:be pro|)cr time the young Stvedeiihor)j;, or Swcdbei^ as het name 
vai tlien, went to the University of Upial; antl from tliis time 
iorth until a late iicriod in middle life, all his attention seems to 
lUYc been demoted to secular learning, and partieutorly to mstbe< 
uatios and mineralo^-. iu 1700, at tbc age of tweJily-two, he 
took his degree of Doctor of Philosophy ; and in the following 
I'd* be eomniencwi the eourw of travel wliieh waa then looked 
m essential part of a liberal edumtiou. He directed hia 
rat to London. On his voyage thither his ship u-os fired 



33S 



Swedtnborffuina. 



Iiigli 



into u a Daoidi pimt« by an armed Engluh veMcd. On readiiiif 
tlic port of Tjotirtoii lie incurred a »ccoiid danger; for he wa* iier. 
Kuailed by dome nf his countmncn to land in oppoeition to tlic 
quarantine regulations ; for whicli, aa the plague was then ragin;: 
in Sweden, he narrowly escaped hanging. Twelve months woe 
spent at London and Oxford, and thict^ years mon! on tlK Conti- 
nent. Ills writiui^, up to this time, were not much more Uiu 
academieal cxerdsc*. On his reluni to Sweden, in 171S, he ink 
lishedasmitllrolumcof|>iti>ii)s^hidiM!cni to have been deddedy 
poor. The Bisliop of Skara left bis son as froc in the choice of 
a profession as in that of a rehgion. To mineralogy and miaiu; 
Swcdeuboi^ devoted himself on setting out in life, llis sdcotific 
acquirements, c\'cn at tbvt period, Mwm to have been great; fiff 
he counted among his friends and currespondcnls the nioit ift^ 
nowticd matheinaticiiuis and uKtroiiamcra at that period in Europfifl 
From 1716 to 171^ he editc-d a ntoclianieal and mathemalicifl 
journal, the Diedalut Hyperboreua, to whicl) Christopher M-1 
heini, called the Swedish jlrchimcdca, was a contributor. M* 
heim's connection was a vety important one for Swcdcnboig. He. 
was introduced by him to the notice of Charles XII., vlio im- 
mediately appreciated tin- young man's capacity, and appointrf , 
him to bii the colleague and the Micceasor of I'olbeim in ~ ' 
official employmeuts iu connection nith mining and me 
operaliotis. Snedenborg lived in rolheim's honxe at thb tin>c>1 
and fell in love with the counsellor'a second daughter, Knicrentis. 
She was only fourteen years old, and at first would not conxm 
iQ a betrothal j but her fiithcr, desiring the match very mneb, 
gave Swcdcnborg a written agrtcmcnt that he should have tbr 
lady when she was a little older, and thin bond she heweU'«e 
prevailed ui>oii to sign. It was, however, only in olx^ieoa; lo 
hei- father'!' wish, and the engagement preyed ujioii her mind t^ 
deprcKscd her spirits ; and her brotJier, seeing how matten twoili 
stole the document from Swcdcnborg, who, as soon as be 4*^ 
rcred that there was no hope of persuading her affections l^^' 
Bomely relinquished all claims to her, and left her father's ho')*'"' j 
Tliis seems to hui'e been the only love-passage in his life. H*! 
nei-er married. 

During his professional life Swedenborg was in frequent fflJ 
friendly personal intercourse with the royalty of Swctlen. Clari" 
XII. matte various use of his ser\ioe8, which were veiy rciwk- 
ab!c on the occawon of the siege of Frederickshall, at whkh l^* 
king was killed. Swedenlxirg, on this occasion, perfonned™* 
■ImoBt incredible -feat of transporting over fourteen milctofw? 
country, by macliincs of his own invention, two galleys, five I^? 
boats, and a sloop. " By this operation the king found him- 
self in a situation to cany out his plans ; for under corer oftJi** 



SwedenhorgUam. 



S89 



els he transported on pontooiis liU heavy iirtiller}', wUidi it 
"would Iiave bceti imiioaaible to convoy by )»nd, tinder the very 
walls of Fredcrickshall." In the tuuiic year Swedenborg pro- 
duix-d a treatise on mathematics, containing the earliest Swcoisli 
jcootint of the dificKntial and integral calculus ; and also a work 
Bd the finding of tlm longitude of ])lac(» by lunar observations, 
"n 1719 the Swedbcrg fkiuily vrcrc ennobled by the name of 
Swedeubora, and in thitt year he produced works on dccitnol 
coinage and measures, o» the motion of tlie earlli and jdanets, 
oa docks, sluices, and salt-works, and on " proofs derived from 
sppcaraacca in Sweden of the depth of the sea, and the greater 
force of the tides in the ancient world." The reception of bis 
sdeiitiltc schemes and speculations by the Swedish people accimsto 
Ii«\'e di-igatted him ; he complains, iu a private letter uf t!ii» date, 
that " Pinto and envy possew the Hyperborean!*, and that a inau 
will proripcT better among thi^in by acting the- idiot than by re- 
maining a man of understanding." Dr. Wilkinson, in pausing 
at this epoch in Swedenborg'a history, observes, " We are not 
jwarc that any great brilliancy was displayed iu his works up to 
Ij^ia date; but rutlier great indtistry, fertile plauit, a belief in the 
^enetralMlity of problems usually given up by the learned, a gra- 
dual and expcrinieiitiil faculty, and an alMCuce of precocity." 

Swodcnbopg was oi' too great a genius to l>e lon^a grumbler; 
accordingly we find him returning shortly to \\\* Mcicntific in- 
vestigations, and iu a smrit t>till further removed from jiopular 
sympathies. He publislicd several norks in which, according to 
Dumas, the Frencn ehcmist, lie laid the foimdations of the sci- 
ence of crystallo^rapby. Fur many years his time was divided 
bi4wecn his travels, wbicli he frequently renewed, liix dutiex &* 
araeMor of mines, and Ms scientific ntudien. In I72-1< the con- 
nslory of tlie University and the Academy of Scienee» at Upsat 
offered him the professorship of pure mathematics. Iu 1731 ho 
publishod the most famous of lib works on natural philosophy, 
the PrtHcipia, which was prohibited by the Pope, Ix-cause it was 
considered to contradict the position that all things were created 
out of nothing. Ili» reputation was now European; and he was 
in eorr«si>ondcuce, and on terms of intellectual eciuality, with 
Christian Wolf, and the greatest pltilosophur.-i of the age. We 
eanuot pause to .ipeak Kcparatily of tlie vast scries of works which 
Swedenoorg produced in various departments of the natural sci- 
ences. Dr. Wilkinson, however, remarks upou one propi^rty 
DOiinon to them all, which wc must not omit to notice. " The 
lief in a personal God was with him the fountain of sciences, 
tiieh alone allowed a finite man to discover in nature the wisdom 
an infiiute man had planted there. . . . Only in so Eir a« 
. is tlic image of God, and can think like God, can he give 



uo 



SwedetAojyicHa, 



the rwBOH of any tiling that Ood lijui xaaAe, . . . Tbcje »^_ 
peculiar «acre<)ue9a penadiii^ the treatment ofhui nul^ecto, de> 

Sruliug on tlic perceptiou ilutt their last wisdom is alwajB God. 
e selooni utters the divine name ; but points to a truth and 
sapience in all thiii^, which elicit the repeated Ibought, 'this 
is none othi-r than the house of God, and this is the gate of 
heaven.' " 

" We now paiw onwanU/' to lute the wonUt of Svrcdenbor]^* 
biogniiher, " to another man and anthor, to Swedenltoi^ the seo" 
and lliwiliijtiaii." We cannot, however, aeoompany Dr. VVilldosan 
any further in his spirit of faith, not only in tne sinoeritv (which 
is nidubitabic) but m the complete sani^ of his hero, wLose first 
vision shall be related in his own words. In a letter, d&ttd 
1769, and jitldressed to Mr. Hartley, he write*, "1 have Ixa 
ealhx) to a lioly ofiitre by the liord Hinixelf, who most grncioiudf 
manitcxted Himftclf in person to me, htii »er\'aiit, in the year 1713, 
«bcn He openetl my sigbt to the view of the spii'ittial world, aai 
granted mc the priTilego of convcreiiif; with spirits and anfCtts 
which I enjoy to this day." The following is another and f 
accmmt of this event : 



M in ^1 



"1 was iu London, and dined lata at my usual quaiien^ wtrticl 
had eneu^'^il a room, in which, at pleasure, to punue lay stuiiia is 
natiiml pliilMii>phy. I was liiuigry, aiid ale witlt sreat sppctilA. To- 
wards the cod <if thu meal I rcinnrked tliat a kind of mist spml be- 
fore nij- oyM ; and I saw tin; floor of my tvom cnvcped with h»de«i 
reptiles, such as scrpctit«, toiuhi, iind the like. I was astonished, iaauf 
all my wits about mc and being perfectly conseioua. The AiAatm 
attuiiiird its hei^'ht. and then passed away. I now saw a tnaii sttitS 
ill till! eunicr of the chamlicr. As I had thought myself entirely iltM 
I wiiK gririitly frixbtcoed, when ho siud to nw. ' Eut not m arsckf 
My light agniii heyunie dim ; hut whoB I recovered it I found ap^ 
cntinly nlonu iu my moni. Tlie uueipci'tvd alarm hastened ny ntos 
hom«. I tlid not mtlTur ray Utudlurd ti> purceivo tliat any tlunj w 
happened ; Init thought it over nttentivuly, and was not ahia to •M"' 
buto it to cbaneo, or nuy ph^-nical cause. I went homo ; but lb ^' 
lowing night the siunc nian uppearcd to mc ^tun. I was thb liintu' 
at all alarmed. The mau said, ' 1 am God, Ui« Lord, the CrMttf i*^ 
Bcdccmcr of the world. I have chosen thee to uufuld to men tbe (f*- 
ritual sense of the lloly Scripture. I will myself dictate to lhec*W 
tliou shalt wTite.' The some ni^ht the world of spirit*, heaven w^ 
hell, were convinciuKly ojMued to me, wheiv T fnund many p«sca» 'J 
my amiunintance of all eoiiditluus. From that day forth I gave op ^ 
worldly Ifsrning ; luid luhuurod only in xpiritual things, sceordint" 
what the Lord comtnamted nic to write. Thoresfter the Lord 'i*'v 
opened the eyes of my npirit, to sec in perfect wakefnln^s whit*^ 
gMBs on in the other world, and to converse, broad awake^ witk tffi"* 
and spirits." 



8w9lkn6orffiana. 



341 



The asRcrted vi»ioiw of Swedenboi^ seem usually to liRTe 
njiTcd in a kind of voluntary trance, during whicli the bri-Atli 
itirely ocased. To tlio Bubject of rcapiratiou in cooncctioit with 
tliought and oonlcmplation Swedenboi^ had paid great atteu- 
tion, and hiul made rxtraordinary experiments even when he 
vas a child. He had rcmnrkvd, that duHug the actual exercise 
of de^ tbought the breath k n-holly su^pcudt'd ; and be bad, u 
hcaasures us, practiced tht: »ii.->{)t.-iiMoiiof it, until he. had nttaincd 
a power of doing so wliieli Or. Wilkinson compares to that of 
tie Hindoo Yogi. Swcdenboi^ attributeB hia faculty of viHioQ- 
seeing wholly to the constitution of body vbich enabled him to 
acquire this power. " My respiration," he says, " has been so 
fiwined by the Lord as to enable me to brmthe iuwtirdly for a 
long period of time, nithoiil the aid of the extvniul air; my ro- 
apintton lieing directed within, and loy outward i^nses, a* well 
as actions, still continuing in their vigour, which is only poi'.-'ible 
^ritb perrons who hare been so formed. ... X have also lieea 
Ibitnictcd that my breathing was so directed ... in order to 
Buble mc to be with spirits and to speak with them." 
H Siredcubot^ considered his new vocation iiicoinpatible with 
lie due discharge of his office as Ajwe^^or of the Board of Minca. 
In l"t7 he re-*igncd ; but at thciime time jietitionecl King Fre- 
derick to be allowed to do ¥0 on haif-pay. The king, in cuutii> 
deration of lii.t faithful and important servicc-t of thirty-one yeant, 
allowed him to retire with his full salary, and offered him a higher 
degree of rank, which was declined. After tliis resignation of 
his office, he repaired once more to London, a place which alwara 
seems to have rixalled Stockholm in his alToetions. There ne 
wnjte and published, in 174U, the first volume of his most bulky 
work, the Arcana Ca/eftia, which is a »piritiiul cominentary, in 
twelve pondcrou)) volnmoi, on Genesis and Kxodus. This work 
was |irTiitcd at tlic author'^ expense; and, much to the delight and 
admiration of John Lewis, tlie publisher, he not only re^cd to 
make any profit, but he would not take back, as that gentlemaa 
tells us, one farthing of the money be advanced for the print- 
ing ; " and for that reason," says Mr. Lewis, " his work* wiU 
come exceedingly cheap to the public." Tliis work runs, as Dr. 
'Wilkinson expresses it, " in two parallel streams : there is on the 
one Iiand n serie-^ of scriptural interpretatious ; on the other, a 
narrative inti-rjtelcd 1>ctwven the chapters of the former, and 
embracing a description of tlic wonders of tlie other life," 

The Arcana Caleatia is on the whole an exceedingly unread- 
able pei-forTnanoe. The <icscriptions ijf the " other life" are otten 
"^onaerfully odd and out-of-the-way; at the sjimc time posseaa- 
ing a moral vcriaimiUtude which renders tlicm very impresaive, 
wjarded simply as poetical parablea. The ttcriptuiil interpreta- 



343 



Stotdealmrgiana. 



tionf, iBgenious as thcj* are, must, to those wbo arc not in ifaq 
number of true brficvcrs in Swcdcnborff. appwir cstmncly far- 
fetclicd and improbable ; indeed, wc confess that this part of tbc 
vorV, abonudin^ as it (Jock both in commotiplitces nnd in nntn- 
teUigibili'.ii-tt of tbc first maguitade, reiterated ad nauseam, has 
prored too much for our jiutieiK'e ; wc have not been able to read 
muchofit. Ncvcrtheleas, in this slraugo mass of what mn^lstiike 
all bnt professed Swedenborwiaiis as often being tlie reverse of 
cood sense and right vision, no eanditl and rebgious mind cm 
rail to discern occasional puMngcs from nhicb uovct truths of 
grent importance »liiite, nnd others in vrhieh old truths arc re- 
stated with n dej^ee of moral foiTc which idmoxt amounta lo a 
now i-evelalinn of tlicm. 'I'lie interpretation c^ the Mowuc hit 
tory, as far as it is intelli^fible, is, if it he nothing more, a miradc 
of ingenuity ; and, though we may reject it as being more often 
an obscuration than an elucidation of the words of tbc Bible, tE 
has frequently an independent value of no mean kind and Ai^nt- 
The homeliness and simplicity of tlie style of this and all & 
"spiritual" Yforlcs of Swfe<lei»borg can scarcely he de«ribe(l. It 
\* as if an iufnnt of a higher race irere speaking. Itii-v arc full 
of childlike intuitions of moral and spiritual truths; out tlie*c 
truths arc reiterated ivith a pertinacity which is intoIenWy 
wearisome. 

SwcdcnborfT, for seventeen yeara of tlie "spiritual" poioJof 
his life, kept a diary, wlileli itc regret to say that we have hii a^ 
opportnuity of oeeiiig : we an? indebted to Dr. Wilkinson's beau- 
tU'iilly written criticism of it for all wc kimn- sihout it. Tto 
book, which ia in six closely-printed octavoii, contains recoil 
from day to day, of visions and conversations with spirits of fl* 
departed, — Moscn, Abraham, Aristotle, Cicero, Charles XII- * 
Sweden, Frederick the Great, the author oiThe U'holeMyt! 
Man, &c. King David and St. Paul appear among tlK l(A 
Mahomet among the saints; the latter having been connswl 
to Christianity in the prepaxatory "■ world of spirits," "T^tmf 
who has pcmscd this work," writes Dr. Wilkinson, " the qu<* 
tion of sincerity never occurs ; he would as soon moot the sin- 
cerity of a tree." Many parts of Sirralcnborg's published w«" 
prove to have been simple exti-acts from this record of siapJ* 
exiierienees. Dr. Wilkinson has a better right than we Iiatt •* 
!» heard upon the iubject of tlii» Diary. Our readcrv, in ]i«os«S 
the following eloquent passage, will, however, bear in minil'''*' 
the wi-iter of it, to si) intents and purposes, i» one of the fai*' 
fttl; and they will make certain allowances accordingly. 

" A gn-Jit pnit of it dwells upon unhappy thcmoa ; and, '"'•'*, 
n« book more ilcrftngcs one's Imbita of thought tlian this uaWf™ 
Diary. Our crotciiot of the abstract noblencaa of spirits reccina (!«•• 



I 



Swedenborgian a . 



ai3 



I 



n rade tliock. Otir fntticnt' «ciul« nrc no better than ouradvCB. no IcM 
mrAt] ftitd no Imk bodily ; anil tlicii- occiipntioiis arc ofuo no Ices un- 
worthy tkan our own. A Inrgc pnrt of (iiuir doings reads like police- 
npotts. Even the angels aro but good men in n fiivuuriu^ BpliHrc. 
W« twy not worship tlicni, for they do not deserve it ; ut lest ihey 
•n OUT biethreu and the prophets. It ix very iniLtt«r of fact. Death 
b no ehaii^ in substnntials. The same ]trubl«ns reeur ufcer it, and 
man ii left to m\ve tliem. Nothing but gucfdnciu nnil truth nrc tliriv- 
ing. There i* no reat beyond the tonib but in the jiciicn of Qod, whieh \ 
WM rcft licforc it. Tliiit i* th« Iniit extension of cthic« ; nnd while it 
ileprivwi the grave of every vulgar terror, it lends it the terrors of thia 
wicked world, whieb itwlf i* tlie reign and empire of the dead. More- 
over, while the Dlarii nliolinlics our spiritual prcsiimption, it jiutifiea 
to nearly the whole extent the low sentimentnl eredrnce on ghostly 
nbjecta, as well as the traditions und foai-a of siniplo mankind. The 
earthly soul eloaves to the grouud and ^invitutes eiirthwanln, drnyc^ng 
(be chain of the impure nfTiclioiirt tonlmoted in the wurld ; wpirita 
kannt their old rciueinbered plnfcn, ultuehud by undyio;i idais ; hutred, 
rer CD ge, pride, lutit, pcmist in thuir eaiiecrou^i upri-iidinjj;, and wenr 
away the incarable hcartntTings : infidelity deni<vt (lod mont in xpirit 
and tlie xpiritunl world ; nay, staked on death, it tgnorcK eternity in 
the eternal utate with gnai;hing trcth nnd hideous clcnehc^, nnd tho 
proof of Bpirit and eternal life is further off than ever. Tlw ni/fnw of 
tho workbou«e, the liospitnl. nnd the niadhouBe, is erected into a re- 
morseless nnivcrse, self-fitted with sled fingers and awfiJ cliirurgery; 
and no hope lies eitlier in Morrow or jioverty. but only iu one diviuo 
reli^on^ which hi^ll txcluihtx with nil \l* might. Hunmu nature (luutis 
before (uch Ircincudaux moratitiex : freedom triei to abjure Uie llfo 
that it is, nnd enlU upon tiie niouutninx and racV* to cover nnd cniili 
it. A new pha>i^ nppearn in the final utiite ; the memory of the tdcieji 
is lost ; bii*enc!W acci-pls its lot, and Falsehood become* nclf-evidail." 

f Tlic Arcana Ceelestia occupied its author from 17-1!) to 1756. 
In this last year Count Brahc and Baron Horn led an attempt at 
rcToliition, and were exctutcd in Stockholm. TIic following i» a 
specimen of the entries in Swcdenborg'w Diary : 

" Brnlie was beheaded at ten o'elock iu the morning, and spake 
with tne at ten at night j tlinl Ja to nay, twulvu liuuni after hid execu> 
tioD. He was willi niu almotit without interruption for several daya. 
In two (Uys* time lie began to return to hlht former life, which eunusted 
in loving worldly thingn ; and after three day*, lie lieeanie a« he WU 
heEorc in the world, and wns cnrried into the evils that lie hiul made 
his own before be died." 

Swcdenborg never wanted for ocular proof of the doctrines 
lie proatlnd. If one doctrine is more prominent in Iiis works 
UWD another, it i.i that c*'crj- man is the sou of his own work*. 
He Kcoutcd tlie notion of thi; possibility of an effi-ctual " tlenth- 
bed rei)cntancc ;" and, alUiongb lie muutaiucd stedfa.itlj that 



344 



Swedenborgiana. 



there was no »a]\'ation except through faith joined with charitjr, 
be abo maintained that tiuch faith, id order to be cflectual, mart 
have been in operation go loii;; as to have formed permanent^ 
habits of hoUncEs in action, thought, and affection. fl 

It was probably on occauon of the aliOTu exvcuHoa that Sw6>' 
denborg made thu reply recorded by his friend Bobeabm, idu 
rclau-Jt : 

" Que day, as » criminal iras Ifsl t« the place of exectUioo to be 
bebeadeil, 1 was by tht side of Si>Ml«Dbor];. siid usknl him bow mA 
a pcnnn fdt ul tlie time of execulioo. H« nuswercil, ' Wlicn a niM 
lay* bin head or tbc block be loMfl all wiiMtiou. Wbm he Gnt eomci 
into the ipiritual woild, and ftndit that he ia living, he is tvltoA vtik 
lear of his expected death, trie* to cMcnpe, and is very much MghH— 1 
At Mich a Riocncnt no one thinks of any thing hot the Iiappiiuw eT 
h<*Tcn, or the miMTy of hell. 800a the good i>pirits come to him, iW 
instruct bim vthcrc hv it; and he is tbcn left to follow his own indiB^ 
tioni, whif^h soon lead him to the place wh«re he reiDBJiw for erer." 

Swedcnborg'a doctrine about the " spiritual world," htn 
spoken of, retinircs a won! of explanation. It ia not the liDil 
state, nor a atatc of any fiirtlicr probation, but one iu which tk 
spirit ia in Imnsitiou from earth to hell or hcarcn. Duiii^ tb 
period, which 1-mU in xome but n few hours, and in olhos tt 
long an thirty years, the spirit i« ministered to by ^ood angels 
in wnowssivc conipanii>», who prepare the good spirit for its ks- 
venly destination by a course of doctrinal and expcrimcotsl in- 
struction, and who do not reject, hut are rejected by, the rieiini* 
spirit, who becomes convinced that for liim ihalvation is hMO^- 
forth an impoinibility of his own making, and at last ToloDttril^ 
betakes himself to the particular region of hell for whict ■> 
twtca have been fonned by his life on earth, and which is notio 
aiuch a punishment as the heat good of which be is catnblc 

In I'iiS Saedenborg puldished no fewer than Arc warb, 
one of them bein^ tlie famous //earen and //(//,^thc onlrcoicof 
his hooka which has become known beyond the sect of tie Stf- ^ 
dcnborgiana, and a rciy small circle of other readers. Thi* 1^ 
demrves the eminence it has attained. It is certainly thciont 
intercMing and readable of his trt-atiscs; and may be accfftt' 
not only OS a specimen, but almcat ua an epitome of all his Uv 
writings. 

Most of the time during which Swedenborg was cngiged * 
vriting and publishing the foregoing works seems to hare bcx 
spent in London ; and (his time is dmo«t a blank in hi« biop»- 
pny, for he was separated from all who knew and sx-mpatlrt"' 
with him, ntid he never considered the circumstances of his »""" 
done life worthy of any sort of record. Mrs, Lewi*, the wife" 
hia pubUsher, saw much of him at this period, and considered I))"' 



Swedenhorgiasia < 



345 



\ 



** % good and Mimiblc man, but too %\li to spiritiialiKe thinga.** 
lite nett niithciitio Hrciinwtanee rerordti! of liiiu w a sltu-tliiig 
one, and derites great iulditioiial curiosity niid interest fn)iii its 
vitnesa and narrator, Imraanuel Kant, nliose words arc tltc foU 
lowing: 

"On Sotunlttv, nt fuiir o'eloek p-iu." fiom* time in 1759), "whon 
fitredcnborg ktrivci ut Gol.t.otilnirg frotn Kn^'lniiil, Mr. \VilliatD C*6t«I 
iD;rit«>(i him \a his liousc, togctlicr witli n party of fifloen jHtrsons. 
About six o'clock Swcdenborg went out ; and after a short inlemd 
returned to tbe company, i]uite pale and alamieJ. II« said that • 
dangerous fire-had just brok«D out at Stockliolm (Goluutburg U tUree 
hundred miles Erom Stookbolni), and tliat it wax sprcudiug \erj tiuL 
He wu reatleM^ uud went out oll«u. He »aid thut the liouse uf oue 
of hi* rriead